For a long time, before the invention of the French guillotine, and the Yankees electronic chair as a weapon of execution, ancient Greeks were forced criminals sentenced to death to drink the cup of hemlock extract (Latin Cicuta virosa L.) or other plant called hemlock spotty (lat.Conium maculatum) .
In fact, beginning in the first poisonous plant is tsikutoksin causing death through a disorder of the central nervous system, and in the 2nd — the substance coniine, paralyzing motor nerves. Man poisoned by these plants die in horrible agony.
Curiously, hemlock and hemlock spotted in ancient Greece were considered "state poisons." The introduction of other types of fatal poisoning forbidden. Even the good people who have decided for whatever reason to leave the sublunary world, committed to use hemlock. The stately Greek philosopher Socrates and the famous Athenian general and politician Phocion were poisoned hemlock spotty. (For a long time it was thought that at least the last Socrates was poisoned hemlock).
But for the Chinese kings court alchemists prepared special deadly drugs on the basis of toxic substances snakes and insects. It was believed that accepted the destruction of such beverages will acquire prosperity beyond the grave.
Many eastern European rulers and lords kept at myself for doctors and healers not only for healing, and in order to in the event that they could prepare for opponents of the poison and the antidote for them if their enemies chance of overtaking.
Medieval Jewish doctor and philosopher Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon wrote to order the Egyptian ruler al-Malik al-Abdullah of scientific work "On poisons and antidotes."
Grass, smother, infects …
In the XX century began the creation of industrial chemical and bacteriological weapons. First special was able to achieve success in Germany, the first to use in World War I chemical warfare gases. Later poison gas used Japanese troops in China and French Indochina. And this despite the fact that the June 17, 1925 in Geneva, 48 countries signed the "Protocol prohibiting the introduction in war of asphyxiating, poisonous and other similar gases, and of bacteriological methods."
It is logical that in 1972, international organizations have developed a new document — the "Declaration on the prohibition of production and the introduction of chemical and biological weapons." In the introduction to the "Declaration" states: "For the sake of the interests of the world's population, we declare to ban the development and implementation of all kinds of chemical weapons." But as chemical and biological weapon does not require accumulation of significant quantities. Even small doses it can cause large areas of infection. This is particularly true regarding gas and bio attacks which may be momentary. For example, the Japanese cult "Aum Shinrikyo" twice used the nerve gas — first in the town of Matsumoto (Nagano Prefecture) in September 1994 and in March of next year in the Tokyo subway.
In this context is not clear why most of the nations of the world remains in charge of the development of vaccines and microbicides antihimicheskih antidotes. After the synthesis of similar substances designed to rescue human life is impossible without a specific study of pathogens unsafe diseases and toxic substances. So Makar appears a vicious circle, for unsafe bacteria and toxic substances are always present in those or other laboratories. And the use of these substances, so to speak, for its original purpose hardest to keep secret services.
British historian Christopher Andrew's book "The Secret. Only the President, "published in 1994, tells of the CIA attempts to poison the first Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo (now Zaire), Patrice Lumumba. But local political adversaries reached Lumuby earlier and arresting him, just executed in 1961. Using the handles, and to shoot with poisoned bullets, South American intelligence tried to cope with the Cuban favorite of Fidel Castro.
BEFORE "coast" SAIL is not necessary
In the Republic of South Africa (South Africa), Dr Wouter Basson, who had, by the way, the rank of brigadier general in the early 80-ies of the last century led the super-secret project "Beach" the development and use of chemical and bacteriological weapons against the adherents of the African state Congress (ANC). Under the "Beach" in force from 1982 to 1992 year, South Africa were produced tons of drugs, psychotropic substances and muscle relaxants — means causing muscle relaxation. One can not say that muscle relaxants — almost perfect murder weapon disguised as a "sudden cardiac arrest" or "paralysis of the lungs." Under the project "Beach" in Western Europe and the United States was eliminated a lot of the enemies of apartheid. Recently the fall of the snow-white minority in South Africa, researchers involved in the project "The Coast", said the synthesis of substances possessing unusual qualities. If you believe this message, it did yuarovtsy tablet capable of converting pure white man in black. With the help of these pills secret services of the then South Africa had hoped smuggle own agents (natural, pure white) in a series of anti-government parties and movements made by blacks.
In the laboratories of "Shores" were made by the poisoned shirt. Fiber cloth impregnated with poison on contact with the skin causing thrombosis of blood vessels. A similar destruction by seemed quite natural. Poison T-shirt was presented as a gift to one of the prominent figures of the ANC. Suspecting nothing, he gave a gift to a friend, who soon died. After coming to power of the ANC in South Africa and a number of Wouter Basson "researchers", "Shore" were on trial.
According to the Israeli newspaper "Haaretz" Israel operates one of the largest of professionals in the field of toxicology Dr. Ken Alibeyov. He was born in Kazakhstan in 1950, graduated from the Faculty of Military Medicine. For more than 30 years, Dr. Alibeyov doing research in the field of microbiology. Back in the USSR, he defended his thesis for the degree of the candidate, and then the doctors of science, offering the vaccine, by which protection is likely Shadow smallpox and tularemia bacilli in the case of these diseases as biological weapons.
