February 9, 2012 14:52
How little we know about our history. Such findings as Shigirsky idol only confirm this. Meanwhile, scientists have shown that nearly ten thousand years ago, there was a civilization in the Urals with their culture.
Just imagine for a moment, all of the known civilization, such as — Maya or Egyptians — begin their calendar from 2000 BC. 9000 years old — an age not only a relic finds. This is the time in which climate change is taking place, disappearing cities and even entire nations. And he — Shigirsky Idol — survived and was the world in the XIX century. Ancient idol was found on Shigirskom lake near Kirovgrad (Urals) — hence there was its current name.
And we naively thought that we had in the Urals, before joining Yermak was a complete failure. That's somewhere in Egypt, Babylon, Greece … the pyramids, calendars — civilization, in fact. But here? Bears, forest and mountains. But when we are, in general, have come to terms with the lack of living up to the great migration of people in Siberia, was a miracle. The pyramids, the Maya and the Aztecs Great Rome can relax — for up to the age of our history they still grow and grow.
Mikhail Zhilin, a senior fellow of the Institute of Archaeology, RAS, Moscow:
— This is a unique sculpture. Like nowhere else in the world. Shigirsky Idol — both very lively, and very complex. A pattern that is covered — it is nothing like the encrypted information. Using patterns of the ancient people passed their knowledge. They are very difficult to decipher. Idol was dated Mesolithic: 8680 years (plus or minus 140 years) ago. Today it is the oldest wooden sculpture. Five years ago, specialists of the Russian Academy of Sciences conducted a carbon analysis, and found that the age of discovery is no more — no less 9500 years! It turns out that not only the Ural idol older than the Egyptian pyramids and Mayan and Aztec civilizations.
Controversy about the age of the idol not abated since its discovery. The views were very different: from the Neolithic period (V-VI millennium BC) to the Bronze (II millennium BC. E.), And even the early Iron Age (I millennium BC. Oe.). In 1997, Idol started to collapse, needed urgent conservation. But before you realize it, it was decided that carbon dating of samples from the inner layers of wood. Results of the study simply shocked the entire archaeological community. Born idol — Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) — 9500 years ago. This means that it is much older than the Egyptian pyramids and Noah's ark. According to some sources, the universe was created 5493 years ago. A wooden sculpture appeared much earlier.
It is a miracle, so suddenly emerged from the swamp, it may be only two or three thousand years younger than Atlantis. But here's a question that has no answer: how could it appear the inscription — for writing came more than three millennia later?
Scientists already speculate about what kind of civilization existed before the beginning of time, which was able to write, and to create such wooden statues. Not only that, there have been found, and tools that are supposedly used by ancient masters.
Geometric pattern had some merit
First reproduced the approximate shape of the idol then curator DI Lobanov, receiving 2.8 meters tall figure with arms and legs crossed, as if he stood in a step. But in 1914, archaeologist VJ Tolmachev realized that we need a new reconstruction: some of the figures are not related, images of human faces on the body upside down, and a number of fragments was not used at all. It was found that the idol in height is 5.3 meters. It is a huge wooden statue, created out of a monolithic trunk larch painted complicated patterns. Unfortunately, the way up to the present day, it has not lived: the lower half of the body length of 193 cm was lost, now on it can only be judged on the image Tolmachev.
Since the statue removed no professional archaeologists, and the common people (in Shigirskom Lake gold mined since ancient times), safety idol had already been a big threat. Volumetric head, flat nose, the upper half of the body was brought to the surface with a depth of four-peat.
To save the idol safe and protect it from environmental influences, museum administration had to order one of the defense research institutes special showcase. So that the sculpture did not collapse under the force of gravity, it stuck to the window, the sarcophagus so that the pressure parts of the idol at each other was minimal. Behind the glass there is a special light, which allows you to see the smallest details of the figure.
The body of the idol is covered on all sides with carved geometric designs. In addition to his broad planes figures carved face — mask. The figure Tolmacheva such quantities are five: three on the front side and two — on the back. During installation exhibition "Shigirskaya pantry" in August of 2003 on the back of the plane of the body idol was revealed another mask, not marked curator of the museum. Each mask is crowned with a single figure. Total on Idol, along with images of the lost parts can be seven characters: upper bilateral image bulk head and three pieces on the front and back planes. All the figures are purely individual. Some of them are images made in the "skeletal" or "x-ray" style, as indicated by the individual elements of the skeleton. Inside the shape is indicated by two short segments — "spots." According to scientists, the spots could denote either the internal organs of creatures, or soul.
Among the images researchers identify characters associated with the upper (heavenly) and bottom (underwater or underground) worlds. The figures embody the feminine and the masculine, the world of plants and animal world. Obviously, the elements of geometric ornament idol had some merit.
