Antiship missiles. Part first. On ground

Finally finished work on the development of new anti-missile systems (SCRC) "Ball" and "Bastion". New developments came in a batch creation, automatically transferring Russia into the world's favorite for these systems. With all of this for the Russian army zatarivaemsya only tactical SCRC "Bastion", which are designed to defeat big goals, but the tactical SCRC "The Ball", which are the least massive, not zatarivaemsya. This policy is considerable doubt as to the criteria of modern large-scale military action is unlikely, too fast local conflicts in coastal waters, which are more suited specifically SCRC "Ball."

At present, the SCRC — it's a massive system, which on the shoulder and task of coastal defense and defeat sea targets in acres km. Own funds target designation, the highest autonomy and mobility make modern SCRC trudnouyazvimymi for tough enemies. That's why the enthusiasm for modern coastal SCRC uniformly increasing. In addition, these systems can be used as a means of introducing high-missile weapons to destroy ground targets.

Zabugornye SCRC having the greatest spread

The world market can offer a variety of shore SCRC applying all modern types of RCC.

Harpoon (Boeing, USA) has a pretty huge spread, but is used in small amounts only in Spain, Denmark, Egypt, and South Korea. SCRC Exocet (MBDA, France) are used first generation MM38 Exocet anti-ship missiles, and has already withdrawn from service in England. Such weapons are only in Greece and Chile, more advanced missiles Exocet MM40 apart from their use in Cyprus, Qatar, Thailand and Saudi Arabia. Coastal komplksy Otomat (MBDA, Italy) back in the 1980s, were set in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Around the same time, Sweden and Finland have started to use RBS-15 (Saab, Sweden), his version of the Coast RBS-15K. Croatia uses this SCRC in a complex with its made in the 1990s, the SCRC MOL. Saab is at this moment offers waterfront SCRC on the latest version of the missile RBS-15 Mk 3.

Sweden and Norway use RBS-17 missiles (Saab, Sweden) is a modification of the American anti-missile Hellfire. They are loaded with light onshore launchers (PU). RCC Penguin (Kongsberg, Norway) from the 1970s used in stationary PU coastal defense of Norway. Evenly legacy systems are removed from service. Japanese RCC SSM-1A (Mitsubishi, Japan) used in the country of origin for weapons of mobile coastal SCRC like 88, is not exported. Since the 1970s, the family of anti-ship missiles Hsiung Feng (Taiwan) is in service with the coastal defense of Taiwan for both mobile and stationary for the SCRC. The first version was developed on the basis of an improved analog RCC Gabriel Mk 2, made in Israel. After 2002, comes into service mobile SCRC Hsiung Feng II with a long-range missile local production. Specialists do not rule out further to be developed onshore, based in Taiwan supersonic anti-ship missiles Hsiung Feng III. These systems have never exported.

The end of 2008 was marked by a treaty that Poland signed with Norway for delivery in 2012, the 1st Battalion of coastal NSM (Kongsberg, Norway) in the amount of 145 million dollars.

HY-2 (PRC) or the C-201 — is an advanced analogue Russian missiles P-15, made in the 1960's. Coastal sessions in those years were the backbone of China's coastal defense, were exported to Iraq, Iran, North Korea and Albania. Version of the missile, filled turbojet engine, HY-4 (PRC) entered service with the country in the 1980s. After 1991, the SCRC on the basis of the missile have been exported to the UAE. Analogues of this rocket was made in Iran and North Korea. At present, the missile nesusvetno outdated, because service in China come YJ-62 (PRC) or the C-602 — modern cruise missiles.

Light modern anti-ship missiles on the modification of the C-701 to C-705 combined in the family YJ-7 (PRC) Iran has missiles release the C-701 and C-704 under license. YJ-8 (PRC) — a family of modern Chinese missiles C-801, C-802 and C-803. SCRC from the C-802 is currently in service in China, in 1990 the 2000s they were delivered to Iran and North Korea. At this point they became seriously interested in Thailand. C-802 manufactured under license in Iran and supplied to Syria and Lebanon, "Hezbollah", the SCRC with these missiles managed to take part in the Lebanon conflict in 2006.

History of the SCRC in Russia in Russian time

USSR considered the SCRC as an important means of coastal defense for military Advantages of the West Sea. At the time, the Russian Union engaged in the development and creation of the SCRC as a tactical mission, and the operational and tactical, range of second SCRC was above 200 km.

In 1955, work began on the creation of the mobile complex "Sopka". More of early development — a set of "Arrow" — used the same rocket-2, because it is often called a fixed set of "Sopka". Moving complex adopted in 1958. The complex "Sopka" was equipped marching Aircraft turbojet engine, in order to rocket started to tail her body was mounted solid booster jet. The complex was equipped radar (radar) detection of "Cape", the central bridge, combined with radar guided C-1M and tracking radar "Burun".

