December 31, 2011 12:17
Many believe that the first robots appeared only in the second half of the XX century, but this is false: human-machine came a lot earlier.
Of the myths of ancient Greece, we learn that the robots were in the time of the Greek gods. Myths tell us about the brazen giant Talos, securing the island of Crete, gilded girls and iron tripods god Hephaestus.
Hephaestus, in contrast to the gods of Olympus did not spend time in idleness, in his golden palace was equipped smithy. And as you can see from the myths, it was undeveloped at the very latest, not only ancient, but modern technology. In the mountain burned with unquenchable fire constantly, which probably was let natural gas, 20 bellows actuated by hand movements are not slaves, and obey the Word of Hephaestus. All this is reminiscent of a modern computer control different processes. Thus, for each metal, which is melted in a special furnace was maintained at optimum temperature automatically. According to ancient Greek mythology, is the forge of Hephaestus and created robots ancient world.
By order of the Supreme God of Olympus, Zeus, Hephaestus made of copper mechanical giant, who had to guard the island of Crete, which was ruled by King Minos. This inanimate copper giant named Talos. He lived in Crete in Festus. He went around the island of Crete three times a day, protecting it from invading enemies. Talos also differed and incredible force: he drove the alien ships with huge stones that metal at very large distances.
From Greek mythology know that Hephaestus created not just a robot — a soldier, but robots — servants. This is already more complex robots that can be operated telepathically, ie They reported not only in word but in thought. Not only that, Hephaestus created robots, not just obeying the orders of mind, but also the ability to anticipate desires. Such robots are just another dream XXI century engineers developing modern computer equipment.
What these robotic servants? These were the tripod, who traveled to the small wheels feasting among the gods, and the silent wishes of the gods got a ride them fruit, wine and magic potion — ambrosia.
For myself Hephaestus "forged" two gilded girls, who "had the power of the mind and voice. They supported the arms of Hephaestus, when he went for a walk, served him entertained with stories and songs and owned all women's knowledge, which taught them immortal. "
Curiously, a similar description of the robot's Chi-Yu is in ancient China. He had four eyes and six arms (manipulators?), Some tridents in place of ears, like an antenna radar, Greek Talos. Chi-Yu could move cross-country for a short time to take off.
When Chi-Yu "died", the local people buried his head in a cave for a long time and have come to worship her. From the grave from time to time the cloud vapor that shone red. The mention of the cloud is the most interesting "technical attributes." If we assume that because of the "power" Chi-Yu "stones, sand, and even iron" performed their conversion into nuclear energy, nuclear uncontrolled emissions after his "death" could be perceived by observers as mentioned cloud.
Among the legends of ancient China highlighted the tale of the "dragon" of Emperor Huangdi. The text clearly states that the "dragon" had wings, metallic luster housing. Strange is the fact that air travel this "dragon" dependent on weather conditions. One day he could not even carry out the flight with Huang "on board" the hurricane! And this is really quite surprising, as the "real" fairy dragons were patrons of rain and wind.
This "anomaly" is understandable, if by way of the "Dragon" hides the real technical prototype in the form of a certain aircraft. The same legend says that the "dragon" was designed for 70 passengers, who were raised to him in a kind of "mustache." Very similar to the helicopter with a ladder going down.
In Greek mythology, described even air battles, for example, the fight between the Harpies (winged bird-monsters with women's heads) and boreadami (winged sons of the god of the north wind Boreas). This story mentions a terrible stench harpies. Is impossible to see the ancient people, accustomed to the open air, the smell of fuel. After all, many of us, the era of technology people, the smell of gasoline or kerosene seems unpleasant …
In "Argokavtike" describes Stimfaliyskie large bird with shiny brass wings that threw sharp, like an arrow (or bullets), feathers in the Argonauts. One of the birds managed to bring down. After the attack of birds circled the ship of Jason and disappeared over the horizon. Such a maneuver similar to the actions of the pilots of modern military aircraft on patrol a given object or a desire to ensure destruction of the target.
Amazing machines were created in the XVIII century French engineer Vaucanson, one of his androids, known as "piper" was an increase of about 170 cm, playing 12 different plays, produces sounds ordinary blowing air from your mouth to the top hole flute tones and replacing it with the action fingers on the other holes of the instrument.
Another android Vaucanson played with the left hand on the Provençal flute, right hand playing the tambourine and snapping his tongue after the manner of Provençal minstrels.
Bronze-plated tin duck this manual — perhaps the most perfect of all the machines is still known — not only imitated with extraordinary precision for all movements, crying and manners of his original: swimming, diving, splashing in the water, etc., but even bite food hungrily live duck and served until the end (of course, with the hidden inside its chemicals) the normal process of digestion.
All of these machines have been publicly shown Vaucanson in Paris in 1738.
