Guns in the general system of the Red Army in the Russian war stateliness

During the second world war fraction of infantry armed with machine guns to change. Decreased production of self-loading rifles, and small effective range of fire of submachine guns have become a prerequisite for increasing the value of machine guns in action at medium (up to 1 sq m) and large (up to 2 sq m) ranges. Rifle company in July 1941, had six machine guns across the state, in July 1942 — 12 manual (with all this in the company of German — 12 single or light machine guns), in July 1943 — an easel and 18 machine guns, in December 1944 year — 2 easel and 12 machine guns. In other words, during the war, the number of guns has more than doubled. The decrease by the end of the war bit of light machine guns due to the increasing number of mortars and machine pistols. By the end of the war infantry regiment had 2,398 people on hand 108, and 54 machine guns (for comparison, an infantry regiment of Germany for 2000 was 107 people, and 24 hand-held machine guns).

Guns in the general system of the Red Army in World War II
"Tachanka" 1943 — gun "Maxim" arr. 1941 on the car, "Willis"

The total number of guns produced during the second World War:
— II half of 1941 — 106,200 units. (During the evacuation of the Tula Arms Factory);
— I half of 1942 — 134,100 units. (Factory number 526 (Stalin) Meet the DP, the factory number 524 (Izhevsk) — "Maxim" in the factory number 54 (Chrysostom) — "Max", the Tula Engineering Plant at this time resumed the creation of "Maxim" in g . Kuibyshev creation of the ANC was conducted);
— II half of 1942 — 222,000 units.;
— I half of 1943 — 236,000 units.;
— II half of 1943 — 222,500 units. (Factory number 2 (Carpets) established the creation of an SH-43);
— I half of 1944 — 230,500 units. (Factory number 54 (Chrysostom) also established the creation of an SH-43);
— II half of 1944 — 208600 units.;
— I half of 1945 — 117,500 units.

In the Soviet armed forces during the war, was delivered subsequent number of machine guns (including guns from the pre-war supplies, as the Lend-Lease)
II half of 1941 — 45300 manual, 8400, easel, 1400 mnogokalibernyh;
1942 year — 172800 manual, 58000 easel, 7400 mnogokalibernyh;
1943 — 250200 manual, easel 90500, 14400 mnogokalibernyh;
1944 — 179700 manual, easel 89900, 14800 mnogokalibernyh;
I half of 1945 — 14500 manual, 10800 easel, 7300 mnogokalibernyh.

If taken as 100% in the number of guns of the Red Army on January 1, 1942, then on January 1, 1943 the number of sub-machine guns and rifles will be 180% and on January 1, 1944 — 280%, machine guns — 210% and 450%, respectively. In defense, the average density of small-arms fire increased from 1.2-1.6 rounds per minute per meter in the first period of the war to 9-12 rounds per minute in the 3rd period. With all the depth of a solid small fire was reduced to 200 meters, because the main contribution comes from pistols, machine guns.

In the army in the Russian Union during the second world war took place:
22.06.1941 year — 170400 light machine guns, heavy machine-76300, 2200 mnogokalibernyh;
01.01.1942 year — 81,000 light machine guns, heavy machine-30000, 2200 mnogokalibernyh;
01.01.1943 year — 177100 light machine guns, heavy machine-63500, 4700 mnogokalibernyh;
01.01.1944 year — 344500 light machine guns, heavy machine-133000, 18200 mnogokalibernyh;
01.01.1945 year — 418100 light machine guns, heavy machine-184700, 31100 mnogokalibernyh;
09.05.1945 year — 405400 light machine guns, heavy machine-182600, 37500 mnogokalibernyh.

In the course of the war the value of machine-gun fire was maintained in the Army Air Defence and Air Defense. From 3837 aircraft that were shot down by the fronts during the period from June 22, 41 on June 22, 42, 295 was shot down by anti-aircraft machine gun, 268 — small-arms fire forces. In the air defense of Moscow on June 22, 1941 there were 105 anti-aircraft machine guns, on January 1, 42 — 511, on October 1, 44 — 686. The number of guns in the air defense of the country during the war has increased 12.1 times, usually it was mnogokalibernye guns. Their role in the defense of the country by the end of the war decreased, but increased significantly at the front. Despite the fact that the use of machine guns in setting barrage gave favor, it could not completely change the special anti-aircraft guns. Mnogokalibernye machine guns were much more efficient than conventional caliber machine guns, but even here the machines having a free tip inferior system having mechanical or electro-mechanical aiming sights and more than perfect.

