Austrian scientist was born in 1905, the year in Presnits village, located on the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire (and now the Czech Republic). He graduated from the High School of techno in Vienna and Graz Technical Institute campus, in which at various times studied such famous persons as Nikola Tesla and Karl Terzaghi. After graduation, Zenger continued to work at the Vienna Technical School usual assistant, which gave him virtually unlimited access to lab equipment and abilities experimentation. In the spring of 1931, the young explorer has decided to concentrate all its efforts on the study of rocketry. Over the next five years, he spent countless experiments with rocket engines, significantly advancing in this direction.
As a result, the test has undergone significant improvement cooling system that existed at the time of liquid rocket engines. Fuel, removing heat circulating around the combustion chamber formed in a five-centimeter field. With this Zenger engines showed particularly great time, reaching seventeen minutes and more than that by the standards of the 30s of the last century was an impressive result. After the publication of his book "Technology rocket flight" in 1933, an Austrian engineer it was known not only in the middle of missile own country, and abroad, including the Russian Alliance.
Eugen experimental engines were small, their thrust was about 20 5 kilograms, but Zenger anticipated future development of missile technology, stating in his works, and what you need may already be creating even more great options. In 1934, he published his first article on the construction and use of a distant rocket bombers act. Of course, after which the German military command took his note. He analyzed the slave theory that the return to the lower layers of air space orbiters to be under tremendous angle frisky for braking and landing in a precisely computed location. Eugen Sanger proposed the concept of a gentle entry into the atmosphere to mitigate the thermal braking modes. But that was not the most exciting in his work. Scientist provided that the use of missiles with a special aerodynamic profile is likely rebound effect of the air layer of the Earth. The device, soaring almost parallel to the lower layers of the atmosphere, with the fuselage, acts as an extra wing, at an altitude of about fifty kilometers was able to theoretically otrekoshetit and go back to the more rarefied strata, reaching 100 meters above sea level. Proparhav some distance, he should again fall into the dense layers and bounce back. Needless to each following a rebound will be more and more "damped" amplitude, but will allow a similar aircraft to overcome the enormous distance. With professional physics calculations assisted by his wife Irene Bredt, engaged in the arithmetic of the Institute, where he worked Zenger. Its calculations showed that the rocket plane to start with the desired weight of 100 tons will be starting speed 6 km per second. Reaching an altitude of 260 km above sea level (in other words, airless places close space) apparatus nine times otprygnet from the lower layers and land safely at least some existing airfield proparhav In total about 20 3-thousand kilometers.
For delivery into orbit was modified which is popular at the time booster "Titan". The pilot phase included a flight in the atmosphere, suborbital launches, orbital flights. Group of pilots of 7 people, which included the commander and coming "Apollo 11" Neil Armstrong spent thousands of hours in the gym, and copies of the X-20. But at the end of 1963, the Secretary of Public Safety Secretary Robert McNamara turned example program. By this time it had set a date for the first flight — July 1966, and developed methods for joining the X-20 has a non-existent space station MOL. After spending more than four hundred million dollars, the U.S. Air Force, along with NASA changed their values in favor of projects Gemini and MOL.
Obviously, the most difficult to conduct such an experience was the development of a mechanism or device is able to give the required initial speed rocket plane. While the need to develop a similar utility or research vessels were not, and the work of the Austrian rocketeer not go further formulas on paper. But in the late '30s in Europe was not relaxed, the war was nearing, and the value of the aviation industry have changed dramatically. The idea of creation long-distance bombers invulnerable for at least some existing tools seemed very nice.
Command of the German air force has found the ability to put at least as much as, or significant damage to the South American towns in the case of the U.S. entry into the war. The Nazis did not have military bases close to America, and they are considered different options bombers distant act. Sanger received a tempting invitation to work on the 3rd Reich and take the lead in implementation of its own project. It is not clear whether he had a choice, but the inventor was, and that prepared the report "Far bomber with a rocket engine," sent out to check the great scholar of Germany.
Similarly, the South Am
erican project were developed different models of the orbital planes and a team of flight test, consisting of four astronauts, including German Titov. In the course of the project were laid database programs such as boron (unmanned orbital rocket plane), the MiG-105.11 and EPOS (experimental manned orbital plane). The program "Spiral" was completely shut down in the middle of the 80s after the start of a more ambitious project "Energy-Buran".
By the time Sanger had already decided that the aircraft should be output to a low gallakticheskuyu orbit with a special monorail mounted with her "sled." Starting acceleration aircraft, fortified by cart and earned the nickname "Silver Bird" (from the German Silbervogel), were given to 30 June rocket engines such as V-2. The entire project is not an Austrian named differently as «Antipoden Bomber», which meant "bomber, capable of flying to the opposite point of the globe." And after the war, the project assigned to other more sonorous names like «Amerika Bomber» or «Ural-Bomber».
About this time in England was frozen project single-stage aerospace systems, launched from a catapult, entitled HOTOL.
