A fresh look at the cosmos

Space owes its appearance to the political ambitions of superpowers, huge resources just drop into the void, just to enhance national prestige.

But in spite of half a century of presence in space, space programs are still in effect propaganda and scientific. Real space industrialization is only due to the growth of commercial satellite constellation, but one can not explore the space satellites.

The plans of space agencies for the next decade does not provide anything new, despite the strengthening of the space industry, the emergence of new technologies and trends.

The alternative scenario of space development, providing for the creation of the industrial group designed for industrial activities, the development of extraterrestrial resources and private funding, provides the opportunity to move from budget exploratory missions to the industrial space colonization. Further expansion which will not hold back on a limited state budgets.

Thought about flying into space does not leave humanity since awareness of the fact that the earth is not the center of the universe, and the smallest grain of sand, surrounded by an endless ocean of space and lots of planets. Original, but something similar to the ground worlds uninhabitable only because of lack of transport to enable them to fly.

After the first space rockets, space travel became a reality, humanity ceased to be locked up in the earth. But in spite of the technical feasibility, colonization of the planets closest to the earth is happening. In addition, space colonization is not even considered it seriously in the scientific community. The presence of human activity on other planets is confined to sporadic expeditions, mostly automatic, except the only series of manned missions to the moon, and the station in Earth orbit. Such activities can not be considered in the full sense of space exploration, well, well it is only about scientific research. The actual development of other planets may begin with permanent manned base, designed for long-term stay. Only permanent base can serve as a clearinghouse for distribution of people in space — "space expansion".

Adopted in the aerospace community view that the main obstacle colonization of space is a high price space transport is not entirely true. Price spaceflight is really great, but not beyond, scientific technical and economic potential of humanity to create a alien base and it does not require any excess costs, the price of extraterrestrial settlements insignificant globally. People do not want to space, not so much because of the lack of the necessary technology and money, but because of the lack of real interest.
Space colonization hinders not only the lack of funds, but the absence of goals, strategic directions, which would make the space expansion obviously necessary and achievable goal. Purpose, able to become one of the trends of global development, where humanity purposefully direct the necessary resources.

The first driving force to encourage people to fly in space was a political propaganda. First space mission attracted a great deal of public attention and serves as a demonstration of their own superiority and political structure of the superpowers. The strategy of political prestige and humanitarian aspirations led to the initial spurt in space, created the space industry, where its practical use has not been the question.

Who manned space and exploring other planets are moving in the field of science, but still the main task of allowing public funding continues to be political prestige. Basic science is also the driving force behind the way into space, but some of research is not enough for global expansionist aspirations, without which it can not overcome the technical and the financial gap, making the planets barely accessible.

Expansionary infrastructure projects should be, and not one-off expeditions, budget financing for the development of other planets is not enough, therefore, the goals of space expansion should not be ideological and scientific, and practical.

Advocates for traditional direction of space is often taken as an example of the successful commercialization of new technologies gained in the process of developing space technology and research in space. However, incubation of technology and the commercialization of scientific activity weak argument for investors from the business. Such a strategy is acceptable to the States, but government funding is limited, in order to attract investment in the space of the global economy need direct and guaranteed source of income.

The direct economic benefits designed grouping of commercial satellites in orbit, which is based on satellite communication and monitoring. Grouping of commercial satellites successfully growing segment self-funded astronauts, whose activities included in the economic system, and the information infrastructure of the earth. Commercial group can be considered an example of a successful space exploration, although it does not involve the use of extraterrestrial material resources and strongly attached to the land, but it can serve as a basis for other promising segments. The annual turnover of the commercial space industry today is about $ 160 billion and continues to grow rapidly, it is sufficient for the emergence of infrastructure projects designed to service commercial satellite constellation, which can serve as a prototype of the "Galactic space grouping" of the future.

