5 states are armed with nuclear-powered submarines (NPS). It is believed that the life of nuclear submarines is about 25 years. At the time Russian naval forces were 250 submarines. After the collapse of Russian block most of them were withdrawn from the Navy. Before the Russian military began their task of disposal.
To understand the level of this prepyadstviya should list the steps of submarine dismantlement:
— need to drain the coolant and unload nuclear fuel reactor;
— produce cuts, the criteria fixed dock, the reactor compartment (term storage of dismantled reactor unit is 70 to 100 years);
— the dismantling of the equipment submarine;
— produce sealing compartments and anti-corrosion cover material;
— Tow the dismantled parts and equipment to the place of storage.
This process is not only costly, and time consuming requests. In the United States vyzruzka nuclear fuel is about one year. In Russia, as the available storage of nuclear fuel crowded and a lot of submarines for many years waiting for their own turn to recycling. Most of the submarines in the Russian Federation are utilized in factories, "Seal", "Star" and "Star", "Mayak". Deliver nuclear submarine at the shipyard of these plants or towing, or on a floating dock.
For comparison: the price of disposal of a submarine in Russia is (regardless of its type) from $ 2 million to $ 12 million, while in the U.S. it is $ 50 million.
Russian power plants is not enough for the regeneration of nuclear fuel are also inadequate special transport containers, wagons gruzokonteynerov TK-VG-18. Before the Russian side has another daunting problem — the release of storage (onshore and floating) occurs very slowly, which significantly hinders the process of unloading nuclear fuel, as well as it should, and disposal of nuclear submarines. At the current time utilization expect more than 200 Russian nuclear submarines, most of which were built in the Russian time.
In order to solve puzzles disposal, the state corporation "Rosatom" plans for the 2014-2015 year to fulfill the export of radioactive waste from the territory of Kamchatka. Waste will be deactivated and completely buried. It should be noted that in the area of the town with Vilyuchinsk 60s houses one of the greatest naval bases, taking place in NATO documents codenamed "Hornet's Nest." Not far from this base is equipped with a store in which storing nuclear waste from submarines, including details of submarines, personal protective equipment and other materials exposed to radioactive of infection. Constantly monitored the radiation situation in the area. Monitoring results indicate that the threat of the spread of radioactive waste have been identified. But the decision to build on the existing structure of the repository in which to harmonize with the technology, radioactive waste will be packed in special containers and removed from the territory of Kamchatka. This process will continue until such time as they have been in the Far East submarine base on the peninsula.
Planned programm of "Rosatom", the release of Kamchatka from nuclear waste is only part of a larger comprehensive recycling programs from Russian Premier League end-of-life of its own. Until the 70s burial submarines produced by flooding them in the ocean. But after signing a contract prohibiting placement of radioactive objects in the seas and oceans of the Earth's interior, before the Russian scientists and engineers has become a problem of finding ways to dismantle nuclear submarines. At the technical level, this process is very complicated. But, at the present time could accelerate recovery due to large donations from abroad.
For example, Japan has funded a $ 25 million building in Primorye FPSO for cleaning radioactive waste from nuclear submarines passing recycling, dismantling and paid 5 class submarines "Victor-3". Japan gave Russian side equipment (tow boat two portal cranes and floating dock), required for the creation of a bay 'Rogue' Fri prolonged storage of radioactive waste from nuclear submarines to be disposed of.
On the Kola Peninsula also created long-term storage of radioactive waste from nuclear submarines. The cost of this project amounted to more than $ 400 million at this point in it at the store are 54 power units with submarines. RF one would be very hard to cope with the disposal of old times types of submarines, for Europe and the United States took part in this project. European Bank funded a criterion for fusion fuel storage class submarines with "Alpha". France paid for the transport of the fuel. Development of a special container was paid for by the American side. The Italians have financed the construction of the vessel, which will produce garbage fuel.
Specialists of "Rosatom" believe that joint efforts will be established a system to dismantle nuclear submarines. In the future, it is planned to clean the bottom of the Arctic Ocean from the previously submerged submarines there compartments and containers with radioactive substances.