Former sports a bolt action rifle evenly reach the special forces snipers
The experience of local wars and armed conflicts of recent decades leads to the conclusion that the increased role of snipers, especially in the battle for human settlements and in the town. Revealed the need for their actions in the units responsible for the maintenance of public order, namely the special forces to fight terrorists.
Conclusive evidence of the significance of sniping are the results of research work efficiency of fire shooting guns, conducted in the United States. Thus, during the second World War and the Korean War on the 1st killed consumed 30 to 50 thousand (!) Rounds. Snipers also to hit a target, usually spend a single cartridge. Such efficiency and economy of fire does not have any kind of weapon. In addition, the emergence of a sniper on any part of fighting is rapidly becoming widely understood is the enemy terror, a depressing effect on his psyche.
At present, the importance and the need to implement the snipers for the army and for the internal forces of the country are indisputable. What is still required for the development and existence at the appropriate level in our country sniper case? We generalize and extend the answers to this question expressed earlier in the pages of magazine articles on the creators of sniping and its dilemmas.
The first condition — the presence of the complex at the disposal of the snipers weapons — rifles, ammunition, firing devices and monitoring to ensure the required accuracy of the shot. Second — the exact system of training, staffing institutionalized respective units and units of the army and internal forces. The third — a sufficient amount of money for a normal functioning of the system.
What sniper weapons can be considered good?
Evaluating Equipment included snipers, the creators of articles have expressed conflicting views, but they all agreed that the main thing — a clear battle rifle. But take that as a measure of accuracy — represent sprawling.
"I had shot Dragunov sniper rifle at a distance of 600 m (this is the distance at which the Tren Swiss Army snipers armed with assault rifles with telescopic sights). Unique Russian live ammunition with a metal liner and the shell bullet weighing 9.72 g i managed to get 10 shots diameter dispersal least 40 cm Hungarian army bullets with brass sleeve and bullet shell such as the mass of 9.72 g had an initial speed of 860 m / s, that almost 60 m / s more than the Russian ammo. Hungarian rifle bullets fired several more precisely, the diameter of dispersion is about 35 cm
NATO standards prescribe for sniper rifles greatest diameter of dispersion at a distance 600 yards (548.6 m) in a series of 10 shots * 15 inches (38.1 cm). Russian sniper rifle Dragunov confidently covers these requirements. The returns, despite the relatively massive ammunition moderate. Dragunov rifles have been known to work are firmly in the most difficult criteria without the painstaking care. "
Martin Schober **
* The data presented are out of date. At the current time, the requirements increased to 1 MOA.
** Schwelzer Waffen-Magazin. 1989. Number 9.
Note that the accuracy depends not only on the rifle, and a very large extent on the used cartridges. Therefore, evaluating the accuracy of the fight, you should be aware that it refers to a complex weapon-holder.
In most cases the assessment of the accuracy of sniper gun battle created by scattering cross section is square bullets by firing arrows from the best stable positions in sets of 4 — 5 shots. This feature is comfortable and justified because dispersion in the vertical plane of the bullets actually radial, in other words, the spread in the lateral direction and height lonely.
In the armies of NATO member states, writes J. Hoffman in his article "Far Shot" (soldier of fortune. 1998. № 6), the accuracy of a sniper weapon is considered adequate when the scattering bullets at most one arc minute, denoted by MOA (in English minute of angle ). As we have adopted in the case of the angular values of the shooting 1 MOA = 0.28 thousandth. At 100 m dispersion of 0.28 will give a thousandth circle with a diameter of 2.8 cm
Such a request does not meet our SVD. Its accuracy is recognized standard, unless at 4 shots at 100 m diameter dispersion does not exceed 8 cm, but should be considered inapplicable IRS, according to A. Gorlinsky, see "Tools for the regimental Paganini" (soldier of fortune. 1998. № 7)?
It is a tool for many years is in service with the army here and in several other countries. Without rejecting aspects of accuracy of 1 MOA for sniper guns, look at why the army remains the SVD sniper rifle. The fact that the assessment tools for grouping the battle does not always give a definitive answer about his fitness. In addition to accuracy should be taken into account many of the properties, such as the reliability of the device acts in a variety of criteria, dimensions and weight, simplicity and ease of use, price and production standard.
Special sniper weapon now readily used not only in specialized, and in other parts of the security forces
For these and other requirements defined accuracy of hits should enforce more common tasks for a certain type of weapon. So now, the practice of introducing IRS confirmed that her abilities as fire and maneuver, the main army to meet the requirements of the sniper rifle. But with the SVD sniper tasks should be put, its appropriate grouping of battle.