There are several potential areas of commercialization "budget" sector of space, such as manned space stations and bases on the moon. Now widely known are the direction of space tourism and mining of radioactive materials, "Gell — 3" on the moon. But travel services can not be the basis of funding for such an expensive high-tech activities as Cosmonautics. Tourism can only give a small additional income. Provide full private financing space can only industrial activity, which has global importance and momentum in the tens or hundreds of billions of dollars. The role of this activity could claim isotope production Gell — 3 on the moon. But this project is related to the extremely high cost of the means of industrial production and concentration of helium — 3, whose concentration in the soil is very low. Also workable fusion reactor capable of consuming this isotope do not exist and their appearance can be expected no earlier than ten years. Production project helium — 3 on the moon is not realizable in the near future, and could become popular only in the long term.

Recognized areas of commercial and industrial development of space are not effective and can not serve as the basis for new breakthroughs. In this connection, the concept of development adopted by the Russian space does not provide a complete overhaul. Planned reconstruction manned station, manned missions to the moon and Mars, but there is no question of the transition to the industry, new projects include scientific problems, and government funding. Aiming for a more "Deep Space horizons" coming from Space Administration caused not by the desire to expand space activities for the economy, as a "race for the record" for the resumption of public interest missions with propaganda purposes. Although the official concept envisages the development of transport systems and the use of a new generation of space station assembly and maintenance of space vehicles, but technological activity scenario Roscosmos designed primarily to service the budget group and its implementation is not critical in terms of commercialization.

Space agencies continue to plan the next research mission, not taking into account the new features that allows rapid development of commercial satellite constellation and new technologies.

I'm an independent party aerospace community and can offer a vision of an alternative direction for commercial, industrial space development, which essentially in the union of manned space flight, project future space transportation systems and development of the Moon into a single coherent system that works for the maintenance and development of commercial satellite constellation.

Unlike satellites, whose task is only services "Industrial space grouping" is not tied to the land, to be more mobile and is designed for a variety of activities, including the development of lunar resources, making it a more effective tool for space exploration. But its activities will be profitable, it will be financed by private corporations, and its development will not be constrained by limited budgets and lack of practical goals for growth. Which will enter into the mainstream of aerospace practical space colonization and receive virtually unlimited opportunities for development.

Practical problems of the industrial group in reducing the cost of space transport and maintenance of satellites, so as it develops any activity in space will become cheaper and more easily workable.

The script for the space industry are a few basic concepts and activities.

Orbital "Spaceport"

The concept of an advanced breeding "Spaceport", consisting of manned space station in low Earth orbit, fulfilling the function of a transport terminal and assembly areas and specialized media — "Pony" which plays the role of the main workhorse for launching into orbit a payload.

Media Pony easy, cheap rocket engines with simplified and control systems. Engines do not have a pony turbine fuel pumps using fuel displacement of compressed gas tanks, used for missile control orientation beacons distance correction. "Size exclusion" fuel supply limits the power of engines and a launch weight of the rocket, the absence of autonomous "Inertial" orientation systems and sophisticated electronics binds rocket to fly on a fixed trajectory, from the spaceport to the spaceport, under which its "lead" beacons and control centers. But these restrictions "workhorse" more than compensates for its main advantage, easy and very low price.

Limited capacity pony up for work Spaceport in which light from standardized modules and components that appear this media gather commercial satellites and other spacecraft. The unit cost of removal through a complex Pony — Starport, is about $ 1,000 per kilogram of payload, which is 3, 7 times less than traditional single-carrier. Spaceport, allowing times to reduce the cost of removal and creates a paid commercial demand for the activities of people in the orbit associated with the installation.

Interim launch vehicle system Pony — Spaceport can serve winged reusable first stage, serving to "suborbital jump" to a height of 100 kilometers. Start outside the atmosphere with high-velocity allows more effective disposable media without increasing their starting weight.