In 1959, the C-2 missiles were equipped with thermal homing "Sputnik-2." If the missile was fired in a beam of RCL C-1M, and at a distance of 15 km was getting busy homing mechanism, range reaches 105 km. In the 2nd mode, homing missile in the area deduced autopilot. The complex "Sopka" was once the foundation of coastal defense of the USSR in the 1960s, the intensely exported to allied countries. Quite complex was removed from service in 1980.

At the post coastal defense complex "Sopka" changed the mobile coastal SCRC 4K40 "Frontier" and the SCRC "Redoubt" put into service in 1978.

The complex "Frontier" to equip the radar "Harpoon". The structure of the battery consists of four launchers and the same transport-charging machines, the total number of missiles is 16 naval P-15M missiles with a range of up to 80 km. Self-propelled launchers (SPU) are completely autonomous fighting machines, they are able to independently detect surface targets and firing.

Two types of homing (GOS) — ARL and IR, there is a strong possibility to increase the warhead hit a target at a gulp of 2-missiles with a SPU or mnogoraketnym volley with a few SPU even the presence of interference, both active and passive. The main drawback of the complex — is the use of outdated missiles with a huge mass and low speed. In addition, operation complicates the presence of liquid rocket engines.

In 1980, the SCRC "Frontier" was modernized, this is so far the base of coastal defense of the Russian Federation, although still considered obsolete. The export version of the complex in the 1980 year were Poland, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia
, Algeria and many other countries. Ukraine has received part of the complex after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Coastal SCRC "Redoubt" refers to the operational-tactical missile systems of the second generation. It was developed in the 1960s, the purpose was to defeat all surface ships with anti-ship missiles P-35B, range is 270 km. On the arms package was delivered in 1966 as the "Frontier" SCRC "redoubt" is used to this day. SCRC is capable of receiving targeting a TU-16D, TU-95D, as the Ka-25 C, filled radar "success." In the late 1970s, began to be used brand new rocket ZM44 "Progress". A powerful warhead, and the highest rate of propulsion of a missile defense increases the possibility of a breakthrough sole purpose missile or salvo with a PU.

In the presence of external targeting SCRC "redoubt" is able to cover several hundred kilometers of the coastline. A powerful nuclear or high-explosive warhead disables at least some only ship missile. Complex defects associated with an outdated model rocket, which has a huge size and weight, because STC is only one missile, and a large range of its flight leads to dilemmas with target designation. STC is not autonomous, like the SCRC "Redoubt", so it can not without the help of others to detect targets and lead them on fire. The time taken to deploy the SCRC.

In the 1980s, the export version of the complex was supplied in countries such as Bulgaria, Syria and Vietnam. In all these countries, as in Russia, the SCRC "redoubt" is not removed from service.

What we have on this day

In 1980, work began on the new SCRC on the basis of promising at the time of RCC for the substitution of obsolete systems "Redoubt" and "Boundary". Because of the collapse of the Soviet Union ended only in recent years. New SCRC "Ball" and "Bastion" immediately brought Russia to the leading position of the global market scale production of the SCRC. It is possible that the title of favorite Our homeland will last all the coming decade due to the fact that the new systems are being developed, "Ball U" and Club-M.

SCRC "Bastion" is designed to engage different types of ships and land-based radar targets in saturated fire and electronic countermeasures. One set is able to provide protection in excess of 600 km from the coast of the enemy troops. The new complex initially created as a multi-purpose, which can be located on surface ships and submarines, airplanes, boats and shore-based launchers. The system created a 2-versions — mobile ("Bastion-P") and stationary ("Bastion-C"). SCRC "Bastion" is using ASM "Yakhont". The advantages of this type of anti-ship missiles include the-horizon range, full autonomy in the implementation of martial criteria, a set of flexible trajectories, supersonic speed during the entire flight, low visibility for modern radar and full harmonization for a range of media. Missile guidance system combined — inertial midcourse and active radar — the last stage of flight. Radar seeker captures the freeboard target class "cruiser" at a distance of 75 km. A lot of the complex allows for the ability to behold volley. The missiles are capable to distribute and organize the goal in order of importance, to elect the attack strategy and plan for its performance. Autonomous system allows missiles to evade anti-aircraft fire from the enemy. Full ammunition shore SCRC "Bastion" contains 36 RCC (12 SPU to 3 RCC). Deployment time of the complex is less than 5 minutes, and the frequency of shots is 2-5 seconds.

In 2006, Vietnam signed a contract to supply a division SCRC "Bastion-P", the amount of the contract is approximately 150 million dollars, two of these divisions has requested Syria. Vietnamese paid contract ends with the stage of development of the SCRC. Delivery systems in conjunction with the rockets were made in 2010.

In 2008 the Ministry of Defence signed a contract for delivery in 2009-2011 3 SCRC "Bastion-P" with missiles "Yakhont" to equip the 11th Infantry Rocket Artillery Brigade's Black Sea Fleet, which is stationed in the city of Anapa .

