Each year, the FSB is becoming more closed structure. Impartial disk imaging of intelligence in fact. The organization itself does not seek to publicity and journalism society prefers to this theme again no contact. The only thing you can count Russian reader — this agitation issued by the means of most of the FSB.
Journalists Andrei Fighters and Ira Borogan intended study by the Federal Security Service of the whole book. The first part of its name — "New nobility. Studies in the History of the FSB "- borrowed from a famous interview with the former head of the Federal Security Service Nikolai Patrushev, who announced that the secret service would become" new nobility ", which will revive Russia. The creators painstakingly analyzed as evolved intelligence agency in the last 20 years.
At first book came out in the British language in the United States. Russian publisher, it did not seem exciting. A year later, the creators had to release "the Russian version." In general, much of the material previously published in the newspaper "Novaya Gazeta" and on the website of journalists — agentura.ru.
About half the book is devoted to the history of the department, a half — day operations. Many things are already quite extensive known (in particular due to prior work in the Russian media creators) — for example, the introduction of agents into the ranks of the opposition or the division of land on the ruble.
A little more taboo — "seconded staff." According to the authors, "the former security officers," Indeed, "there is." Heading into the "Gazprom" or "Rosneft", FSBshnik as previously considered in the department, and there is even a salary. Even associated with this serious conflict of in-house — a secret order of such "implementer" should take a salary, but are subject to the procedure, far not all.
And all of a sudden turn — it is a good job as agents of foreign intelligence services. And officially, and with the full approval of political management. However, countries that voluntarily work-force the FSB of the Russian Federation, member of the Shanghai Cooperation Group — Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Usually, the FSB has to catch those, say, in Uzbekistan, said a "terrorist" and "extremist", in other words, local opposition that runs in Russia, fleeing the repression.
In general, conclude the creators — the FSB is inert and nereformiruemaya structure that has long been there alone for himself and herself. And, apart from a few counter-terrorist units, is only the basis for the myth of the omnipotent and powerful intelligence agency.
About where to move the FSB what lives and what special services reflects the average employee, "Free Press" talked with one of the creators of books journalist Andrei Soldatov.
"SP": — You come to the conclusion that at this point the FSB more power options (including personal power — the employees) than ever in this organization. What can it lead in the upcoming? Where will continue to evolve security?
— Ability to have intelligence really is more. Naturally, if the associate directly with the KGB, the power of the old structure was more — simply by virtue of the fact that the country was more. But if we talk about the role that was played by the KGB in the political life of the country, the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation at the moment is playing a more active role, and with all this quite uncontrollable.
A common example — before Putin had no security officer is not controlled by the state. Andropov was a career KGB officer, he was a party functionary, who later used the secret service as a resource to come to power. With Putin is a different story.
The last 10 years have shown that the resources that had at its disposal the FSB, it is not used in order to come to power and rule the state. In order to do this you need to have some idea of where you want to restore the country.
"SP": — Some goal setting?
— Yes. In the 90 years of the FSB many read as much about what they do not like the country's privatization, for example. They liked the "Chinese way", Russian orders. In the 2000s, we litsezreem that none of this has not been realized. Not reviewed the results of privatization, the country embarked on the Chinese way, the government is in control of the oligarchs and their security forces are not are kept under control. Ideologically, the security officers were not able to construct a puzzle, and as a result, her embody.
All the resources that the FSB has received are forwarded to a different goal: to get rid of it is to get away from the control and any questions to this structure. A simple closed on themselves.
"SP": — This is not the "new nobility", this brand-new cast. Nobility — a more open structure.
— At the nobility, indeed, there are some general state tasks. In this case, it is a caste of people who have gained quite autonomous status. No one asks them questions, including senior political management, not to mention the public, the media, and so on.
First, it leads to increasing passivity of the structure. If it is not reformed, it will not disturb the outside, it freezes and falls into a lethargic sleep. "We are fine, nobody touches us, and we will be there so quietly."
Naturally, there is an internal struggle, internal conflicts, etc., but the total memory — all the power goes to the maintenance of the passive state.
