3 January 2012 16:58
In the question of the origin of the universe is still no clarity, despite the enormous knowledge accumulated by mankind. The most common version now — the so-called theory of the Big Bang.
All came from a tiny point?
70 years ago, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that the galaxies are in the red part of the spectrum. This, according to the "Doppler effect", meaning that they move away from each other. And the light from more distant galaxies "krasnee" of light from closer, which indicated that far less speed. Picture of the expansion of huge masses of matter is strikingly similar to the picture of the explosion. Then proposed a theory of the Big Bang.
It is estimated that this occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. By the time of the explosion the universe is a "point" size 10-33 cm. The length of the current universe as astronomers estimated at 156 billion light-years (compared to a "point" as many times smaller than a proton — the nucleus of the hydrogen atom, the number of times the proton itself smaller than the Moon).
The substance in the "point" was extremely hot, and then the explosion appeared a lot of light quanta. Of course, over time, cool down, and scatters photons emerging space, but the echoes of the Big Bang should have been preserved until today.
The first confirmation of the explosion came in 1964, when American astronomers R. A. Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic background electromagnetic radiation with a temperature of about 3 ° Kelvin (-270 ° C). This discovery, surprise for the scientists was seen in favor of the Big Bang.
So, from gradually expands in all directions superhot cloud of subatomic particles gradually began to form atoms, matter, planets, stars, galaxies, and finally got the life. The universe is still expanding, and who knows how long it will last. Perhaps someday it will reach its limit.
The show did not
There is another theory of the origin of the universe. According to her, the entire universe, life and man is the result of intelligent creative act, carried out by some Creator and Sustainer, the nature of which is incomprehensible by the human mind. Materialists tend to ridicule the theory, but as it in one form or another believes half of humanity, we can not get around to it in silence.
Explaining the origin of the universe and of man with mechanistic position, treating the universe as a product of matter, whose development is subject to objective laws of nature, the proponents of rationalism, as a rule, reject non-physical factors. Especially when it comes to the existence of a World or Universal Mind, as it is "unscientific." Research should be considered as something that can be described by equations. But the problem is precisely in the fact that none of the scenarios of the universe offered by supporters of the Big Bang theory can not be described mathematically and physically.
The initial state of the universe — the "point" of infinitely small size with infinite density and infinitely high temperatures — beyond matematicheskoylogiki and does not give a formal description. So this is nothing certain can be said here and calculations fail. Therefore, the present state of the universe received among scientists called "phenomenon".
"Phenomenon" — the main puzzle
The Big Bang theory possible to answer many of the questions facing the cosmology, but, unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, it also raised a number of new ones. In particular, what was before the Big Bang? Which led to the initial heating of the universe to unimaginable temperatures above 1032 degrees Kelvin? Why the universe is remarkably homogeneous, as with any substance explosion scatters in different directions unevenly?
But the main mystery — is, of course, the "phenomenon." Do not know where it comes from, how to form. In the scientific and popular press theme "phenomenon" is usually omitted in general and in specialized scientific publications written about him as a thing invalid from a scientific point of view. Stephen Hawking, the world-renowned scholar and professor at Cambridge University, and George FR Ellis, a professor of mathematics at the University of Cape Town, in his book "The long scale structure of space-time" as straight and say, "we have achieved the results support the concept that universe came into a finite number of years ago. However, the starting point of the theory of the universe in the Big Bang — the so-called "phenomenon" — is beyond the known laws of physics. "
At the same time, we must remember that the problem of the "phenomenon" — is only part of a much larger problem, the problem of the source of the initial state of the universe. In other words, if the universe was initially compressed to a point, which led her to this state?
The universe is "pulsing"?
In an attempt to circumvent the problem of the "phenomenon", some scientists suggest other hypotheses. One of them — the theory of "pulsating universe." According to it, the universe is infinite time and time again that shrinks to a point, it expands to a certain limits. This universe has no beginning and no end, there is only expansion-contraction cycles. The authors of the hypothesis that the universe has always existed, thereby removing the issue seems to be the "beginning of the world."
But the fact is that no one has not provided a satisfactory explanation of the mechanism of pulsation. Why does it occur? What causes is? Nobel Prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg in his book "The First Three Minutes" indicates that each time a ripple in the universe must necessarily increase the value of the ratio of photons to the number of nucleons, which leads to the extinction of the new ripple. Weinberg concludes that, therefore, the number of cycles of the universe ripple of course, but then at some point they must stop. Therefore, "the throbbing universe" has an end, and therefore has a beginning.
Another theory of the universe — a theory of "white holes", or quasars, which are "spit" out of whole galaxies themselves.
It is also interesting theory of "wormholes" or "space channel". The thought of them was first advanced in 1962 by the American physicist John Wheeler in his book "geometrodynamics", in which the researcher to formulate possible nadprostranstvennyh, unusually fast intergalactic travel. Some versions of the concept of "space channel" consider the possibility of moving through them in the past and the future, and to other universes and dimensions.
Incomprehensible Creator's plan
Simultaneously in scientific publications are increasingly hit by indirect or direct recognition of the existence of supernatural forces outside the control of science. An increasing number of scientists, including prominent mathematicians and theoretical physicists, who tend to assume the existence of a Demiurge, or the Supreme Mind.
Famous Soviet scientist, PhD, physicist and mathematician O. Tupitsyn mathematically proved that the universe, and with it, and the man who created the Mind is infinitely more powerful than a human. "It is indisputable that life, including reasonable — it is always a very orderly process — wrote OV Tupitsyn. — The basis of life is the order of the system of laws by which matter moves. Death — is, however, confusion, chaos, and, as a consequence, the destruction of matter. Without outside influence, and impact sound and purposeful, no order is impossible — there is a process of destruction, is death. Without understanding this, and therefore, without recognition of the Creator science ideas never come discover the root cause of the universe, which arose as a result of the foremothers strictly ordered processes or, as they are called physics, fundamental laws. Fundamental — so fundamental and immutable, without which the existence of the world in general would be impossible. "
According to scientific views, the original "point" was not to be neither space nor time. They appeared only at the moment of the Big Bang. Before him, there was only a tiny "point" is located, strictly speaking, no one knows where. This "point" is not known what are the already laid the whole of our world, with all its fundamental laws and constants, future stars and planets, life and man.
Perhaps the "dot" in the hands of the Creator in some other, parallel world. And the Creator set in motion a mechanism for creating a new universe. Perhaps, for a creator does not exist space and time. He is able to simultaneously observe all the events from the beginning to the end of the world. He knows everything, what was and what will be in our universe, which was created with incredible for us to.
But modern man, especially educated in atheism, it is difficult to include the Creator in his world. So we have to believe in the "ripple", "space channel" and "white hole."