Meanwhile, as the focus is al-Qaeda, local groups and ethnic fighters are an integral component of the complex web of impermanence.
French planes bombarded targets in Mali during the operation, which is declared to be related to the fight against al-Qaeda militants. But the region — the epicenter of impermanence with the most diverse set of religious men, ethnic militias and secularists.
After spending a few weeks in the volatile north of the country, the correspondent Al-Jazeera's May Ying Welsh makes a review of several different groups and their aspirations.
MNLA (National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad)
This secular separatist Tuareg rebel group wants to achieve independent state in northern Mali Azavad. Rebels MNLAzayavlyayut that they want a separate country for all the peoples of northern Mali (the main ethnic groups here — it's Tuareg, Songhai, Fulani and Arabs). Among them, there are a number of symbolic ethnic group Songhay, but 99% of the fighters movements MNLA — Tuareg, whose primary motivation is to achieve the country's Tuareg.
Favourite MNLA — Bilal Ag Cherif, the Tuareg tribe of Ifogas, and his deputy — Mahamadou Gyory Maiga, Songhay. The group, which once controlled the town of Gao and Kidal, now largely disappeared in the middle of the local population in anticipation of their own future chances.
On motion MNLA, usually do not pay attention, and it underestimated, as it retreated under the pressure of al-Qaida and will link with al-Qaeda groups to take control of the situation on the ground. But it is important to keep in mind that the origins of this crisis was the act of seizing MNLA northern Mali, and all that is happening at the moment, can be seen as a kind of response to those actions. The hopes and aspirations of the MNLA rooted in the first Tuareg rebellion in 1963. Their demands will not disappear and will remain as before, one of the underlying components of the crisis in the north of Mali.
FLNA (National Front for the Liberation of Azawad)
It is an Arab group, which is an ally of situational MNLA movement and desire people of northern Mali won the right to self-determination. They want the northern Malians were able to decide whether they want to be autonomous, are independent or unwilling to enter into the composition of Mali, can be a means of referendum, such as that which was carried out when South Sudan voted for independence. Front FLNA is asking the introduction of Sharia law.
Ganda Koy (masters of the land) — is songayskaya ethnic group of self-defense, which appeared during the Tuareg rebellion in the 1990s. Ganda Koy militias in the past waged war on the side of the Malian army against the rebel Tuareg. They are accused in the massacre of civilians Tuareg.
The organization Human Rights Watch has recently released a report warning that ethnic self-defense groups, like the Ganda Koy and Ganda Izo, make lists for the destruction of the members MNLA, Ansar al-Din, other groups and those working with them. One can imagine that many of the names in these lists belong to Tuareg and Arabs.
Ganda Izo — a group of the Fulani ethnic militia, which was formed in 2008 to perform functions similar Ganda Koy — of self-defense of the local population of the Fulani and Tuareg rebel opposition. Ganda Izo now expanded its ranks, and it includes not only the ethnic Fulani. The group has training camps in Mopti.
The "religious" coalition includes three main groups:
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
AQIM — it's more of the Algerian-Mauritanian group, which is in northern Mali since 2003 and over the past 10 years, abducted and detained more than 50 European and Canadian hostages for ransom, according to various estimates, earning such makarom above 100 million bucks.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Niger Mohamed Bazum not so long ago, said the presence of AQIM in northern Mali was part of a deal between the group and the deposed president of Mali, Amadou Toumani Toure (ATT) — a deal brokered by a close political adviser to ATT Iyad Ag Ghali. Funds for the purchase of the hostages from European governments Tipo distributed in the middle of the Malian officials, while AQIM got a free hand in the regions with the connivance of the Tuareg Malian army.
AQIM is currently holding at least nine European hostages in northern Mali.
Over the past 10 years, several local ifogas, Tuareg and Arabs joined AQIM in Mali, as well as members of the formation of married women from the local community. But now that AQIM openly spinning in the main towns in the north of Mali, and thanks to their links with local groups, such as Ansar al-Din, the group received more dominant. Now young people of southern Mali, Senegal, Niger and other countries come to join the group of the Islamic militia, which controls specifically AQIM.
The main favorite AQIM — is an Algerian Abdel Malek Drukdel named Abu Musab Abdul Wadud, although the guide also has Emir Abu Yahya Sahara brash and several teams headed by well-known Saharan characters, for example, the one-eyed Algerian Mokhtar Belmokhtar drug dealer and another Algerian Hamid Abu Zayd . The clear structure of the control group in the Sahara unknown.
Ansar Al-Din — a group of local Tuareg ifogas, Arabs berabish and other local ethnic groups who wish to impose shariah law throughout Mali and throughout the Muslim world.
The founder and head of the Ansar al-Din — it Iyad Ag Ghali, past favorite Tuareg in the 1990s. In the past 10 years, Iyad closely collaborated with the former president to try to put an end to the raging Tuareg rebellions in the country and to negotiate with AQIM for the purchase of the hostages.
The representative of the Ansar al-Din — an Arab from the region of Timbuktu named Sanda Ould boomers, who in 2005 was put in jail in Mauritania on charges of belonging to al-Qaeda.
Most of the fighters of Ansar al-Din — is the Tuareg tribe of Iyad Ag Ghali Ifogas berabish and Arabs from the region of Timbuktu. Ansar al-Din avoids collisions with MNLA and FLNA, so as not to spill the blood of relatives and tribal partners, which would lead to their de-legitimization. They leave that part of MUJAO and AQIM.
Although the Ansar al-Din denies any ties to al-Qaeda, group actually works as a local umbrella under which members can work al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Relations between 2 groups like the connection between the Taliban and Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, and in this case, the Ansar al-Din plays the role of the owners. For example, these two groups together control the religious police. Ansar al-Din saves only Malian membership contingent, so makarom leaving itself open future capacity within Mali.
Ansar al-Din is in all 3 main towns in the north: Gao, Timbuktu and Kidal.
MUJAO (Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa)
MUJAO — this is the most troubled of all associated with the Al-Qaeda group in northern Mali. Presumably, this dissident group that broke away from AQIM, but its members have uttered Al-Jazeera, which pride themselves on working with AQIM in Gao to reflect common opponents.
Like the Ansar al-Din, MUJAO says that he wants to introduce Sharia law throughout the world. In contrast to the Ansar al-Din, the group consists of both local residents and foreigners from the region of the Sahel and North Africa.
Movement MUJAO tougher storm
ed members MNLA, as Arab group that reach self-determination for the northern Mali. Whenever the region seeps group MNLA, MUJAO terrorizes her until such time as she did not back down.
In the middle of sources of funding MUJAO — Tilemsi drug lords of the Arabs in the area of Gao. The group also joined some part of their youth.