Until the time of the New Age, or the era of primitive accumulation of capital, marking the emergence of the capitalist economy in the countries of Western Europe, the economy as a sphere of activity was subject to ethics and under the control of the state. Excessive desire for material things condemned, because it was, according to the ideas of all the great thinkers of antiquity and medieval philosophy, an obstacle to moral perfection, which is the main goal of human life. And condemned usury. Prior to the XVI century. interest charges were convicted seventeen popes.
Periodically in different countries for usurious activities ban secular authorities. Werner Sombart (1863-1941), the famous German scientist writes up to the appearance of capitalism? "The starting point of economic activity is the need for benefits, many people consume, so he should credit the account." And most can accumulate only a fool or a patient.
We have already discussed in the second chapter the historical process by which the "pre-capitalist man," ie, "Natural man", became a layman, philistine, vulgar and cynical? the "economic man", has completely lost his humanity. Let us remember that the beginning of the process? process of moral degradation of man in the West? put the bloody Crusades era of wars of conquest.
All these wars were sent to the East. It was then that the Vatican actually has divided the world into "his" West and the "foreign" East. It was then that the Vatican urged the nations of Western Europe under the gun and sent them to the East, has announced his great nations "infidels." It was then that the Vatican created a standing army, and the religious-military religious orders that have joined the European knights — crusaders. It was then — in that bloody era of the Catholic Church for the first time removed the human moral prohibition on robbery, assault and murder, claiming all these anti-Christian acts as a kind of "charitable affairs," perpetrated by man, supposedly in the name of the sacred religion of "fighting for the liberation of the infidels Holy Sepulchre. "
So, for eight long centuries, from the XI century, proclaimed to the world of the early era of the Crusades, people in the West suffered massive to extremely hostile environment. This effect is increased dramatically with the advent of the section of the New World, which has turned into a centuries-old bloodbath. For years, the local population was annihilated — non-European and non-Christian peoples, with whom the Western "missionaries" treated, in the apt definition K.Shmitta "as good a derelict, which became the property of the first got the European invader."
External aggression of the brutal and bloody periods in a person inevitably generate internal aggression. All Western European history is the most colorful illustration of how brutal the blood and muzzy from mad money "matter" of the West conquered the "spirit" of a man of the West, suppressing it remnants of humanity, morality, and spirituality.
What kind of society and the state to create these monsters, these bourgeois, "liberated from the natural relations" if the nation's wealth, they understood only as a collection of his private wealth plundered, and society — just as the union of wealthy individuals, creating "their own" state, the state — for themselves, to protect their interests?
Of course, it is — a rhetorical question. It will take 150 years and Spengler writes:
"England states put in place the concept of the free individual" tuned extremely hostile to the state and order.
"In England, the island has replaced the state organization. Country without a state organization was possible only under this condition. "" Every man for himself — is in English, all for all — is in Prussia. Liberalism is the meaning: the state itself, and every man for himself. This is a formula that can not live. "
While living on the island — in the liberal Protestant society with a "state — without a state" organized "free individuals", Adam Smith made the appropriate theoretical system "private economy", that is, the political economy of private individuals — vladeltstev property and capital. Economic activity in the theory of Smith completely free of moral purpose and moral evaluations. And not at his whim. It only reflected in economic terms, the kind of immoral economy, which certainly prevailed at the time.
Later axiomatic theses Smith? Free Trade, the "invisible hand" of the market, the depravity of state intervention in the economy, the independence of the country's economy from morality and laws of morality, of human society as a ratio of exchange alliance, where people tend to only "to the trade, the exchange of one object to another "? become a kind of indisputable "Smith's dogma," ascended to the top of theoretical economics. However, all of his scientific theory can not call.
"Private savings" Smith summed up some semblance of a theoretical framework for purely rational principles of life of private property owners who have created a great British Empire — pirates, slave traders, merchants, smugglers, colonialists, just crooks and adventurers. Specific principles of life of individuals Smith raised to the rank of general laws of development of society. "Economic Man" Smith, of course, there was also prevailed in England at the time. But what was their interest in the society as a whole? On average, the number of owners in the capitalist countries does not exceed 10% of the entire society. And in Smith, there were probably even less.
But Adam Smith was no accident limited his analysis of the narrow limits of the bourgeois class, who was raised on social racism. His view bourgeois society into two hostile races: (a) the "master race" — the owners of capital and land, and (b) the "race of the workers" — the direct producers, alienated from the property. "Race workers" — a term of Adam Smith. And this other race he is interested only in so far as it "produces a profit" for the capitalists. That's what he belonged to the workers, just sharing the racist views, of course, dominated the "high society" not only Britain but also in other Western countries. The very notion of freedom in relation to the workers, Smith does not occur because of a real man is the bourgeois, economic man as a person in general, as the starting point and the embodiment of the bourgeois epoch, a singer he is.