First 2000s, human rights defenders and journalists were horrors that will be a group of active, energetic, efficient people who are able to dramatically change the course of the country, as did the "Black Colonels". These horrors were not justified. FSBshnikam was just great fun to live.
"SP": — In other words, coup attempts against their expected stupid. All the same, I think the authorities are interested curb this freebooters, even out of a sense of self-preservation. In this step, it can be? How FSS ready for reform at least in the image of MIA (though reform was not very shiny). Or they will shoot back to the last round?
— As for the security of the authorities of any internal crises, Medvedev made a bid for the Interior Ministry. That's why there are reforms, Medvedev wants the police to protect him. Of course, the president thinks that the FSC for this role is not suitable.
If we talk about the safety of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, in this case, Medvedev and the rest of the people in the Kremlin live by the principle of maintaining the status quo. Somehow the system works, and do not need to touch it.
"SP": — With all this MIA touched, although the police had lived as "mansions."
— There was a big fright about the economic crisis of 2008, which will begin mass protests. Interior loaded with new puzzles to combat extremism. Later it turned out that all sections of the population dissatisfied with the police in general, and it became clear that something must change. In the end, the authorities need at least one combat-capable tool.
The Kremlin has come from past experience: with all the fiery speeches that were given FSB generals, denouncing the "terrible 90" (refers to actions '91 — "JV"), no officer of the structure did not come out then to protect the area Lubyanka building. There was no storming of the Lubyanka, and willing to stand up for an instrument in the hands of the Russian regime and the Communist Party was not.
I do not think that at this point in the crit
eria for irritation and lack of any kind of ideology was, they would "shoot until the last bullet." The structure has come to a passive state, and if there be any configuration, the employees of special services will also passively monitor them.
One of the "achievements" of Russian power — the people in uniform, not principal, the army or the security services — can not make the kind of underground organization "young colonels", as it was in Egypt. There were few precedents, such as "group Kvachkova," but it all came out fairly marginal.
"SP": — Marginally and not very reliable.
— The fact that such groups can appear inside the FSB, there were many rumors and fears, but this has not happened and probably will not happen.
"SP": — How the FSB as the company is ready to defend its corporate essence, this is the "do not touch us"?
— Indeed, they claim about themselves as a company, "former employees does not happen." But how are these "former, which does not happen", leaving to work in other structures, they quickly change their loyalty. Begin to defend a new job, become agents of business inside the FSB, promote the interests of their own structures. There is a change of loyalty, and read about the vested interests of the community do not have specific intelligence.
"SP": — If we talk about the relationship of the "Soviet" and "Russian" — as the FSB is the successor to the KGB? In terms of tolerance for opposition, democracy, the realization of "order"? The psychology of the KGB FSB inherited?
— To begin with, that a comparison of the FSB and KGB correctly, with one exception: the KGB actually faced with the danger of terrorism. Terrorist attacks was strong enough, there was nothing similar on civilians war, which at the moment is in the Caucasus.
All intelligence agencies, not fundamentally in what country — Britain and Ireland, the French from Algeria, the Spanish Basque Country with the State — in the fight against terrorism sharply tightening methods. It's one thing if you're playing "Long" with spies and get pleasure from the process. Other — for you must immediately notify the attack, while in the case are torture, illegal arrests and so on. People very quickly forgets about the civilized rules. It had to happen with the FSB, and going — and this is the great difference between the FSB and KGB.
As for the general awareness of "order", then at the head of KGB officers, and employees in the heads of the Federal Security Service and reigns chaos reigned. In the 80th part kgbshnikov struggled with the religious emotions of the Orthodox, the other part betrayed by bolshennomu pass through connections to Elohovskom service in the church, as it was very prestigious, and was friends with the people of the ROC. The third men for all that read as something about atheism and communist ideology.
At this point it has become even more constructive — in the regions of officers who they say about communism in adjacent regions officers on the same positions profess crazy pagan concepts, such as "Dead Water", "iudohristianskaya civilization 5000 years ago enslaved Vedic Rus".
"SP": — I remember the "Conceptual party" Unity ".
— In this structure, there were many people from the security services, and the people of this party gave lectures at the St. Petersburg department of the FSB, and their perceived there to ecstasy.
