The twenty first century has to humanity tough questions: Where are we going? What awaits us in the future? Will we survive?
The situation in all spheres of human life is complicated by the day and has reached a critical threshold. People of the world have long hanging "Sword of Damocles" of self-destruction as a result of nuclear confrontation. Environmental problems are not only not solved, but all the more worse. Mankind is divided property polarization when all the wealth is in the hands of the "golden billion" and the other countries have to exert maximum effort to simply survive. This gap between the poor and the powerful West and the South East is growing. Abuse and violence are the norm.
Against this background, drug addiction, AIDS, corruption, crime, given the status of invincibility. Humanity is becoming more and more soulless, subject to demoralization, cynicism thriving and growing cult of consumption. A major trend in international relations is aggressiveness. The consequence of this was the increase in the majority of the world's population of despair, pessimism and apocalyptic moods. Continuously disseminate information about the possibility of a world war, resource depletion, the decay of the world into hostile camps.
And although the future is shrouded in mystery, but some unseen force causes everyone to think about it. Scientists are trying to create a sound model development. Although no one can predict future events, but based on the study of historical reality, is possible to create, with some degree of probability, the course of future development.
An important place in this kind of research is devoted to problems of world globalization. That globalization is reflected in the fact that the processes occurring in one part of the world, determine the situation in other regions of the world. Free processes were circulating on the planet flows of people, capital, services, goods and information. The dynamics of historical change incredibly increased its speed. Every inhabitant of the planet is witnessing a mass change that used to take centuries.
Growing importance of global communication, politics, culture, science, economy and the global population lives.
One of the pillars of the global economy is the globalization, dominated by forty thousand of transnational corporations (TNCs), belonging to the financial world the U.S., Japan and Western Europe. They easily dominate the economies of other countries.
The fact that the global financial crisis of 2008 was triggered by U.S. mortgage collapse, reaffirms U.S. leadership in the global financial world structure. U.S. monetary system has undergone imbalance, which led to the bankruptcy of many major banks. Many companies are not able to raise the money for the placement of securities. This, in turn, had a negative impact on the level of production, reducing demand and commodity prices and rising unemployment.
One reason for the crisis, economists call the emergence in 2008 of the American credit market overheating, which led to the mortgage crisis.
Until 2008, the American monetary system is the most reliable, effective and sustainable in the world. The core of the credit system — the U.S. Federal Reserve (Fed). That the Fed, as a financial institution that is responsible for implementing the monetary policy of the most influential countries in the world. The Fed has a direct impact on the amount infused into the economy money, regulate the speed of money circulation, etc. The functions of the Federal Reserve include the formation and maintenance of the state monetary policy, the essence of which is to regulate the growth of deposits and loans from commercial banks and savings and loan entities of financial market. Strict control over the monetary policy of the state has allowed the Fed to manage the economic activity of the country, regulate pricing, to act as the fiscal agent of the Treasury, manage bank holding companies, and control check operations, and adjust the amount of cash.
And at the same time the Fed is an independent organization. The president of the United States has no authority for its abolition. Only Congress can special legislative act to amend the role and functions of the Federal Reserve.
The credit system in the United States include: bank credit institutions and insurance companies, pension funds, mutual funds and financial companies (non-bank institutions).
Commercial banks account for 40% of the total number of banks — there are about ten thousand. For national banks at the Fed membership required. But also for the way state banks to the Fed is not closed — completing a number of conditions, they can join the Federal Reserve.
In addition to member banks of the Federal Reserve is 25,000 depository institutions provide the population of the country's deposit services, and other banking services. Not members of the Federal Reserve, and their activities are also regulated by the Federal Reserve.
For several decades the very successful operation of all of these institutions in the field of issuing loans to individuals and companies that have led to spiraling debt-and, of course, debt interest. Dollar, as has been thought, stable monetary unit as a result of the credit boom, was just the paper has no real coverage. U.S. is the world's largest debtor and that debt has passed a critical milestone.
The rampant growth of credit has created a huge money supply, which can not last long due to receive interest from the loan. In turn, the growth of debt, destroys interest the development of real cash economy.
The question is — can we consider the U.S. a country of abundance and prosperity, if all this wealth is based on the loan with interest.
60% of the economy of the United States of America is made up of a service economy in which any bartender, hairdresser and office worker may feel a citizen of a great country and a full member of society.
If the service market in the U.S. is growing, the production at the same rate (if not more) flows into the Asian region. On the shelves of the United States is almost impossible to see American-made goods — basically, it's products from China.
The Americans had 60 years to the active, young, sports nation become peevish, arrogant, plump and zalezshuyu indebted nation. Banks transformed prosperous people in perpetual debtors. The entire system, from banking institutions and to the means of mass media worked and is still working to destroy the wallets of Americans. By any means they are forced to recruit loans for housing, cars, for education, for the purchase of excess clothing and food. And every American who got into a vicious cycle where the economy is not working for them, and they work on the economy, wants to someday get out of this slough.
Americans now consume more than 40% of world GDP, and produce only about 25% of world GDP. That is, to consume more than they earn. After all, someone is paying for it? And that someone is the rest of the world, which gives American goods and services in exchange for dollars. Foreign exchange reserves 60 countries are "tied" to the dollar. Dollar from the world's reserve currency has become a common measure of value. Therefore, the purchasing power of the dollar is ensured not only the U.S. economy, but the GDP of the entire world. The absurdity of the situation is that the states whose economies provide stability of the dollar, can not control the volume of its emissions. This right has only the U.S. Federal Reserve, and, therefore, it is the Fed controls the world's money. No one now can not even imagine what will the uncontrolled emission of dollar money supply.
The leaders of many countries have repeatedly raised the issue of changing the global reserve currency — that is, away from the dollar. But until real steps in that direction no one did. The current President of the United States said that his country is a country with a strong economy and a stable political system and hence, there is no need to create a new international currency. Only time will tell how confident Obama reflect the true state of affairs.