November 10, 2011 19:53
For centuries, people learn their own brain, but still seems to know less about him than about the cosmos. How soon before the end of the science will solve all the mysteries of gray matter? When we find out exactly how thoughts are born, there is creativity, inspiration comes? To this question is not the answer outstanding scientists.
However, as many neuroscientists, the first (and so far only) real breakthrough in the study of the brain has already occurred 25 years ago, when the Soviet Union was the first to use a method of long-term implantation of electrodes into the brain. In the mid 80's in direct contact with the brain began to work Academician Natalya spondylitis — a neuroscientist with a worldwide reputation, the granddaughter of the world-famous physiologist, psychiatrist and neurologist Vladimir Bekhterev.
She worked on "brainstorming" over half a century (including more than 16 years — at the post of the supervisor of the Institute of Human Brain of RAS in St. Petersburg) and knew about the labyrinths of thought, more than any other scientist in the world. Believed that the brain — is a living creature. In the chapter "Through the Looking Glass" of his book "The Magic of the brain and the labyrinths of life," wrote that it was his duty to examine all the inexplicable associated with thinking. It seemed that in his later years, she was two steps from the clues. What she was able to learn and understand?
Being in the being
"The question of questions: what is the brain? Nobel laureate physiologist Eccles argued that the brain — a receptor by which the soul perceives the world. First I listened to the speech at the session of UNESCO Eccles in 1984 and thought, what nonsense! All this seemed crazy, the concept of "soul" to me then was beyond science. But the more I studied the brain, the more often remembered Eccles.
I want to believe that the brain — not only the receptor. I often think of the brain as if he were a single body, as if being in the being. Sometimes it amazes me. If he is not the receptor, then what? It seems that we can approach to the solution when the code of intellectual study of brain activity, that is podsmotrena that occurs in areas of the brain related to thinking and creativity. I'm thinking this: the brain absorbs information, processes it and make a decision — that's understandable. But sometimes a person gets ready wording like out of nowhere. Typically, this occurs on a level emotional background, not too much joy or sadness, but not calm. An optimum level of active wakefulness. What is this? This is the insight. But what is the mechanism? "
Inspiration — a gift from above?
"The Phenomenon of enlightenment know all the people involved creativity. And not only creativity: this is not enough learning ability often plays a crucial role in any business. And what is it due? It turns out that the brain is the "error detector" — a block of self-preservation and protection, such as fuses. The brain protects itself from being a barrage of negative emotions did not bring it all. When I realized this, I experienced a feeling that has found a pearl. Why such an analogy? I love Steinbeck's novel "The Pearl". Her characters, divers, say to find standing gem to want it, but not too much. A special state of consciousness, and it is, it comes and insight.
Could this be the result of a brain? Yes, it can. But I do not very well aware of how. Because it was too beautiful and perfect language that we have, as it were from the outside. I seriously took up the study of creativity, inspiration, insight, breakthrough — when the idea appears as if from nowhere. At this point there are two hypotheses: in the moment of insight brain works as the perfect destination. But then it must be recognized that the information received from the outside — from space or from another dimension. This is still unprovable. And you can say that the brain has created his own ideal and "a rush." But be that as it may, inspiration — it is also the pearl of consciousness, a priceless gift. Remember Archimedes and his "Eureka"? I experienced it myself, twice in the life of the formula theory came to me that way.
I thought: this detector — good or bad for creativity? It contributes to the flight of creative thought or discourage it? At first I thought he was, of course, is just to get in the way. Creativity — always to create something new, and the detector seems to compare it something with the matrix and, if discrepancies, take action, that is, when you are ready to soar, however curbed: do not go there, stop, no end of trouble ! But now I think it might help, so we do not waste energy on reinventing the wheel.
What it did for the state in which to fall, that you lit up? Brainstorming? Detachment? A kind of trance, when you can take an inner voice or the voice over? I would like to answer in the multiplication table: "For inspiration require activation of specific areas of the brain, including, probably, the 39 th and 40 th of fields Brodmanu." But if you do not get into such a jungle, then you just should not be too excited, or, on the contrary, are indifferent. Need a little bit of detachment and yet long focus on the problem. And then, perhaps, the brain include hidden reserves.
Masters of Culture describes the time of creation thus: "I started to do, and awoke two hours later." What happens in the meantime? It's all about the emotional intensity. This happens in the time of trouble. Sometimes, people will see something terrible — for example, signs of terminal illness in a loved one. Because of the strong shock, he can forget about it, and will remain a vague sense that something has happened. So it is with creativity. Remember, as Pushkin said, when he wrote of "Eugene Onegin": "What is wrong with me threw it Tatyana? She married! .. "In addition, I am struck by the defense mechanisms in the brain of the actors, which allow them to survive the onslaught of the storm of emotions.
And again, no insight is no genius. Scientists have sought to explain the phenomenon of genius. They even wanted to create in the Moscow Institute for Brain Research gifted people in their lifetime. But neither then nor now no different from the genius of the common man was not found. I personally think that this is a special chemistry of the brain. This "anomaly" is likely to non-inherited. "
Consciousness and the soul — not the same thing
"Is there a soul? If so, what is it? Something permeates the whole body, which do not interfere with no walls or doors or ceilings. Soul, for lack of better wording, called, for example, and that seemed to go out of the body when a person dies.