Guns in the general system of the Red Army in World War II
Mnogokaliberny Russian DShK (Degtyarev — Shpagin mnogokaliberny)

The change of personnel and saturation Rifle Division of the Red Army automatic weapon (by state):
Personal composition: for April 1941 — 14483 people.; July 1941 — 10859 people.; December 1941 — 11626 people.; December 1942 — 9435 people.; December 1944 — 11706 people.; June 1945 — 11,780 people.;
The total number of submachine guns in the same periods was as follows: 1204 pcs. (Or 83 pcs. 1,000 people), 171 (15.75 per 1,000), 582 (50 per 1,000), 727 (77 per 1,000), 3594 (307 in 1000), 3557 (302 in 1000);
The total number of machine guns in the same period was 392 units. (Or 27 for the 1000 people), 162 (15 per 1,000), 251 (21.5 per 1,000), 494 (52.4 per 1,000), 337 (28.8 per 1,000), 383 (32.5 per 1,000);
The total number of machine guns in the same period was 166 units. (Or 11.5 per 1,000 persons), 108 (10 per 1000), 109 (9.4 per 1000), 111 (11.76 per 1,000), 166 (14.2 per 1,000), 178 (15.1 per 1000);
Number of rounds of small arms and machine-gun guns per minute; April 1941 — 297460, July 1941 — 140470, December 1941 — 190930, December 1942 — 204710, December 1944 — 491160, June 1945 — 492720.

At different periods of the war there was a change in the weapon system is not only Germany and the Soviet Union:

In December 1941, the staff of the German infantry division consisted of 14,742 people. (Infantry Division of the USSR — 11626 people.) With all this, there was armed with submachine guns 705 (528 in the USSR), 454 light machine guns (251 in the USSR), 112 heavy machine guns (109 in the USSR). In addition Infantry Division in Germany had no anti-aircraft gun installations while the infantry division of the USSR was armed with 33 anti-aircraft machine gun system including mnogokalibernye.

At the beginning of 1943 the personnel of the German infantry division consisted of 13,656 people. (Infantry Division of the USSR — 9435 people.) In service had 681 submachine gun (727v USSR). At this time, the German troops had no light and heavy machine guns, and armed with a rifle division had 494 manual and 111 machine guns. With respect to anti-aircraft gun installations situation has changed — in the infantry division had 18 20-mm anti-aircraft machine gun and rifle division to the weapon was missing. It is worth notin
g that at the beginning of 1943 Guards Rifle Division (personnel 10670 people.) Was 166 and 499 heavy machine guns and hand guns, machine guns, 1097, a separate infantry brigade (4197 people.) — 36 heavy machine and 109 machine guns, rifle brigade ( 4000 people.) — 36 heavy machine guns and 98 hand.

Guns in the general system of the Red Army in World War II
DP machine gun. Lofty Russian war , 1941-1945. Degtyarev DP ranked third on the mass — after-Mosin rifles and sub-machine gun design G.S.Shpagina PCA-41

In December 1944, the staff of the German infantry division consisted of 12,801 people. (Infantry Division of the USSR — 11706 people.) In service there were 1,595 submachine guns and assault rifles (USSR in 3594), 614 light machine guns (337 in the USSR), 102 heavy machine guns (166 in the USSR). Infantry Division during this time was armed with 18 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun.

Before the second world war has been partially revived the idea that the mass self-loading rifle may take some puzzles to be solved with the help of machine guns. But experience has shown that just the introduction of machine guns removes the relevance of "automatic" rifles extraordinary power. The experience of war has become a prerequisite for the introduction of revision ranges of small armed me in the direction of decreasing due to increased density of artillery and mortar fire, the widespread introduction of ground-attack aircraft and tanks. "Combat Infantry fatigued" in 1942 (BUP-42) established that the fire of machine guns valid range of up to 1,000 meters, "but better to unexpected fire at ranges of 600 meters and less" ("close" range), light machine guns — to 800 meters. Light machine guns at air targets at ranges of fire were the least of 500 meters, with anti-aircraft heavy machine gun — least 1000 meters, with the ordinary eye — least 500 meters. For comparison: the pre-war range of opening fire machine guns were installed in the spectrum from 800 to 1200 meters, heavy machine guns on ground targets — 3000-5000 meters, the air targets — up to 1500 m In general, the growth saturation of artillery did not reduce the value of machine guns.

After the division was abolished by order of battle and the chilling impact of machine gun began to always act in the chain of office. During the coming of the machine gun is usually the first to put forward to the latest position (fire could be conducted on the move), and when out of combat — the last. Manual gunner in the tank troops suppressed the antitank weapons and covered acts shooters. Tanks for heavy machine guns often played the role of "pulemetovozov."

Have been changed and the service and maintenance requirements. First, in 1942 announced a competition for lightweight standards easel and hand guns, submachine gun. The work was done on two fronts: the modernization of infantry machine gun Degtyarev and development of a new light machine gun, support and portability together with ammunition could produce a fighter.