"SP": — As for the "staff on mission" — is it possible to attribute Putin and other government officials, MPs, etc. into this category? Either they have long been a change of loyalty?
— Personally, Putin has long been not reflect these categories. As for the others, then a change of loyalty is not some magical reasons, and in completely mundane. The fact is that the larger the company and the better the position, the greater the possibility that there are not appoint Colonel and below, and the general. A general comes from our own quarry judgments.
Let's say he was promoted to General of 50, served for five years, and was appointed to a position in any company. What is it to maintain the loyalty of the FSB, which he loses, if you find that it is corrupt? He headed for a career ceiling.
In other words, while implementing the colonels and majors, they have tried to respect the interests of the FSB. And the generals are thinking first about how to earn the trust of the new bosses.
There is another conflict of "two wages" — they get the money and the Federal Security Service, and the place of "mission", but on secret orders to take a salary. But they try not to. At this point, even going several trials, where the order is contested. A lot easier to forget about that moderate wages that they are paid by the FSB, and live on the money that they are paid on the new location, but there are quite petty.
"SP": — By the way, about the wages — how much earn the FSB?
— They are not very public, plus there are a lot of shades, depending on the conditions and the location. In Moscow, a person may serve in the management of the capital's military district, or in the management of the Federal Security Service in Moscow, or in the central office. Naturally, wages differ at times, despite the fact that geographically are all working on the same patch in the center of the capital. Because of this, comes the real social strife.
"SP": — If you read, on average, how much is it? For example, Colonel.
— Colonel can count on 60 thousand.
"SP": — The house can not be built on the ruble.
— A couple of trips to the Caucasus, when necessary — like the heads, get an apartment — it is already possible somehow to spin. Naturally, it's beautiful for the people in the regions.
"SP": — How FSS corrupt? Specifically, staff members, and not "seconded"?
— Here FSB is very very different from the Interior Ministry. Interior may initiate criminal proceedings. FSB has the ability to deal with something similar, but not all and not always. In addition, the police is working with people, sits in the offices of the Federal Security Service.
"SP": — First, in the 2000s, people walked legend Tipo KGB, realizing that the Soviet Union did not save, "admitted his collapse", that, and I quote from memory, "the people drank grief and realize that we have to live in a Soviet" and later a triumphant return to power itself. It is clear that a similar komplot — it's clean water conspiracy theories. But also — probably the FSB many not only in the course of this legend, and wholeheartedly believe in it. I myself have come across such an employee. As this discrepancy inside the structure?
— This legend was very popular. She was even supported by confirmation, say that the KGB has worked extensively with various Democratic clubs in Moscow and Leningrad, helped build the party members to play all these games.
But there is one problem — the KGB referred to in this legend, a myth, made Andropov. And such a "smart", "intelligent" organizations simply do not have. All of these "low season", "Blunder" issued to change the style of the structure. Andropov, it was necessary to justify its own imperative ambition.
In the end, was created a myth that the KGB mental focus the country's elite. This is absolute nonsense. In contrast to the CIA and other Western intelligence agencies KGB never allowed to be engaged in real intelligence.
"SP": — Only collection disk imaging?
— No analytical departments, agencies. They contacted for help. And later on the basis of the reference group of ad
visers to the Central Committee prepared reports. Not counting the people who worked there were not the country's intellectual elite. If only because there exists a closed system of training, and it's a smooth road to degradation.
But do FSB believe in this myth, as part of the population that the country there was a certain mental focus, it was just hidden, and something to plan for. But what happened in the 90s, absolutely refute this myth, mind, there was no smell. Take the same storm severity, which was planned and prepared FSK. And plenty of other examples.
"SP": — Once the FSB in fact, a company with its corporate rules, "spirit", and other attributes, it is natural to have its profdeformatsiya, their mental characteristics. If we talk about the structure of the average worker — what he thinks? How are you thinking? "Defender of the Motherland", "The Sovereign Man", or all a bit cynical? How are mixed on the one hand, the "high standards of security officer" and the zeal to make money, using his official position?