Where is the place of the soul — the brain, spinal cord, heart, stomach? This would all be guesswork, who would you not answer. You can say, "the whole body" or "out of the body, somewhere near." I think that this substance is not the right place, if it is, then the whole body.
"Consciousness" and "soul" are not synonyms for me. There are many definitions of consciousness, the other one is worse. Fit this: "awareness of self in the world around." When a man comes to his senses after fainting, first, that he begins to understand — there are a number that is, except himself. While unconscious brain also receives information. Sometimes patients, waking up, talk about what they could not see. And the soul: What is the soul, I do not know. Even tried to weigh the soul — some very small programs obtained. I do not really believe in it. When a person dies, his body is thousands of processes. Maybe it's just losing weight? Prove that it is the soul flew off, it is impossible.
Is it possible to say exactly where our consciousness? In the brain? Or not? Consciousness — a phenomenon of the brain, although it is very dependent on the condition of the body. You can deprive a person of consciousness, his two fingers to pinch the neck artery, blood flow change, but it is very dangerous. This is a result of the activity, I would say — life of the brain, so precisely. When you wake up at the same moment come to mind. Comes to life once the whole body, as if at the same time includes all the lights. "
"Scary is not death, but dying"
"Is there life after death? I know one thing: clinical death — this is not a failure, not a temporary oblivion, people in these moments alive. What exactly happens to the brain and the mind? I think the brain does not die when the vessels in six minutes is not received oxygen, and at the moment when it finally starts flowing. All the products are not very perfect metabolism piled on the brain and achieve it. I worked for a time in the intensive care unit of the Military Medical Academy and watched as it happens. The most terrible period — when doctors derive rights from the critical state, and return to life.
Some cases of visions and returns after clinical death seem to me convincing. They are so beautiful! On a doctor told me Andrey Gnezdilov, he then worked in a hospice. Once during the operation, he was watching a patient who survived clinical death and then, waking, told an unusual dream. This dream Gnezdilov be confirmed. Indeed, the woman described situation occurred far away from the operating room, and all the parts are aligned.
But this is not always the case. When the first boom in the study of the phenomenon of life after death, at a meeting of the President of the Academy of Medical Sciences Blokhin said Academician Arutyunov, who twice experienced clinical death, what he did see. Arutyunov said, "only a black hole." What is it? He saw it all, but I forgot? Or in fact there was nothing? What is it — the phenomenon of a dying brain? It's only suitable for clinical death. As for biological — that there's really really no one returned. Although some clergymen servants, particularly in Seraphim Rose, and there is evidence of such returns.
Yes, it is possible that post-death visions — just the result of the dying brain. But why do we sometimes see others as if from the outside? It is possible that in the extreme moments in the brain include not only the usual mechanisms of vision, but also the mechanisms of the holographic nature. For example, at birth: according to our research, a few percent of pregnant women, too, is condition, as if the soul escapes. Parous women feel out of the body, watching from the sidelines. And at that time did not feel pain. I do not know what it is — a brief clinical death or phenomenon associated with the brain. More like the latter.
All people have a fear of death. They say that the fear of death out much worse than herself. Jack London is a story about a man who wanted to steal a dog team. The dogs have bitten him, the man bled to death. Before that, said: "People lied death." Not afraid of death and dying. "
Telepathy is dangerous?
"Unfortunately, during my research I could not, as they say, to catch the idea. The most advanced equipment in the Institute of the brain is not able to anything here neither confirm nor deny. Need other methods and devices, they have not yet been developed. Today, we can judge the state of active points of the brain. In the brain during specific tests activate certain areas. We can say that in these areas there is active work — for example, creative. But to see the idea, we must at least extend from the brain information about the dynamics of impulse activity of neurons and decode them. While that is not feasible. Yes, certain sections of the brain are related to creativity. But what exactly is going on? This is a mystery.
The eternal question: is there a telepathy? I can say one thing to read the thoughts of others is dangerous! Society of mind reading is unprofitable. This is a survival instinct. If all people learn to read other people's thoughts, life in society stops. If this phenomenon and there, over time it would fade away. Who are just trying to deal with any telepathy! To us came to college a lot of "crazy." Nothing is confirmed. Although there are striking coincidences — such as when the mother felt a great distance, that with their children is something tragic. I think that this relationship is formed in the womb.
Dream — a dream place?
Another mystery of the brain — dreams. The biggest mystery to me seems very fact that we sleep. I think that when that when our planet to grow roots, it is advantageous to sleep at night. So we do — out of habit. In the brain, a lot of interchangeable items. Brain could get so as not to sleep? I think so. For example, dolphins sleep by turns left and right hemispheres. They say that there are people who do not sleep.
What can explain the dreams to the continuation and similar oddities? I do not need to attract here the belief in reincarnation — reincarnation, that we have all seen it in some other lives. This phenomenon has not been proven by science. Suppose you are not the first time a very good dream, but a strange place, for example the city. Most likely, the fabulous city of dreams are formed in the brain under the influence of books, movies, become a kind of permanent place of dreams. We are drawn to something not yet experienced in life, but very good.