In the book "Biological Threat" written by Dr. Alibekov together with journalist Stephen Gendelmanom states that in the U.S. the creation of chemical and biological weapons intensively engaged CIA department, run by William Patrick. Indeed, in an interview with the newspaper "Haaretz" Patrick did not hide the fact that on the basis of the fort Detriks (Maryland), he was personally involved in the test bombs containing deadly germs on monkeys
and other animals.
In Israel, all the information about the work in the field of chemical and biological weapons are classified. But first, 50s Russian agent Marcus Klingberg could seep into the center of a top-secret chemical and biological research (TSHBI) in the village of Nes Ziona, located near Tel Aviv. It is significant that the Centre from time to time called the Institute of Military Medicine. Klingberg, a native of Warsaw, inspired by socialist ideas, in 1939 he moved to Belarus, where he studied for three years at the medical department of the Minsk Institute. In the first days of a Russian war majestically Klingberg volunteered for the front. After a languid injured on the front line began service in the medical unit. Rose to the rank of captain. Apparently, at the end of the war he was recruited by Russian intelligence and her job immigrated to Israel. Promised Land Klingberg successful career so that he is over 30 years old (!) Was the Deputy Director TSHBI. Certainly, Russian agent was a professional scientist for 10's of his books and hundreds of articles have received worldwide recognition. In 1983, the Shin Bet (Israel's General Security Service, practically counterintelligence), after long years of surveillance unveiled Klingberg. He was sentenced to indefinite detention, which soon changed to a 20-year-old. In 1998, the Supreme Tribunal of Israel freed early Klingberg in connection with the state of his health.
Klingberg said Russian intelligence? No reliable data are not available, but he knew a lot of Russian spy. For example, he could tell the Poisons …
FAILURE Operatives "Mossad"
September 25, 1997 at the entrance to the consulate Palestinian terrorist organization Hamas in Amman two unknown awaited political leader Khaled Mashaal this organization. When it occurs is one of the unknown approached the Palestinian and pinned to the back of his head a certain device. Mashaal yelled and lost consciousness. At the cry ran Jordanian guard. They grabbed the unknown that when checking the agents were "Mossad" (Israeli external intelligence), acting under the cover of fake Canadian passports. This story could not cause a crisis in relations between Israel and Jordan. The then Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had to fulfill the demand of the then Jordanian throne of King Hussein and the release contained in the moment in Israel's spiritual bullpen favorite Hamas Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, the Israelis later liquidated. Moreover, at the request of the Jordanians "Mossad" sent to Amman group of Israeli doctors with the antidote. Mashaal's life was saved. Member of Knesset (Israeli Parliament) of the party "Labor" ("Work") Dani Yatom, last in those days is not very long head of the "Mossad", recalls: "We thought it was poison — it is a sturdy, quiet, inconspicuous … If we had to throw the corpse with traces of bullets, this has inevitably led to an investigation and unneeded questions. " Against the backdrop of truly nightmarish history of the use of toxic substances against politicians and municipal husbands favorites unsafe groups, impersonators around the world wanders a lot of rumors and legends about the poisoning. Russian monarchists some reason were not able to poison in 1916, Grigory Rasputin. He had to shoot him. Rasputin nearly declared "persona particularly resistant to poisons." Traditional product, has long been used for poisoning, can be considered as mushrooms. Naturally, mushroom dishes can be poisoned and the case of ignorance. That is one side. But on the other hand, are in some mushrooms are poisonous substances such as muscarinic, and miotsin orelanin not only killed on the spot. Many fungal toxins act as galyutsinaty and completely healthy people, taste the edible fungi or decoction prepared based on them, behave like dying from the highest temperature or acute cardiac deficiency.
"Mushrooms" DO NOT WANT?
Noteworthy that the eminent ancient Roman poisoner Locust preparing their deadly drug specifically mushrooms. One of her potions has been poisoned and the governor Claudius. By the way, in ancient Rome poison was the main instrument that was used in the court intrigues. We predecessor Claudius, Caligula's ruler, after the death found a casket full to capacity different poisonous substances. When by order of Claudius this chest thrown into the sea, the waves washed ashore long poisoned fish.
It is clear that the disposal of special services are not only the "mushrooms". The most awesome, so called subversive poison — is iron pentacarbonyl, which is considered full-time as opposed to the poison dioxin crippling appearance, but rarely leads to death. Pentacarbonyl iron poisoning is similar to carbon monoxide poisoning, while in humans, dioxins, relating to man-made poisons is actinic skin pigmentation, and its sudden formation of acne. Iron pentacarbonyl can seep into the body through the skin. It was assumed that this poison in February 2005, was poisoned Georgian Prime Minister Zurab Zhvania, but the investigation substantiate that due to a faulty furnace, and he who was with him in the same room with each asphyxiated by carbon monoxide.
Radioactive polonium-210 be used as a "serial" poison intelligence can not. Harmless dose for humans is only seven picograms (a picogram is one trillionth of a gram). Even a speck of dust that gets into the lungs, is deadly to humans. In March 2002, in the mountains of Chechnya, was killed by poisoning international terrorist Amir al Khattab. Russian intelligence operatives, apparently poisoned and several other favorites of Chechen militants. In principle, the "classic" poison the majority of intelligence is ricin, a lethal dose is 80 times less than the dose of potassium cyanide.
Poisons out of sight
But society as a whole has no information about combat poisons that are being developed in laboratories hidden in almost all countries of the world. At present, none of the toxic substances not declared unconventional weapon. The public looks at poison about the same as it was 100 years ago back.