April 19, 2012 9:32
Belief in witchcraft and the devil existed at all times. It disappeared in our time, even among the most developed nations of Europe.
But belongs to the Middle Ages in the construction of this belief system, in whole outlook that prevailed among all classes of society and permeate themselves religion, philosophy, law, political power over the world, mankind are equal in power, but different in its principles of God and Satan. God could have destroyed Satan and his power, but it is his right to act in the world to tempt and seduce men, to their last resistance to the temptation of evil spirits to earn salvation.
In fact, even in the main prayer of Christians, "Our Father", sounds known to all say to God, 'Thy will be done as it is in heaven and on earth. " This underscores that they are today, a fallen world, God does not reign and the power of the undivided only in heaven. "Prince of this world" is Satan. And Christianity — this is the story of how the earth came to the righteous King, to call people to the great campaign of sabotage cases devil. Which, in turn, strongly opposes the little "guerrilla unit", or rather their King and leader.
The struggle is between the two forces by certain rules: God has his angels and his heavenly hosts, the devil — the many legions of demons and dark forces. Last managed by their superiors, who are named as follows: Beelzebub, Asmodeus, Magog, Dagon, Magon, Astaroth, Azazel, Gabor. In the Devil's world there is the same hierarchy as in the human world. For example, one has to demonologists diabolical army of 72 thousand princes, counts and marquises and 7,405,928 imps.
Satan and every demon army chiefs have their own certain way. Here's how Pierre de Lancre, a medieval theologian and inquisitor, depicts Satan sits on the throne during orgies Sabbath, "He is sitting behind a black chair on his head a crown of black horns. In addition, it has two horns on the neck and one on the forehead, hair disheveled, his face pale and sullen, his eyes round, protruding, fiery beard like a goat, neck and torso ugly addition, the body part human, part goat, and hands legs like a human, only the fingers of the same length, bony, with claws, arms bent in the form of goose paws and long tail, like a donkey, a terrible voice, but without shades; view more arrogant, with an expression of boredom and satiety ". His sense of the medieval man was inhabited by many different images of mythical creatures, supposedly existing absolutely real. Even just to list them all, the ordinary newspaper article is not enough. Take, for example, Gul — a terrible creature with a hideous appearance and odor eater gravedigger and decomposing remains, does not disdain, however, and some svezhatinkoy, say, the pilgrims from the trade caravan wandered into ghouls visited areas (cemeteries and graveyards, ruins , dungeons, labyrinths). In high numbers ghouls can be found on the ground battles, the recent carnage. Feminine form of the ghoul can take a pretty girl looks to mop up without too much hassle unwary.
"Good" as graveyry with bone crests on the skull, strong teeth, they crushed bone, and a long thin tongue to lick out the decomposed brain and fat.
But for the true connoisseurs of exotic — skrffin or kokatriksiya, ornitoreptiliya, that is not a reptile, but not a bird. He has the body of a lizard, bat wings, and the muzzle and legs, like a rooster. Below its long neck in it — marminovye beads, huge, twice the size of the superior turkey. In the open wings, on average more than four feet. When attacking, he attacks the jump, holding claws snapping beak, use a long thin tail, knocking him to the ground and then an eagle beak prikanchivaya victim.
For introduction into the human body itself Satan does not act openly, and uses many tricks, tricks, temptations, it can take many shapes and forms, and choose the various pool and to corrupt people. Is an elegant gentleman, a monk, a woman can take any image to appear everywhere: in the castle, in a hut in the woods, on crowded streets, hunting down the victim and trying to have an affair with a man rob God and another lost soul. Possessed by the devil becomes his slave, obeying him and doing all the crimes that inspired the master.
With mediation betray him witches devil tries to put a spell on others.
Figures of demons can be found in the work of Collin de Plancy, published in 1844, where they are served as described known demonology Jean Weir. In a theological! treatise, published in 1625 and there is also a hand of Satan in the form of fingerprints left on his contract with the witch act on signing him.
Theologians have argued among themselves as image-devil does he flesh and blood, or he's just a pure spirit, which only takes a sensual look. This dispute, in addition to its theoretical value, was also a very important practical significance to proceedings. One of the most important the accusations witches — relationship with the devil himself. But it sounds pointless if Satan — only the spirit, which has no flesh.
On this basis, it was developed in great detail theologians developed the doctrine of the incubus and succubus, ie the ambivalence, was adopted for the devil coming into contact with people: incubus and succubus-men-women.
Theologians also very fascinated with the question: can the demons to conceive, and there may be a fruit of the female connection with the devil? And if it is, to what class of beings belong to such an association which were the children and how they look. Views on this subject apart, and this issue was one of the most controversial in theology.
Famous demonologist Martin Delrio, especially carefully developed the doctrine of incubus and succubus, in his treatise of 1599 states that the alliance with the devil can be born children, but it does not directly but indirectly. Namely: the devil in the form of first succubus has a relationship with a man and then uses a seed fertilizing his roommate to lie with a woman — this time in the form of an incubus. Children born with the mediation of an incubus — a monstrous form, hideous leanness, incredibly eat a lot.
De Lancre, who had a fairly rich case law, which will be discussed below, says if a woman resolved imp, who immediately after birth began to jump and jump …
The modern man like crazy statements may cause either a sarcastic smile, or the desire to write the script of the next horror film, such as the famous "Baby Rosemary." But for those who has managed to be born in the Middle Ages, occasions to laugh over the fruits of the imagination of theologians were much smaller.
That was the era of true horror. Satan could not arise in such a religion as the religion of the Greeks, — a joyful, full of light and beauty. For its development and prosperity require shade needed mystery of sin and suffering, which, as a shroud covered the religion of medieval Catholicism.