Or prophetic dreams: rare, but it happens. One is forced to reflect: sleep in the arm — is to get information from the outside, anticipating the future, or just a coincidence? Calculate how much a person sees life dreams? Endless. Sometimes thousands a year. And it turns out these prophetic Well, one, two. The theory of probability. Although he lived a monk Abel, who predicted the future of the royal families, and Michel Nostradamus and other prophets. How about that? Up — I do not know. I myself two weeks before the event with all the details dreamed the death of my mother.
I am asked, fatal love, fate, predestination, suicidal tendencies, inspiration as the peak of creativity, intuition, clairvoyance, prophetic dreams — what is it? Only if the product of the brain? My answer is: not just the brain. And then think for yourself. "
NP Bekhterev was born in Leningrad in 1924. Parents were repressed father, an engineer and inventor Peter Bekhterev, executed in 1938 as an enemy of the people, and his mother, a doctor Zinaida spondylitis, sent to the camp. Natalia spondylitis itself was in an orphanage. During the war, she lived in the besieged Leningrad.
She graduated from the 1st Medical Institute. Pavlova. In 1981, elected to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. From 1990 — the scientific director of the Institute of Human Brain of RAS (son, Svyatoslav Medvedev, professor, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, led the institution to this day). In the 90's, was elected academician of Russian Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences, is an honorary member of dozens of international scientific societies. Author of over 400 scientific papers. Awarded the USSR State Prize in Science. She was awarded the Order of Lenin, the Red Banner of Labor, "For Services to the Fatherland» III degree and others.
She died in 2008 in Hamburg, Germany at the age of 83 years. She was buried in the cemetery in Komarovo.
Natalia spondylitis. The Magic Brain
"The fate of Natalia Petrovna Behterevoj was full of passion — ordinary human, incredible creative power, as well as those that are called" biblical. " Now that death has already completed the outline of her life, clearly show through the scale and significance of this outstanding personality.
History will immortalize Bekhterev as the great Russian neurophysiologist XX-XI centuries, managed to land on the nearest approach to the mystery of the human brain and thereby gain worldwide fame. She made in 1400 grams of gray matter, which serves people the tools of learning about the world, to reveal more of their secrets. Study is inexplicable in the human brain scientist tried every possible way, "not the balls of paranormal phenomena associated with thinking," as she said in the book "The Magic of the brain and the maze of life."
Bekhterev called "psychic", dedicated to the mystery of the "looking glass." But she protested the assessment and all, is translated into scientific knowledge. Perhaps it is the "feminine", a special flair and imagination inherent in woman's soul, helped her achieve the perfect balance with the perfect "man's" logic, it applies to the art of the researcher.
One academic was asked, is there any difference in the male and female brain? She replied that she is, and backed up his words statistics: there are few women of great composers, great artists, great philosophers, and great scholars of women not so much. But her own brain clearly distinguishes that "special biochemistry", which, according to her theory, characterized by a talented and brilliant people.
Natalia Bekhterev believed that this "special chemistry" of the brain — Non-inherited. But she, the granddaughter of the famous Academician NP Spondylitis, a scientist who laid the foundation of basic research in the physiology of the brain, yet inherited his grandfather's passion for neurophysiology. However, in her girlhood dream of opera — her mezzo-soprano reassuring professionals. But fate early and roughly broken: in the years of repression, shot his father, mother — was sent to the camps. The children in the orphanage were spondylitis. This cruel reality still gave one positive effect: the personality Natalia ever formed an independent, free spirit, able to fight and defend their position, their own opinions. In union with the will, bestowed by nature, these qualities of character has helped Behterevoj defend the interests of the business.
In the siege of Leningrad orphanage inmate worked in the hospital, where he stuck with medicine. Next — Diploma Medical Institute early career, rapid scientific "flight" from the very first steps.
For understanding brain Natalia spondylitis polyphony used all possibilities of human penetration into the Truth — the knowledge, experience, imagination, intuition, and even a "non-scientific" instrument "soul." She wanted to believe that the brain — is not easy and not only the "receptor", which responds to the outside world, process information and make decisions. She studied the brains of healthy and diseased human brain codes of human mental activity, hypnosis, amnesia, effects on the brain of drugs and psychotropic substances. Natalia Behterevoj belong discoveries in the mechanisms of thinking, memory, emotions, and organization of the human brain. A first in the world using the method of long-term implantation of electrodes into the brain.
There were things that intrigued her personality in particular: that is genius, madness, intuition, dreams, depends on whether the brain love?
Also drew mystery of the "phenomenon of insight" — getting ready phrase "out of nowhere." And not without reason: it is the most happening and be illuminated by the grace of a spark "ideas out of nowhere" that was implemented into a living scientific thought.
Bekhterev many survived, perehoronila favorite, and they were always her the dream, the reality. In the book, left us, she writes that after the death of her husband saw in his eyes in the portrait shed tears. Of course, such a picture could cause overwrought nerves, experienced grief. But her lines, of course, you believe. And why should it, spondylitis, lie …