Easel machine gun at the time was the main group of rifle fire weapons (infantry) units capable of conducting intense fighting fire with fire rate of 250-300 rounds per minute. Machine-gun companies, equipment heavy machine guns, usually in small platoons appropriated their companies. According to the PMU-42 distributed in depth and edge-machine guns covered the extension unit, supported the attack, struck calculations languid arms of the enemy, provided the promotion of in-depth and flanks reflect counterattack. Fire indirect fire actually was not used, as in general and shooting through the head. Usually, the machine guns were consuming because of the flanks and in the gaps.

Guns in the general system of the Red Army in World War II
Calculation of seafarers with anti-aircraft machine gun

Shooting on a huge range still led, for example, when the ferries or in the mountains, but in these cases the distance does not exceed 3000 meters. Lowering the allowed ranges, in-1's, reduce the range of the used cartridges (excludes cartridges with languid bullet), in-2, once again raise the question of the development of a lightweight machine gun. But the dimensions of the machine gun, the time required for the replacement positions and preparing to fire, was not allowed to put forward the data to the machine guns advanced band, as they could be late to the reaction to the revived enemy firing points or a counterattack. In built-Fri, forest and mountains of bulky machine guns were particularly sensitive.

Their abilities and power, machine guns were developed in the defense. With all of this position adapted for shooting at different distances and radial to the requirements of defense. Machine-gun fire in the supporting Fri provided flanks and gaps covered the positions of artillery and anti-tank calculations, they have advanced to the forefront and items recovered some attendants and "dagger" guns. Practiced creation portions of the barrier and the concentrated fire of heavy machine guns, which are superimposed on the plots of artillery and mortar fire.

The future development of facilities for the fire got guns. So, for example, during the Battle of Stalingrad in the town was created 200 bunkers, 37 armor set and concrete covers for machine guns. Greater attention was paid to keeping the fire in the black time of day, training calculations zeroing targets and milestones, as methods of fixing the pickup with artificial dispersion in depth and on the front. Frisky maneuver heavy machine guns, the value of which is especially important during the defense on a broad front, were difficult even after the transition to the trench system of trenches having a complete profile.

The transition to the newest weapons system began in the middle of the war. The emergence of a lightweight machine gun was made possible after the cartridge was created by the crotch of power, but the creation of RAP launched only in the last months of the second world war. But in the arms of the Red Army in the middle of new samples were taken heavy machine guns SG-43. The rapid and successful implementation of a cluster of brand new weapons before the war, development engineering grounds and combat experience showed the development of an effective system design, testing and staging to create.

The addiction to the commanders of the Red Army machine gun wheeled machine explained by the fact that such a machine is allowed to move gun ready to fire (most of the guns on the tripod machines had to be removed from the machine, and install the latest position anew), but in general such machine faster embarrassed acts of calculation. Combat experience showed dignity trenozhnogo machine with the possibility of anti-aircraft fire and the wheel in front of universal machines.

Guns in the general system of the Red Army in World War II

Despite the fact that mnogokalibernye guns according to the "Manual on small business" meant "to fire at air targets," also "to fight the enemy gun emplacements and manpower concealed by light armor" for their main task was the anti-aircraft role. Normally, shooting at air targets at ranges were least 1.5 thousand meters of anti-aircraft machine guns were usually located within 300-500 meters from the front edge of the defense. With these guns were covered by control points, front-line auto and steel road. So, for example, in May 1943 for the protection of railway communication fronts used mnogokalibernyh 558 machine guns. During the war, anti-aircraft machine guns (quad "Maxims" and the ANC) shot down 2,401 enemy aircraft. Firing at low-flying targets high-speed requirements for increased rate of fire and capacity for implementation complexed plants (was embodied in the modernization of the ANC).

But the possibility of a distant grazing fire, the breakdown effect of bullets (for fighting in the town or the mountains), the growth bit of light armored vehicles are not ignored — for example, the ANC had to be used in anti-tank defense during the Battle of Kursk.

In the course of the war revealed the need for a massive machine guns. To solve the puzzles in the USSR back to the machine guns under the 14.5-mm cartridge. In some countries chose to use small-caliber automatic guns. In the final step of the war supplies mnogokalibernogo DShK the troops did not go down, in contrast to the heavy machine guns and hand.

Guns in the general system of the Red Army in World War II

During the war, did not stop and search operations. For example, in 1942-1943, the need to facilitate machine guns become a prerequisite for the creation of the BC Daykin, NM Afanasyev and VF Ferocious on Scientific Testing of small arms firing range gun LAD with a belt-fed 7.62-mm pistol cartridge TT. The deterioration of the accuracy of shooting was one of the main causes of the general eagerness to increment the density of fire. It is logical that appeared set "heavy fire" such as experienced 8-barreled gun II Slostina.

According to the article Seeds Fedoseyeva "Guns 2nd World War"

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