The diameter of the bullet dispersion LED is 100 m — 8 cm, 200 m — 16 cm, 300 m — 24 cm and 600 m grows linearly. It follows that of the SVD can be hit by the first shot (with the reliability that is close to unity) the objectives of the "parent figure" at ranges up to 300 meters — the diameter of dispersion on this range is 24 cm, without exceeding the size of the target (25×30 cm). The objectives of the "thoracic figure» (50×50 cm) are targeted to that same reliability first shot at ranges of up to 600 m (width dispersion does not exceed 8×6 = 48 cm).
If the "breast shape" has a personal protection — body armor and a helmet, its vulnerable area will not exceed 20×20 cm lesions with the first shot of the SVD such goals can be achieved at distances up to 200 m (16 cm diameter scattering). With this in mind and should be defined
By SVD features significantly superior to other standards guns cocking, which allows it to remain in service. But we should not extend SVD mission because it is made in Article V. Ryazanov "sniping in Russian" (soldier of fortune. 1998. № 6): "IRS — is a universal" sniper "that can perform a typical puzzle for the destruction of the enemy on the distances up to 800 m, with all this at a distance of up to 500 m — with one or two shots. " SVD can provide defeat the purpose of the first shot only to the range and with such purposes, when the diameter of dispersion does not exceed the size of the target.
The experience of combat implementation SVU-AS revealed a huge number of claims for these weapons. But one advantage over SVD unconditionally — almost no give-away flames when fired, which is especially noticeable NIGHT MODE
SVD can successfully solve puzzles defeats the purpose of a few shots at huge distances. Capacity and self-loading permit firmly hit of this rifle most of the usual targets at ranges up to 800 meters in the shortest possible time at a rate of 4-6 rounds. This property is also proved rifle practice.
And, of course, is not entitled to associate on the accuracy of SVD battle rifle with sports motivated MC-13, as did A. Gorlinsky. He writes that the arrow "is not critical magazine capacity, weight and self-loading weapons," and further: "Any rifle MC-13 is even better than it does not matter what is the best SVD." But after the creator of articles based on the expertise shooters-athletes who tool weighing up to 8 kg to the competition they bring. Cartridges for sporting rifles have a lead core and shell Myagenko give the highest accuracy, but do not meet the requirements of live ammunition at damaging effects.
The desire to be available to combat army snipers rifle with accuracy of fire, which is close to the sporting arms, of course. This rifle, inevitably significant weight — up to 8 kg — with a special live ammunition, while ensuring accuracy of 1 MOA would with SVD was in service to deal with special problems. If she has a diameter of 100 m dispersion of 2.8 cm, the defeat of the first shot, even small goals can be achieved at distances up to 800 meters Note that after 600 m dissipation increases not linearly, and increases of 1.2 -1.3 times. At 800 meters when dispersed in 1 MOA diameter bullets spread does not exceed the value (29.12 cm = 2,8 x8x1, 3).
It is clear that more is better to have a rifle with a scattering in the half MOA, as shown by J. Hoffman. 100 m diameter bullet spreading at such grouping does not exceed 1.4 cm Sporting motivated rifle with that feature are known. If a similar rifle will live round that preserves accuracy 1/2 MOA, it could enter into the arsenal of solutions for snipers especially fundamental problems.
Examined the ability of instruments based on an assessment of the probability of hitting the target. Will she be struck with one hit — a separate issue. When the target has no means of personal protection, its loss is achieved, usually one hit. The possibility of defeat in this case is numerically equal to the probability of contact with her.
If the purpose of a flak jacket and helmet, one hit does not always lead to the withdrawal of its failure. The defeat will be reached when hit by an unprotected area, and from time to time with a few hits in a row in the means of protection. In the latter case, it may trigger a recognizable effect of congestion due to the harmful acts of a few shots. This is another of the circumstances giving grounds to be armed with self-loading and automatic sniper rifle.
Compared with a Kalashnikov assault rifle, equipped with a device for noiseless and flameless fire, "Vintorez" admirable
In general, the rules are the creators, who recognize the need to have in the arsenal of different types of sniper guns, ammunition, firing devices and surveillance. Their implementation should correspond to different kinds of problems that arise in certain criteria.
In our armed forces, in principle, there are a number of sniper weapons systems: to meet the challenges in the criteria which require low and flameless fire on rather short-range — BCC "Vintorez" under the 9-mm submachine gun cartridge (with the accuracy of fire is 100 m by 7.5 cm); to solve problems in the criteria field priemuschestvenno action at ranges up to 800 m — SVD and its modifications under rifle cartridge 7,62 x54 mm for solving problems in the vast distances (up to 1000 m on everyday purposes and up to 1500 m on the larger goals), developers of the PCU Rifle is offered in a 94-12.7-mm cartridge (with the accuracy of fire were reported, 5 cm at 100 m).