Speaking in defense of economic freedom, Adam Smith argues merely bourgeois freedoms: freedom of trade and freedom of entrepreneurship. Not surprisingly, he had no words in defense of the freedom of labor. And despite the fact that the salary of the workers maintained at the level of physiological cost of living, and the activities of the trade unions were banned. Any coalition of workers in England were seen as a serious crime, since XIV century until 1825, when they were removed, but only partially, the laws against working coalitions.
The double standard of bourgeois thinking inevitably transforms any policy? a hypocritical policy and bourgeois science? a vulgar apologetics, in obsequious servant of the ruling bourgeois class. It is in this major political achievement of Adam Smith to the English bourgeoisie. In that its "world-historical" role.
As for his academic achievements, they are certainly more modest. Raising private (interests of the bourgeoisie) to the level of general (law society), and the general, expressing a private, Adam Smith originally made Western economic science a dead end, where it remains to this day.
Smith's dogma of "economic man" and on the independence of the moral economy has since firmly entrenched in the minds of not only Western scientists, but "our English" and "us Americans." Now they have obsequiously subservient to "our" Policies which liberal reforms in Russia, under the seemingly absurd slogan "Back — to Adam Smith».
Smith's dogma, based on ideological principles of racism and Eurocentrism, quickly rejected Russia in XVIII century. National wealth, just as in Smith, has become? the bourgeois wealth, public property? into bourgeois property, the income of the workers? at starvation wages, and the workers themselves? in the "race of workers." Labor unions? prohibited in companies and indignation of the workers and their organized protests — are seen as a call to violence, punishable as a criminal offense under the notorious anti-popular laws and, in particular, the "Act of terrorism" (as well as in England in the 20 — XIX century ).
Rich people's government is an impoverished "office", which manages the affairs of the oligarchs to protect their property. Economy again "cleansed" of morality and the moral evaluations. Economy once again became immoral and moral — immoral. All — as in Smith! Even in the museum to seek. Bloody history of Western capitalism into a terrible daily in our cities.
Speaking about the political and economic content of the liberal doctrine, let us not forget that liberalism — this world-view, and capitalism is the religious and philosophical foundation. Form the ideological basis of capitalism:
Positivism as a form of subjective idealism, which proclaimed the subjective experience of the individualized mind ("I") as the absolute truth, the whole people and all authority, scientific authorities and religious articles of faith — is absolutely false; Anthropocentrism as a religious-idealistic doctrine, proclaimed human center of the universe and the ultimate goal the universe;
Protestantism as a liberal interpretation of Christianity as anti-Christian doctrine, in which the money, property, pursuit of wealth and other bourgeois values elevated to religious dogma of faith, substituting true Christian spiritual values;
Let me remind you that the transition to capitalism in the early XVI century, England was no accident takes Protestantism. It turns England into the spiritual leader of the Reformation, and its state Church of England — in support of new moral principles that formed the shape of an absolutely immoral creators of the new bourgeois epoch. The main principle of generation of unscrupulous men of that era is the slogan: "Be rich — and God will forgive you,".
The Church of England was mentally prepared these people, freeing them from the last vestiges of shame, conscience and moral qualms, removing all restrictions and prohibitions on killing people, and other bigotry. That Protestantism and the Protestant Ethic formed the moral basis of Anglo-Saxon capitalism.
Thus, liberalism as an economic doctrine, proclaimed the independence of the economic "I" from the outside world, has a religious-philosophical justification. A homo economicus — the standard of Western man — superficially keeps communication with ethics and morality. However, the bourgeois morality and bourgeois morality has long lost touch with the real moral and ethical standards of ordinary, normal people.
Bourgeois — this is no ordinary man, this is — morally unhealthy person is a person with a strong anti-social motivation. Their private interests, profits, money benefits — for him, of course, above all there is the public interest. To society, he always comes to the criteria of private gain, financial efficiency. The concepts of economic efficiency and integrity of the overall criteria (country, region) to it — is deeply alien. In fact, it — moral insanity, and this is the diagnosis.
Medical diagnosis of such a person? long was made internationally famous scientist-psychologist Sigmund Freud, who believed that the prevailing focus on property is pathological if it remains constant. In other words, Freud's personality-oriented in their interests solely on the possession and ownership — is neurotic, sick person. Another well-known scientist, psychologist, sociologist and philosopher Erich Fromm, Freud goes further and makes an important sociological conclusion. He emphasizes that the society itself is based on the money "values" and consisting of people with a market character, "is sick society." Such is today extremely ugly face of Western society, turned on its head — in the literal sense of the word: a true * nye, human spiritual values ostracized by his backyard, marginalized, and in their place sit false, false values "money bags" — plutocracy. Accordingly takes the "salute" and Western economics has long become vulgar and apologetic, raising alch * values and relentless pursuit of monetary wealth to property as a human disease, according to Freud and Fromm — * in pseudo science of monetary theory, allegedly having a "universal" character!?
Human pathology declared "obschecheloveskoy" value, and Western economics declares it (pathology) as its subject. What else needs to comment on the fact that today should be taught in our universities as economic theory?