Pyotr Stolypin (2.4.1862-5.9.1911) — an outstanding statesman, who played a crucial role in the suppression of the so-called "first Russian revolution." Born in an old aristocratic family. Childhood was spent primarily in Lithuania and abroad. In 1881, he graduated from high school and enrolled Vilna the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St. Petersburg University. Large landowner, a staunch monarchist, who married early and who had a large family, Stolypin after graduation he served in the Ministry of State in 1889, he moved to the Ministry of the Interior. In 1899 he was appointed leader of the nobility Kovensk province, in 1902 — Grodno governor in 1903, he became the governor of Saratov.
During the riots of summer 1905 showed the energy necessary rigidity, personal courage. With this in April 1906, he was appointed Minister of the Interior in July while the chairman of the Council of Ministers. Took decisive measures to suppress the "first revolution", for which he hated revolutionary and liberal intellectuals.
The main result of the unrest, the requirements of the intelligentsia and pandering to it by the previous head of government SY Witte became imperial manifesto of 17 October 1905 on the State Duma — an elected legislature, which had the ability to influence government decisions. While the government is still appointed by the Emperor and could initiate the termination of the Duma, "if extraordinary circumstances cause the need for such a measure," — yet turned into a constitutional monarchy, and the "public" was political freedom, which for decades has sought liberal bourgeoisie and (including the freedom of trade unions and political parties).
But after the Manifesto terrorists continue killing, because the revolutionaries were not needed freedom and constitutional monarchy, and the overthrow of the monarchy. In August 1906, Stolypin was made the first of 11 taken then attacks. The ministerial cottage by a bomb killed a lot of visitors were injured son and daughter Stolypin, but he was not injured. At the request of Tsar Nicholas II, Stolypin and his family moved to the Winter Palace. Gave the order to court-martial against terrorists, in which proceedings are completed within 48 hours, and the sentence was executed in 24 hours. From August 1906 to April 1907 was made in 1102 death sentences, and the gallows was called "Stolypin necktie." Such harsh measures Stolypin succeeded to restore order. (Terrorist victims at the same time become more than 10 thousand people, police and officials, including the Governor General Bobrikov in Finland, Moscow Governor-General Gr. Pr. Sergei Alexandrovich, the mayor of St. Petersburg VF von der Launitz Minister Interior von Plehve.)
All these natural measures Stolypin, stop the revolution, caused by the resistance of the liberal State Duma. She continued to require the deepening of democratic reforms, which, however, society is giving b? Lshimi freedoms, do not send the activity of new social forces in a constructive direction. In part, this is characteristic of the reforms of Alexander II — characterized by the emergence of the first revolutionary organizations just in that era. That is, the introduction of political freedoms in itself does not solve problems, and they may even exacerbate and encourage revolutionaries to the new requirements.
Therefore, June 3, 1907 II Duma was dissolved, the electoral law was changed (so called "Third of revolution"), after which the government could go to the Stolypin reforms. A number of bills related to the establishment of the time tolerance (except hristonenavistnikov) and the freedom of conscience, universal primary education, part of a government bureaucracy gradually replaced Zemsky government, which was re-established in 1864 and is especially developed in the era of Stolypin. But the main one was the agrarian reform.
By the time a major "problem" of Russia became bezprimerny population growth, from 139 million in 1902 to 175 million in 1913 (an average annual increase of 3.3 million people). Many children, most were Russian peasant family. With this rise in population had problems of scarcity of land and unemployment, but the Russian space they can be resolved, and that started to make PA Stolypin. (At the time, Russia was third in the mire by population after China (365 million) and India (316 million), being, however, at a higher level of socio-economic and cultural development.)
In the village the population growth in this nation felt cramped in the communal system. The community had a lot of value: mutual support and rejection of egoism, a fair resolution of disputes. All issues are resolved the village assembly, to choose elder. This long-standing foundations of Russian original grass roots "democracy," the most highly regarded figures in different directions, the most crucial community gave Slavophiles. However, with the rapid growth of land area per consumer in the family declined.
At the same time, Russia is increasingly drawn into the capitalist economy, the growth of industry and the public demanded a corresponding growth in agriculture. But the performance of the community could not stand the competition with either the landlord economy or the economy of western farm type. The community was also a hindrance to the very active part of the peasants. We had to choose the lesser evil of the situation, or it threatened to increase social unrest and a weakening of the state.
Therefore, in 1906, began Stolypin agrarian reform farmers wishing to allocate part of their communal land ownership, and sold them to the landlord's land through concessional loans (landlords themselves rid of the land, which, without becoming a burden on the fortress) and funded relocation to the outskirts of Russia special "Stolypin" cars (along with cattle and inventory) are exempt from tax and supplying agricultural machinery at low prices. You can criticize bad bureaucratic aspects of the policy (which is why a third of immigrants came, and just pining for his native land), but not the meaning of the reform. She had to solve several important public issues:
— Fix in the European part of Russia with worsening shortage of land in the village and possible unemployment in the city due to rapid population growth, which is accounted for mainly by the Russian peasantry;
— Occupy unused land in Siberia and the Far East, having mastered them, and securing for Russia;
— An outlet for the energy of the active part of the peasantry, expanding its scope beyond the community;
— To reduce social tension in the country, and thus deprive the way for revolutionary propaganda.