Based on their own knowledge on a suborbital aerodynamics, Zenger promptly inserted in the papers outline the external appearance of the future spacecraft. The machine had a pointed nose cone. The sleek fuselage with a tight bottom was doing the role of an additional wing were rather short wings, wedges and tail. In the front half of the fuselage was pressurized cabin for the pilot, and after it went to the load compartment or the bomb bay, calculated from 5 to 10 tons depending on the distance of the flight. Fuel was in a pair of tanks placed on the fuselage in the rear of the plane. Equipment intended for planting the device a three-point landing gear. Missile engine thrust of 100 tons had to run on kerosene and oxygen watery. Apart from him there were two auxiliary at the edges of the base. No defensive armament stuff apparatus not anticipated.
Eugen Sanger also calculated the weight and size desired sub-orbital plane. "Silver Bird" was supposed to be a length of 20 feet eight and weighs 10 tons. Wingspan of fifteen meters. Zenger had assured the German administration that if such weight of the aircraft to overclock it by missile "slide" up to 500 meters per second for twelve seconds is useful to build a three-kilometer rail track. After that explosive bolts had to jettison the "Silver Bird" from the cart, which is gaining altitude, through June 30 seconds from the start included a missile engine. According to the calculations Zenger and his wife came out that the spacecraft can be overclocked up to 6000 meters per second, rising to a height of 260 km.
There were several versions of the use gallakticheskogo aircraft. Starting from Germany, the bomber could have on the descending line of ballistic movements to reach the place of bombing, and later, having flown this point, take the opposite side of the earth. The place of landing spacecraft provided Bimbo Zealand or Australia, which the Nazis, to their deepest regret, no control. And it meant the loss of valuable aircraft and the least valuable pilot. Another mind-blowing case scenario in the air according to Sanger was a reversal of the aircraft after Bombing at 180 degrees with the upcoming return to the start point. In fairness it should be noted that all the same scholar pointed to the existence of a small risk at the turn of the aircraft going at a speed of about 1600 meters a second, due to a breakdown of different devices due to unnecessary congestion. In the main, he was worried about the fact that this maneuver will claim tremendous unforeseen fuel costs. And that was not all. Formula Austrian rocketeer showed that if the spacecraft reaches 7,000 meters during acceleration in a second with a height of the first peak of 280 km above the Earth, orbit the planet is likely to return the unit to a place after the start of the ninth rebound. The time it took nothing at all — 3 hours 40 minutes.
All flight routes have been calculated accurately enough, but there was one hitch. Reset bomb in flight around the Earth spaceship could take place only in areas touching the aircraft dense layers of the atmosphere. And they have been defined in advance. And, obviously, far away is not always at these places were the principal strategic points. To be clear, the large abundance of targets located in the Urals, Siberia, the Far East and the Americas, was likely only to bomb New-york. In various articles can meet the information that a "gift" for New York Nazis were preparing a special, radioactive, similar to the later developed a "dirty bomb." Whether this is true or a myth for sure it is not clear.
Also there are stories that Russian troops were discovered the remains of the destroyed buildings powerful, fully able to assess the number of professionals are the initial steps of building a catapult project «Silbervogel».
After the war, Eugen Sanger was captured by the Allies and, as some other German scientists went to work in France. After a while, he was transferred to the UK, and later in Switzerland and, in the end, in 1957, he returned to Berlin, where he spent the remaining seven years. All recent years as a physicist before working on the rocket engines, referring to the recent theory of mind-boggling to create thrust by the efflux of photons. Despite the fact that there was no ability to fulfill its smallest project, the scientist has been recognized in the scientific community. In 1950, he was awarded the title of President of the International Academy of Astronautics. Stalin offered Zenger move to Russian Alliance and its work after a couple of years after the war, served as the massive building programs of the orbital planes deployed in the USSR and the USA.
According to our calculations checks Bredt and Zenger were almost all wrong because of the lack of the necessary aerodynamic, gas-kinetic and gas flame of knowledge. Until now, it is not clear how the scientist thought (and thought about it at all) fight during ground breaking up with a variety of negative effects, which would have appeared at the time of breaking the sound barrier. And if his rocket plane flew all the same, it would necessarily destroyed by overheating at first contact with the atmosphere due to the lack of modern thermal screens. A lack of on-board computers made feasible the correct calculation of the trajectory entry into the atmosphere. But like many science fiction writers, Zenger could imagine in what direction will develop rocket technology after many years. Only in 1981, the year of the vertically launched the first spacecraft, "Space Shuttle", which was the second stage of the launch vehicle. Austrian scientist to imagine for themselves what could this would have required engines, materials, methods, navigation and control.
The unusual and paradoxical nature of similar stories of the creation and use of aviation development in the Third Reich concluded that the unique features in their flying machines, and if have any impact on the course and outcome of the war, only that used large, limited to the criteria of wartime human and material resources, which can be izderzhat with even greater efficiency.