— Cynicism still implies some sort of open-mindedness — do you see the situation inside, outside, see some opportunity to "grab" open itself some sort of a corruption scheme. It is available only a small number of people, either the authorities or those who live and work in the big cities. Their more room for maneuver by definition.
And in Russian time, and now people are going to the organs of social guarantees. Apartments, good wages, benefits — that's what comes first. Why am I saying niskolechko no doubt: the only occasion on which the FSB is willing to plead with his control, this is a small pension or absence of the apartment. In the Capital District Military Court and other courts of such cases 10s. In the case of the "housing problem" security services and reach to the Strasbourg Court.
Please note that the FSB very vserasprostranena nepotism. This grand-children, they marry — marry the kids of the same FSBshnikov. This is a very vserasprostraneno. This is formed from the narrowness of outlook. They talk exclusively to Professor environment. Unlike police officers and investigators do not actually collide with real life. Work "on the ground", for example, in a criminal organization, engaged in a very small number of people. Others in the main busy cardboard work. Naturally, this does not apply to units engaged in combating terrorism, there is another ideology.
Traditional probation officer counterintelligence departments in any Kaluga looks like this: it is not the first decade of work in this structure is very fond of wages, afraid of the world around us, and will not resign, as feared, he would not find another job, and first think of when they would give him an apartment.
"SP": — As for the ideological preferences?
— The ideology comes from the elders. They say it was a great time in the Russian KGB officers. And then it was really great to be — you get a certain status, it was easier for you to work. To deal with the dissident, was quite go to the housing office and the person has had difficulties. And the officers at any of his own thoughts there, borrow stereotypes of the older generation and also cry about how great it was in Russian time.
"SP": — This is Stalinism or Brezhnevism?
— Stalinism was faster than is typical in the 90s, when special services are very offended and they spoke quite constructive. At the moment it is the craving for Brezhnevism as well be working in the 60 th — 70 th.
"SP": — How FSBshnaya Wednesday imbued with superstition and obscurantism, such as the introduction of services warlocks, psychics, astrologers, and other similar public? I've encountered in one of the areas with a lady claiming that she was "full-time psychic FSB", and did so, after an interview with her on the editorial crushed concrete from there. It's kind of a regional initiative or that of the trend really exist?
— The fact that the Russian education, and, even more so, the formation of the Academy of the Federal Security Service, a sin — it is perfectly taught arithmetic, but all were in the humanities strshnom condition. Any samples to teach the rudiments of philosophy, logic, critics rigidly suppressed. It was the most boring things — the base of Marxism-Leninism, and so on. Naturally, in the head there is a vacuum to be filled by something. So he filled with anything.
And if you work in the hidden organization, and the only reason to be proud — that the organization is hidden, you automatically begin to find by the same token, some secret knowledge. "Knowledge may be correct only if it is a secret."
"SP": — This thirst for esoteric?
— To be honest, it is inherent in the people in uniform, not only in our country. In the U.S., at the expense of the Pentagon studied "by the Jedi." Reason usual — closed structures. In these organizations, you need to vtyuhat is only one or two people. If the man in the head porridge, then assure him becomes even easier.
There is one clear ideological system — that Russia all very very insulted. This myth was created in the XIX century, survived the fall of the tsarist very very developed in the 50s of the last century. On the basis of this myth can be hard to come up with many theories. Why attack? For example, since we are the spiritual. Or carriers of hidden knowledge. Either maintained what others have not saved — the treasures of the Hyperboreans, who are under the Ural Mountains, and so on all the time the Slavs attacked by NATO. And in the military, and the police and the FSB, this view is quite popular.
"SP": — When did the "intra", "noble" marriages? This is a new phenomenon?
— No, quite An old. The trend delineated immediately after the end of the "great purges", the marriage began to be used as a method of promotion. But this is a common problem of Russian bureaucracy.
From this stems self-perception of the "new nobility" — we are the elite, we serve the state and the municipal formation, we are special. Do not let other people's, we live in the circle, and so on.
In the book, we just tried to show that this idea has failed. Patrushev defined it, put forward by the ideology of the FSB began to take place in the executive branch. But to become a "new nobility" has failed.