No less amazing machines were contemporaries Vaucanson, Swiss Draw. One of the machines manufactured by them, a girl, android, played the piano, the other — in the form of 12-year-old boy sitting on a stool at the board — wrote a few words in French, dipped the pen in the inkwell, shook off his excess ink, kept perfect accuracy in the placement of lines and words, and in general perform all the movements of the scribes …
Draw the best work in hours, the Spanish Present Ferdinand VI, which was connected to a group of different machines: a lady sitting on the balcony reading a book, sometimes sniffing tobacco and apparently listening to a piece of music, play for hours; tiny canary soar and sing, dogs protected fruit basket and if someone took one of the fruits, bark as long as taken was put back in place …
"Scribe" built Pierre Jaquet Droz — outstanding Swiss master watchmaker. Following this, his son Henry built another android — "painter." Then father and son invented and built another and "musician" who played the harmonium.
In 1774 an exhibition in Paris, people used these mechanical great success. Then Henri Jacquet Droz took them to Spain, where crowds have expressed delight and admiration. But there intervened the Holy Inquisition, accused of witchcraft and Dro imprisoned, by selecting them only ones …
Complex way passed a father and his son Jacques-Droz, passing from hand to hand, and a lot of skilled watchmakers and engineers have put to them their work and talent, restoring and repairing damaged people and the time until the androids not take the position of their pride of place in Switzerland — the Museum of Fine Arts in Neuchâtel.
The era of Ivan the Terrible was crammed all sorts of "know-how", including in the field of technology. The king was an iron man, who served him, brought a cup of wine, bowed to the guests. There is archival evidence of the presence of several "iron men and women" the contemporaries of Grozny.
James Bruce was an associate of Peter the Great, a prominent scholar and statesman. During the life of him legendary. They called him a sorcerer and magician. Candlestick trader Alexei Morozov, for example, claimed that once in the twilight he saw from the windows of the astronomer iron birds fly, do a few laps around the building and come back.
The next night, the merchant returned to the tower, along with their families. In the office of Bruce was a light in the window looming figure of the graph, the tower heard someone's hysterical cries. Suddenly one of the windows opened, and from there flew three iron monster with human heads. Beside himself with terror Morozov household raced through the city away from the terrible place. And soon the city was disturbing rumor — a Lutheran from Sukharev communicating with the evil spirit and use it to turn the living, whose groans and spread through the neighborhood, in the iron flying dragons.
In the Sukharev Tower James Bruce was working on a lethal machine. Unknown, up-did his planes in the air or not, but to save the drawing do resemble drawings of modern aircraft. These papers are now in the Russian Academy of Sciences. Unfortunately, some important documents had disappeared in the thirties. According to one version, they stole German spies, and then the drawings Bruce Nazis made their invincible fighters "messershmity."
Like any self-respecting magician, Bruce tried to solve the mystery of life and created an artificial person. Iron maid waited Count in his observatory. When James Bruce resigned and left town, he took her to his estate near Moscow Glinka. There doll wander freely among the trees, and flirted with the peasants. The serfs of Count, seeing the doll, first ran, but then got used to it, and called each other "Yashkin sissy". After the death of Bruce among his papers historians have found the scheme mechanical robot.
One of the first attempts to construct a robot considered incomparable achievements of Leonardo Da Vinci. In toe> schesyatyh twentieth century were found drawings of mechanical knight who was supposed to have been able to move his arms, legs, turn your head and open the visor. As conceived by the inventor hands mechanically controlled programmable device located in the chest. Using the handle, which was pulling a thin wire connected to his feet, Knight moved lower extremities.
Unknown, trying to create a master of his android or just draw it on paper, most likely, he made it, but it is possible that his robot did not work as expected Leonardo. In any case, to have survived only sketches.
But a mechanical lion invented by Leonardo da Vinci restless on taking the throne Francis we know for sure. Leo could walk a few steps and stopped (of course, the King), opened the door to his side — and from his belly spilling beautiful lilies. In 1500, Michelangelo Buonarroti in the booklet, publication in Florence, 66 mentions this lion. The device itself, as well as a mechanical knight, has sunk into oblivion, "there were only a description.
Today in France, Renato Boaretto created mechanical lion from surviving drawings. Of course, today's technology made it easier to work on the master walking lion, and the robot is made with modern materials, but I must say that it turned out very medieval in appearance. It is very similar to the carved sculpture, which used to do the master woodwork. Leo turns his head in different directions, opens and closes the mouth, moves its tail and walks through the exhibition hall, where he lives — in a museum on the site of the last homes of the great Leonardo, in the castle of Clos-Luce. It looks very impressive — it made the beast in full size.
How many more discoveries to mankind will present genius of Leonardo? Let's hope that's not all his drawings come to us, maybe some are still waiting in the wings.