Substitution of complex tactical mission "Frontier" was due to the SCRC "The Ball", which uses a compact subsonic ASM "Uranus". The firing range is 120 km. The complex consists of 4 to 8 SPU RCC each, 2-propelled command, control and communications Fri, using RFCs targeting "Harpoon-Ball", and 4 transport-charging machines. Total ammunition SCRC "Ball" consists of 64 RCC. Modern navigation equipment and tools enable night vision for 10 minutes to deploy complex at any time of day or night and. One-time volley set up to 32 missiles, the interval between runs is 15 seconds.

Power supply machines provide independent sources of variable and constant current with a gas turbine driven emergency power source is placed on each machine and running PTO auto chassis. This feature not only provides the highest survivability of the complex, and the ability of the autonomous use of all machines.

The only SCRC "The Ball", made for testing, was transferred to the same team of the Black Sea Fleet, where he is at the moment, not having ammunition missiles. Formally, the complex is taken into service in 2008, but in mass creation, he did not hit. The export version — "Bal-E" to export a missile 3M24E — brings enthusiasm among a number of countries, but the orders he has ever had.

The latest developments in the field will continue as a mobile complex Club-M with a range of up to 290 km and a set of "Mosquito-E."

Club-M uses a family of cruise missiles Club 3M54E types, and 3M14E 3M54E1, the export options are offered on different chassis with 3-6 missiles on launchers. Orders for its ready position was not. Export version of the ship SCRC "Mosquito-E" on the basis of 3M80E supersonic missile has a range of up to 130 km. Maybe the lack of demand for this complex due to the large size is not new rockets and small firing range.

Future prospects

More promising for the Russian Navy is developed coastal SCRC "Ball-U." Presumably the new facility will use missiles "Yakhont" and "Movement", as to equip the new means of targeting. Maybe the Department of Defense waits for development and therefore do not order more than SCRC "Ball" and "Bastion" with missiles 3M24.

If the system of coastal defense would be staffed complexes "Ball-U", it turns out that all the equipment a system of tactical mission. Will be used only costly massive supersonic anti-ship missiles "Yakhont" supersonic anti-ship missiles and stage "Movement" that are designed to destroy large targets. But the complex tactical mission will be missing a class. Almost such a choice can be called good, and fro
m a military point of view, and from the economic.

The big enemy ships, even during large-scale military operations do not appear in the coastal waters, substituting a missile strike. The possibility of such behavior is close to zero. Short-range naval blockade remains in the past. A strike sea-launched cruise missiles could be from a distance exceeding the range of fire of the SCRC. So Makarov, it is clear that the invasion of large ships, which are aimed to defeat the SCRC "Ball-U", will be carried out only after the destruction of coastal defense aviation precision instrument and cruise missiles.

Significant firing range will be reduced due to the difficulty of targeting bolshennom at a distance, to the same part of the enemy you can expect all sorts of interference to determine the goals. In the worst case, the SCRC will have to rely only on their own radar, whose range is limited to the radio horizon. So all the advantages of long-range missiles will be reduced to virtually zero.

In the end, it turns out that the criteria of real hostilities declared by the introduction of the dignity of the SCRC with strong operational-tactical missiles will be reduced to nothing more constrained. Because implement its own military capability completely "Ball U" fails. The introduction of massive expensive missiles in local conflicts is not correct.

If you watch the modern development of the naval forces of the adjacent countries, just to see that the emphasis is on small combat units, such as small military boats in the future — unmanned combat assets. Because we can expect the emergence of the coastal waters of the Russian Federation is not a small number of large ships, and the huge number of malehankih. So VM Russia needs to develop a modern effective means of combating small-sized and medium-sized surface targets at a small distance, especially in the inland waters of the seas.

As a solution to these issues can be considered cheap subsonic and small-sized RCC. "Uranus" with missiles 3M24 series and its coastal option — SCRC "The Ball" — successful, already reworked modern complexes that are suitable in all ways to solve similar problems. The lack of orders for these complexes is seen very nekompitentnym.

Orientation naval forces to conduct combat the forces of light and katernogo (at least on the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Sea of Japan) will be reflected in the construction of all kinds and the Navy — for the construction of ships, naval aviation, coastal missile and artillery units. A good way to purchase the SCRC will be a combination of the complex "Ball-U" and "Bastion-P" with massive and complex vysokoskorostrelnymi missiles and "Ball" with missiles "Uranus".

It is also worth noting that the price of one missile "Onyx / Yakhont" three to four times the price of missiles "Uranus". Price complex "Bastion-P" with 16 missiles is commensurate with the price of batteries SCRC "Ball" with 64 missiles. With all of this volley from 32 subsonic missiles are often more effective volley 8 supersonic.

Most likely the practice will show that a sufficiently high price SCRC "Ball-U" and "Bastion" or limit their purchase, or stretch it over time. Because fleet likely to remain armed for the most part obsolete onshore "Redoubt" and "Boundary", military significance of which will soon become miserable. Besides missiles 3M24 easier to upgrade, relatively small overhead can significantly increment firmness and efficiency of the implementation KPRK based on them.

To be continued.

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