"Graven image represents several spirits — says Svetlana Savchenko, a senior researcher at the museum — it is encoded history of these people, the structure of the world around them and much of what we can only guess. It is interesting that this type of sculpture usually dig in the ground. But by all indications Shigirsky just standing. He could rely on his crossed legs. "
This part is still unclear to the researchers. In addition, experts find it difficult to interpret the signs Shigirskogo idol. According to anthropologists, a straight line could mean the land, the horizon, the boundary between heaven and earth, water and air, the boundary between the worlds. Wavy line or zigzag symbolized the watery element, a snake, a lizard. In addition, the zigzag signaled danger. Cross, diamond, square, circle depicting the fire or the sun.
Ural idol could be feminine
Looking at the faces of the statue, a version that is not just an idol, and the lunar calendar. Number seven is considered one of the most mysterious. The ancient Sumerians gave it great importance. It is no secret that each of the four phases of the moon is divided into seven days, and that the lunar cycles were the basis drevneshumerskogo calendar. It seems that shigirskoe deity with seven images found primarily symbolized the moon.
True, there is a caveat: the ancient people often identified with the moon female deities. A Urals statue belonging to the weaker sex has not yet been proved. Although in this historical period, people were praying in the main female deities. In short, to confirm the lunar calendar, or version, you need to determine exactly what kind of Ural Idol — male or female.
Mystery of mysteries remain.
Version, as one would expect, there was a huge set. The author of one of them is a doctor of philosophy, professor Valery Chudinov. According to him the idol female. It is none other than the goddess of disease and death Mara. Slavs were originally pagan idolatry and was particularly true of the Urals. Larch tree was considered divine. Residents of mouth told that gods live in the fibers of the wood are the guardians of human souls. To commit any act of memory — wake or make a gift ancestors — the idols carry food or something valuable.
Author version of the idol — the goddess, argue their guesses as follows. Facial image upon striking the capital letter "P" (the first thought was to read the inscription as "species"). Such a sign can be seen in several places. But the picture is pretty traditional kind — are required mustache and beard. In this case, follow the facial hair, which, incidentally, looks sad, is not detected. Because of that, and it has been suggested that this is a woman's figure. We know of the gods it could only be the goddess of disease and death Mara.
Scientist increased sketch Tolmachev idol image. Indeed, on a computer monitor in addition to the letter "P" clearly stood out words!
The word "Mara" can be read in several places. Curiously, the most interesting is the inscription on the front image on the left cheek of the Ural idol. It found the word "god underworld people." Although this title is quite clear, it is not never been greeted at likah Mary. In fact, the words describe a previously unknown function of the goddess Mary — of "underworld people." According to Chudinov, wooden sculpture stood in the swamp, and it was to see from afar. Marsh, apparently thought the dead.
Besides the name of divinity professor found on the body image 'and other words. "On the left eye to read the word" paradise ", — he said. It turns out that Mara was the goddess of heaven. The word "God" is read as an image to the right eye. The most interesting inscription is on the left at the bottom, as if tracing the lower jaw, "subtle worlds of Mary." It is hard to imagine that the expression of psychics was known in antiquity, and could be written on the face of Mary. On another fragment scientist read the words: "The Mare lurk countless soldiers ratification." As for the content of the passage, he served as a kind of advertising afterlife: there is no one can hurt, because in heaven there are countless ratification of fallen soldiers.
According to Chudinov, statuette — is the central figure of the Slavic goddess shrines of Mary. It made funeral rites and sacrifices to the gods of other worlds to get favorable treatment in return for the deceased in the afterlife. In addition, the essence of coaxing Mary was not to be sick and pull on as a longer term "visit to Mara," that is a term of his death.
Apparently, nearly 9000 years ago in the land of the Urals were people with a fairly high level of culture, who owned the tools and technologies of processing of natural materials. They also used astrological knowledge in practice. What a super-rational nor consider themselves our scientific community, in the world there are many people who believe in the existence of things unexplained in terms of experience. So who knows, maybe in the future Shigirsky idol made revolution in matters of science?
Mikhail Zhilin, a senior fellow of the Institute of Archaeology, RAS, Moscow:
— The word "cult", "transform" — they are from the vocabulary of the modern man. A concept of "god" came much later. Our ancestors from the Stone Age did not have extra information, they did not separate themselves from the "supernatural" forces, and lived with them. And this idol is likely — a part of their daily environment, the direct participant. Perhaps he represents several spirits. It is coded history of these people, building the world around them and much of what we can only guess. And you know the best part? Usually this kind of sculpture, well, a totem pole of American Indians, dig in the ground. This is by all accounts just stood there, leaning toward something.