As an aid in breeding can be used "Cannon Launch" ultralight vehicles, used to deliver supplies to the Spaceport resistant to overload, mainly fuel, but also construction materials, food for the crew, common parts and products. In the "space gun" can use new technical solutions, such as anti-missile overload due to tight-fitting durable reusable tubes, using a special powder of hydrogen generated during combustion, which enhances the muzzle velocity of up to 60% of the orbital, etc. Technical Easy gun start reducing the cost of removing this method, up to $ 500 per kilogram, but it can not display fragile items.

The system of reusable orbital tug

Spaceport can be not only a component of the launch, but also the basis for reusable orbital tugs. Orbital tugs, one of the main directions of development of future space transportation systems, the advantage of orbital tugs to use "electric propulsion", very thin, but the cost that the conditions allow orbits, weightlessness and the availability of permanent sources of energy. Electrojet orbital tugs allow repeatedly to reduce the cost of movement in space and link different orbit permanent link, which does not allow conventional rockets, used primarily to run "One-way".

Full time "orbital fleet" greatly simplifies any activity in space, connecting transport links constellation and lunar orbit with Earth orbital stations. Low cost orbital transportation allows to service and repair satellites in space stations, expanding the scope of their business, making it a necessary part of the satellite constellation.

One function of the Spaceport, the binding of launch and orbital tugs at a single transportation system that eliminates the single-orbital motors.

Fuel for orbital tugs in the early stages should be the organic fuel derived in the spaceport of plastic tanks carriers Pony, or inferences cannon start, later a transition to lunar fuel.

, The production of fuel for electro tugs on the moon, due to low cost removal from the moon, which is ten times smaller than the earth, because of the lack of atmosphere on the moon and low gravity.

Moonlight fuel base

Of lunar resources can be obtained, liquid oxygen and probably water or hydrogen. But the most readily available fuel on the moon is the lunar soil, in the form of fine powder. Technical features of the "plasma electro-motors" most suitable for tugs, allow them to consume different types of fuel, fossil fuels, water, liquid oxygen and mineral powder. "Flex-fuel" engines plasma can be used as fuel extraterrestrial resources without significant infrastructure costs, gas, liquid, or solid ground is in any astronomical object.

The concept of "Powder fuel base" on the moon, the use of alternative direction lunar mineral resources. The simplicity and low energy cost of producing a powder of the lunar soil can greatly reduce the weight and cost of production infrastructure on the surface of the moon. Mechanical system removing particulate soil from the surface of the moon — "Moonlight sling", consisting of a rotor with ribbons kilometer long, the ends of which reach lunar escape velocity, which is used lunar resources on an industrial scale and cost-effectively. Creating a powder fuel base on the moon within a reasonable fit for private investors funding. Can serve as an objective economic assessment of industrial activity on the moon, and a prerequisite for further development of the planet.

Commercial industrial grouping

Interrelated projects of commercial space stations, transport and raw materials on the moon form a single transport operating complex, which in itself is not for profit, but a means of service and the development of commercial-Earth space group. Thus, the money spent on the "industrial space group" allow multiple lower the cost of the expansion and the maintenance of efficiency of commercial groups and returned to the economy in the form of cheaper and affordable commercial satellites.

Cellular space

Industrial activity of the orbital segment also enables fundamental modernization of commercial groups. Such as the commissioning of satellite platforms and mesh antennas large area, mounted to the spaceport capable of receiving cell phone calls and to broadcast directly to the individual TV and radio, modem devices orientation, etc. And also, to monitor the Earth's surface and transmit telemetry, weather forecasting, monitoring of air and sea transport and control over natural resources. Such a system would eliminate much of the ground communication terminals, cell towers, TV and radio repeaters transferring the bulk of the information system in orbit. Will attract significant new investment in the space, will cause expansion of satellite communications industry and its importance.

Space solar power

In the longer term, a transition to space solar power. Solar energy, the most powerful and inexhaustible source of energy, a lot easier to collect in space than on earth. In the vacuum of space and weightlessness can expand concentrating mirrors made of thin films of kilometer area, which in the earth's atmosphere and gravity is practically impossible. Light film mirrors will receive streams of energy comparable only with nuclear heat sources, or thermionic turbine generators will convert the sun's heat into electricity that is sent to earth as a radio beam.