Minds of medieval people, numb in the religious and mystical horror, all of nature is full of wonders, mysteries and monsters. The physical world is in front of them as an implacable enemy of the eternal spiritual world. People are afraid of life as a source of temptation and sin, the fear of death, which is a gaping chasm hopeless eternity.
Dreams and crazy ideas filled spirit. Hermit, idle for hours on the threshold of his cell, he contemplates flying through the air hosts of spirits and apocalyptic monsters, dark night is threaded fire signs and mysterious glow, stars take amazing images and scattered in a sea of blood, ominously foreshadowing the coming disaster.
Satan — everywhere, seen it many times, and with it came into contact.
Of course, sold his soul to the devil — the enemy of mankind. He tries to turn away from God, others, harm and damage. Therefore, the religious spirit of the Middle Ages in denying him any pity, in every indulgence and requires absolute death.
Church joined witchcraft crimes of heresy and at the same time put forward the position: the highest heresy — not to believe in witchcraft. Its main task is considered the fight with the devil and his instrument — a witch.
Under the control of the Holy See
Pope published a special bull to eradicate witches, and appointed for each area of special commissioners — inquisitors.
In the Bull of Pope Innocent VIII, published Dec. 5, 1484, was, inter alia, the following: "We get the news that in Germany, many people of both sexes are in alliance with the devil, harm to people and livestock, deny the Christian faith …" Therefore, the two professors Theology, Dominicans Ynsistoris and Sprenger, were appointed inquisitors with extensive powers, one — for Upper Germany, the other — for the Rhine countries. They had to "fulfill its obligations in relation to one and all, without distinction of rank and status, and to punish those they deem guilty, according to their crimes: shut up in prison, deprived of life or property. Bay, they will find it necessary to do this, they can do freely and openly calling for help in case of need a secular government. "
In 1489, with the blessing of the Pope and the approval of the theological faculty of Cologne published the book "The Hammer of Witches", which soon became the guidance I dl religious and secular courts. In its first part sets out the doctrine of the devil, his power over humanity, the connection between the witches with the devil about the coven and the various crimes committed by witches. The second part provides guidance on how to deal with the devil in the face of the witches as they identify and pursue, and reveals the different tricks and wiles of the devil, and also talks about the horrors of every kind of ghost. The third part of the "Hammer of Witches" — sudoproizvodstvennye rules, ie guide for judges, with detailed instructions on how to conduct interviews, what are the signs of guilt as to achieve recognition, etc.
The author of this book — the previously mentioned Dominican Sprenger — claimed that one suspected of witchcraft is already a basis for conviction. He has taken no justification suspected, even if there was no evidence of any sort of guilt and torture was not taken out the desired recognition.
"Hammer of Witches" tells witch torture as long as she confessed to the magic acts, and if, in spite of all the torture, it will persist in denying his guilt, then throw it in the dirty out of prison and keep you there until until it either voluntarily or as a result of new torture did not give the right to testify against herself.
In a short time, "Hammer of Witches" three editions and gained a reputation that he was awarded the force of law. Pope John XXXIII recommend this book to the leadership of all the bishops and senior representatives of the secular authorities.
Misfortune to be born a woman
XVI and XVII centuries were the heyday of the persecution of witches. The first place on the scale of the hunt belongs to Germany.
In Elbing in 1590 for eight months have passed 65 processes.
In Brunswick was erected many fires in the area of execution that contemporaries compared this place with pine trees. During the 1590 -1600 period, there were days when witches were burned 10.12 per day.
Magistrate of the city built a special oven Neisse DPJ burning witches, including children from two to four years.
During the 1620-1655 period in a Strasbourg district killed five thousand people.
In Toulouse were the days when burned at the stake for 400 witches in the day.
The existence of supposed witches in every home, in every family. Needed only to identify them, track down, arrest and convict. Errant Inquisitor, or "Commissioner witches," the transition from one place to another and try to collect all information about witches — based on the interrogation of denunciations, rumors.
The suspects were thrown into the pit, "tower witches" and tortured in various ways as long as they do not confess. Vedis processes with surprising haste and complete summary judgment. The defendants were interrogated 8-10 together, and their recognition recorded on one record, and for the sake of brevity, they are not called by name, but by the numbers: № 1, № 2, № 3, and so on. They also burned at the stake by a 8-10.
Already mentioned sadistic inquisitor Pierre de Lancre, counselor of the parliament of Bordeaux, was sent in 1609 to Lamburd (on the border with Spain) for the eradication of witchcraft. In the pursuit of witches this elegant gentleman who loves to care for and compose madrigals, with special "love" was questioned pretty young women, forcing them to talk about the juicy details of various Sabbath and their dealings with the devil.
To a clearer idea of what is happening on the Sabbath, he made the witches dance in front of him completely naked in prison, but, with his hypocrisy was not slow to notice them that their movement indecent and immodest and that the dancing is very criminal. Then sent to the stake women and even girls 13-15 years old.
… In Florence, in the Pitti Palace, is a huge art gallery. On one wall there is a mural depicting a map. The mural was painted just a year before the opening of a perfect great Genoese. And in that place, where later be discovered by Columbus America, the map has the following inscription: "Here the Wild Things Are."
Consciousness of medieval man really was to the extreme bustles with images of various monsters that people of that time seemed totally real beings — live everywhere, not just in some unknown land, but also in close proximity to each and every one, both in the external world and within us.
Perhaps, the main task for a man — try not to let out their own monsters? ..
Author: T. Vedeneeva
Source: "Interesting newspaper. Magic and Mysticism »№ July 2012