It must be admitted that these systems do not provide the solution of problems in the defeat of the fundamental compact targets at ranges up to 800 meters This requires a sniper gun bullets with a scattering of less than 1 MOA. Similar rifles and ammunition to it in our arsenal there. Perhaps, with less time and money to fill the gap creation sniper complex high precision on the basis of random sporting rifle type MC-13, as it offers A Gorlinsky, but subject to the development of combat to her sniper cartridge. Arbitrary sporting rifles, is understood to provide accuracy to 100 m 2 cm, that is 4 times better than that of LED. It is clear that such an instrument with a mass of 8 kg and a massive telescopic sight with an increase up to 12X should be used only for solving specific problems.
We have a lot of talk about the properties of the rifle. But the main thing in the sniper weapon — close grouping — is determined to a large degree holder. Recognizable shooter, Honored Master of Sports, a multiple world record holder and favorite in shooting E. Haydurov knows that at one time the athletes on the shooting competition of the army trehlineyki achieved the best results when they themselves peresnaryazhali native sleeve cartridge 7,62 x54 mm and the best powder bullet (shooting foreign patrons are not permitted). That's why at the moment may be to improve the accuracy of existing rifles through the development of special ammunition for them superior properties.
In addition, the properties listed grouping of various combat sniper guns mean firing from stable positions expertly prepared by snipers. For these traits evaluated the possibility of hitting the target. More strictly defined the possibility of getting not only the value of so-called technological diffusion, depending on the weapon and ammunition. Dispersion increases due to an error in the preparation of the initial shooter firing data (priemuschestvenno in determining the distance to the target and adjusting for cross wind), also because of the inevitable inaccuracies in aiming. These errors can be minimized through the training of sniper and ensure its precision devices, observe, measure initial data, aiming.
The important term of success
As noted by A. Gorlinsky, sniper rifle — it's jewe
lry tool requiring painstaking options. Such a tool is quite expensive by the way, should be trusted only awesome spices, it is configurable only loves his owner. It is excellent and the sniper can use his ability, just after passing severe and long course of special training.
Cool sniper is a person who is laid in nature and the possibility of a love of shooting, supplemented by knowledge, skills and abilities acquired in the course of development programs from the respective training. These issues are quite extensive open a discussion on the pages of the magazine. The main conclusion is unanimous creators — for the successful implementation of sniper guns require hands-professionals. For the army and interior troops need a common system of selection, training and continuing training. Proposals for its structure are given in the article "rise again if sniping" (soldier of fortune. 1997. № 12).
Mental and physiological contraindications to the destination for the post of a sniper:
• acquired diseases;
• conditions after injuries and acute illnesses;
• belonging to the 'at risk', reduced mental stability, susceptibility to psychological maladjustment;
• a missing level of masterful fundamental properties;
• inflated anxiety, worry, fear;
• excessive impulsiveness, a tendency to a spectacular response, lack of self;
• emotional and autonomic instability (frequent redness or blanching of the face, sweating, unchanging hand shake or age);
• irritability, resentment, susceptibility to negative emotional and evaluative responses.
In preparing the snipers should be laid base strategy of their actions in the different criteria in the battle groups, sniper couples, singles snipers, issues of concealment and cover actions snipers other units, the organization of communication with them. The training system should also include the collection and compilation of the experience of combat use of snipers, development and updating of training programs in different specialties for the army and internal forces, the publication of textbooks, perhaps, a special magazine. All of the above together and separately asked the harsh debate.
The third condition, which ultimately determines the solution prepyadstviya sniping — is necessary to ensure real weapons and equipment of the highest properties of sufficient funding for the selection and training of snipers, range equipment, and the development of simulators for training, paying tribute to the sniper work, the creation of methods of education and training shooters the upper class. Certainly, many sensible and principled proposal for sniping made by the creators of the magazine articles, for lack of the third condition in our armed forces will be only wishful thinking. I'd love to find out the world on the issues raised persons responsible for fire training in the respective departments of the Army and the Russian Interior Troops of the Russian Federation. Or maybe they do not read the magazine, due to the lack of money to purchase it?
"Each shooter must correctly assess the ability of their own tools for grouping the fight," — wrote in 1909, the founder of the science in Russia Infantry NM Filatov (1862 — 1935). Since 1919, he led the officers' courses "The Shot", managed the development and testing of many types of small arms, wrote well-known works on the theory and practice of small business: "Foundations of fire from rifles and machine guns" (Oranienbaum, 1909, Moscow, 1926), "Brief details of the grounds for firing rifles and machine guns "(Moscow, 1928) — which became for many years the books on small business in the Red Army.