Solar power industrial power in orbit will be relatively mild and comparable to the cost of power plants on earth, but in contrast to the earth, will not need fuel and emit greenhouse gases or radioactive waste. Similar projects are planned and previously in the U.S. and Japan, but their development using the traditional space transportation is extremely expensive. Transport and assembly system makes realizatsiyuenergeticheskih projects affordable and design capabilities.

Space generators before they start to work on the ground, will be incubated in the orbital stations and powerful tugs. The implementation of energy projects space will attract hundreds of billions of dollars cosmos additional investment and make space industry an important component of the global economy.

Production in Space

Separately, you can note the development of productive activities in outer space, it is now almost no direction, but it will be developed in the further development and increasing complexity of the global satellite constellation, especially the industrial part. The high cost of launch vehicles makes it profitable production in orbit supplies and all kinds of products, availability of raw materials in space can serve as a lunar resources and recycling of materials and waste space group itself.

Some industrial activities using recycled materials, would be appropriate at the present time, if the investors have paid attention to them. The ISS is sufficient space and energy for pilot production of products from disposable empty tanks missiles, such as structural engineering, or cast parts. Waste most of the ISS can be obtained on fossil fuels, water, oxygen, nitrogen, and other substances that can be consumed by the station.

Earth orbital stations can serve not only as transportation and technology, but also the production centers, serving as a multipurpose bases throughout Earth satellite constellation.

Starting with a pilot recycling debris and lunar soil to space stations, space manufacturing will eventually thicken and grow, becoming an independent course of action. Gradual complication of production activities, from simple parts and materials to complex structures and machines, in a few decades will lead to the possibility of partial self-replication space group by extraterrestrial resources. On the ground will need to deliver only the most high-tech parts. Such separation after decades lead to the dominance of high-tech, high-tech products made for space. Machines in space will replicate through "local" resources on the ground will be made turbines, solar cells, integrated circuits and camcorders.

When a large-scale space colonization, differentiation toward high-tech industries on the ground and in space, simple production, through automated industrial group, will lead to global growth of scientific and technological progress and well-being, and will make the land of the "Silicon Valley of the galaxy."

Incubation of production technologies in the specific conditions of space, with an acute shortage of materials, will lead to the development of more technologically advanced methods that minimize the processing, such as high-tech molding, stamping, use of powder and composite materials that reduce the number and complexity of transactions in production. Borrowing these methods on the ground lead to the change of modern heavy industry manufacturing mobile technology platforms that will work in the industrial sector more accessible and quickly pay off, accelerating economic growth and reducing inter-ethnic inequality.

Thus, the appearance of attractive investment destinations commercialization of manned space flight, exploration of the Moon and other activities, will lead to the emergence of industrial space group, with links to the business group in a single global space industry. In contrast to the research projects of questionable economic justification, the industrial space can be one of the biggest sectors of the world economy, able to attract new investment and rapid expansive development. The growth of the industrial group and a gradual increase of the space industry in key areas of the earth, first connection, then power in the future commercial development of extraterrestrial material resources, lead to the integration of humanity into space and a new surge of progress in all areas.

Fifteen to thirty years industrial space grouping will have manned stations functioning as support bases and transportation centers, resource base on the moon and the orbital fleet, allowing freedom of movement in near-Earth space. For the next generation of space industry will move to Resource Development Mercury and asteroids will be industrial bases on the moon and on Mars base areas, with the interplanetary transportation system and space industry, mankind will be able to freely distribute their work in the solar system. Industrial space program provides an opportunity for our civilization to move to space level within one to two generations.

The proposed scenario for the space industry can solve the problem of finding financing and move from space research, its practical colonization based on the capabilities of technology and the economy of the time, which will open the way for mankind colonize space.

The idea of authorship and Nikolay Agapov

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