As a result, created a prosperous layer of individual farmers, that is part of a new economic order and same, including the community. By 1913, only about 10% of the land was transferred from the community in the personal possession of the peasants, however since 1906 settled in Siberia 2.5 million farmers, in addition, about 700 000 people of various professions have moved to Siberia alone. Along the Trans-Siberian Railway rose entire cities, dramatically increased food production: Europe was soon inundated with Russian oil (from 1906 to 1911. Its annual exports increased by half).
The revolutionary movement after 1908 sniklo. Peace and the strengthening of Russia reduced the chances of a change of the social system. Therefore, the Stolypin reforms opposed antimonarchist all parties — from the Cadets to the Bolsheviks …. "They need great upheavals — we need a great Russia" — the words of the Prime Minister were aphorism.
"Give us 20 years of peace, and you will not recognize Russia", — said Stolypin. Because he was killed in 1911 by the forces, whose anti-Russian plans to crossed got stronger Rossiya.Lenin seen in the success of the Stolypin reforms barrier revolution and Trotsky later stated, if the reform has been completed, "the Russian proletariat in any case would not have come to power in 1917. " Stolypin worthy replacement was found.
1 September in Kiev theater in the presence of the Emperor was assassinated Peter Abramovich, died from his wounds on September 5. Killer Mordko Bogrov, said revenge for the persecution of Jewry (recall that in March this year in Kiev sovershenoritualnoe Andryusha Yushchinsky murder in July was arrested Bailey, the atmosphere was tense in the city). But Stolypin to this "harassment" was absolutely not involved. Conversely, in 1906, he offered the Emperor to remove restrictions for the Jews, "which is especially annoying Jewish population of Russia, and not bringing any benefit, because they are constantly bypassed by the Jews, only feed the revolutionary spirit of the Jewish masses and serve as a pretext for the most outrageous Resist -Russian propaganda on the part of the most powerful Jewish stronghold — in America. " This proposal is unlikely to be the solution of the problem (it does indicate that even Stolypin was not a proper understanding of the Jewish question and present danger).
Reply Tsar Nicholas II demonstrates his greater wisdom: "Despite most convincing arguments in favor of a positive decision on the case, more insistent voice inside telling me that I did not take this decision for themselves. So far my conscience has never cheated on me. Therefore, in this case, I intend to follow its commands. I know that you, too, believe that the "heart of Tsarev rutseh of God." So be it. I am all for the government, I have set before God terrible responsibility and at all times ready to give him the answer is … "
The Emperor felt right: the provision of equal rights to Judaism would not weaken the revolutionary aspirations of the Russian and international Jewry, as the main reason for his revolutionary spirit was different — the very existence of the holding of the Orthodox state. Furthermore, even if these restrictions were not very effective, they are carriers of a man-made it difficult to disguise the Jewish morality under normal subjects. These restrictions are in effect was a warning to the rest of the population of the Empire. But they had to be supplemented by an explanation and satanic nature of Judaism at the top level, which, out of delicacy, supreme power could not afford (hoped "re"), and the bureaucracy, and never thought about it … The aspirations of the Union of the Russian People and Other Black Hundreds were not supported in this respect the authorities.
Stolypin's reforms would completely cut the ground from under the feet of revolutionary propaganda and strengthen the state, if supplemented by material success and the restoration of Orthodox oblagorozhivalis mirovozzreniya and holding the ideology of the Third Rome, which was particularly lost in the upper layers of society. But this, unfortunately, is not happening, and Stolypin himself paid attention mainly pragmatic aspects of their policies. This reflects not only his personal spiritual restrictions as zeitgeist, of which he was a hostage. Russia was to learn to understand his calling on the experience of a bloody revolution — from the back …
After a failed attempt to seize power of the Jews in Russia after the 1905 revolution tough and intelligent action of the great statesman of Russia Pyotr Stolypin quenched revolutionary fervor of the Jewish communist scum.
Under Stolypin communist movement was crushed.
Eternal glory to him! When we come to power in Moscow, Leninsky Prospect we rename the prospectus Stolypin.
Stolypin was not only crushed Jews' communism.
He pressed and communism in the economy.
The main focus of his reforms made to the destruction of peasant communities and the establishment of independent farms, creating a middle class.
Practical success of his reforms has surpassed all expectations.
Russia began to develop rapidly.
Began to develop and the middle class.
On the so-favorite commune communities Stolypin spoken unequivocally: "Nature has put in some innate human instincts, such as hunger, sexual feeling and so on. §
And one of the strongest feelings about this — a sense of ownership.
You can not love someone else along with her and you can not cajole, improve land, loaned, along with his land.
Artificial in this respect emasculating our peasants, destroying it innate sense of ownership leads to a lot of bad and, more importantly, to poverty. "
It should be noted that the land reform — a very complicated question.
Solving it, we can not allow the sale of Russian land to anybody.
Masters of the land should be the ones who are working on it.
And the owners of the Russian land should be only Russian and representatives of other indigenous peoples of Russia.
And only with Russian citizenship.
Jews may have owned land in Israel.
Jews hated Stolypin immensely and made just hunting for his head.
Fund the assassination of Stolypin Jewish bankers from the U.S..
Jews made many attempts on the life of Stolypin, but all failed.
Finally, September 1, 1911 in Kiev Opera parhaty zhidenok Mordechai Bogrov killed the great Russian statesman Pyotr Stolypin.
more details, read here: