December 5, 2011 15:28
After Hitler seized power in 1933, we began to collect intelligence information on the preparation of revenge for the defeat of Germany in World War II. The Kremlin had three main channels of data acquisition: the Red Army Intelligence, intelligence Navy and foreign intelligence Commissariat of State Security.
Unfortunately, a single body, which would be processed and analyzed intelligence, did not exist. Most importantly, the information (often contradictory) as it can report to Stalin personally once and only partially fell to the General Staff. His boss, General GK Beetles did not get, for example, the most important messages that aired in Japan Richard Sorge.
It was unclear where the Nazis inflict the first blow — in the West or in the East. Germany, Italy, Spain sought to establish control over the Mediterranean, to take away part of the colonies of England and France. Entente tried to find a compromise with the Nazis, Hitler, offering loans and raw materials in exchange for a guarantee of peace.
It is considered that the preparation for war with the Soviet Union, Hitler began in 1940. However, it is February 10, 1937 the NKVD foreign intelligence reported to Moscow that took place in late November 1936 meeting of the German War Office, to which the Minister Field Marshal von Blomberg, the chief of the General Staff, Colonel General Fritsch and Air Force Commander Goering presented several scenarios of the war. At the meeting of the German military authorities had concluded that the attack on the Soviet Union can not be long until it is resolved, "the Polish question." In September 1939, the Nazis had occupied Poland, "Polish problem" solved.
HOME shifting troops
Following Poland was the turn of France. August 4, 1940, our residency program in Vichy, where he stayed collaborationist government "free zone", headed by Marshal Pétain, announced the launch of the Soviet border transfer of German troops stationed in France. This was a consequence of the political decision to attack the Soviet Union, Hitler had taken July 31, 1940, shortly after the fall of France. Four and a half months to approve the plan "Barbarossa" — a concrete program of war against our country. The plan provided for the main attack of the German forces, the interaction of ground forces, air force and navy, of the Romanian and Finnish armies on our front, and more.
We often write that Stalin read the plan "Barbarossa" almost immediately after the December 18, 1940, Hitler approved it. It is not.
The plan has been printed in nine instances. Three were the commanders of the armed forces, and six had been in the safe until the end of Hitler's war. The specific content of the plan was not known to us nor to the British, who, incidentally, had his men in Hitler's entourage.
"We regard as misinformation"
Our intelligence has learned only the course of military preparations in Germany. The nature of military operations of the enemy, the main attack — all that remained a mystery. Was not clear until the end and then who will oppose us in alliance with Hitler.
Even the number of divisions that focus on our borders, was estimated at approximately. However, their main strike force — tank units — Hitler threw to the borders of the USSR just two days before the invasion.
Unknown in the Soviet Union and the date of the attack. In razveddoneseniyah reported different dates: April 15, 1.15, 20 May, 15 June. Deadlines passed, and the war did not start. By the way, Hitler postponed 38 times capture France. When in Paris received information that the German offensive will begin May 10, 1940, the French General Staff not really believe it.
Germans generally attached great importance to misinformation and in this case very successful. Here is a report of Soviet foreign intelligence chief Gen. FI Golikov on March 20, 1941: "Reports of the impending German attack on the Soviet Union must be considered as disinformation emanating from the British, and even, perhaps, the German intelligence service." Head of the rank and then were fooled!
From the end of April to the beginning of June 1941 the Nazis explain concentration of their troops at our borders striving to pressure the Soviet Union to force him to join the Axis Rome-Berlin-Tokyo and enter into World War I on the side of the Axis Powers. It claimed that the USSR would have to be pledged as collateral to pass Germany Soviet Ukraine and the Baltic states — in certain circumstances, as well as significantly increase the supply of raw materials. In case of failure to meet these requirements simply occupying Germany and Ukraine, and the Baltic states.
In May 1941, suddenly flew to London, Rudolf Hess, Hitler's second only to the face of the Nazi party, and tried to negotiate with the British. Hess suggested forget old feuds and unite in the fight against the Bolsheviks. However, the head of the British government was no longer "myunhenets" Neville Chamberlain and Winston Churchill, who understood that playing with Hitler in the giveaway is extremely dangerous. Hess's mission failed, and he was imprisoned. Churchill did everything possible to save the British Empire, he was ready for military cooperation with the Soviet Union. Stalin, however, with deep suspicious of any information to any action on the part of the British Cabinet.
In April-May 1941, Stalin repeatedly reported that the German troops are ready to continue our border. Arvid Harnack, a leader of the German "Red Orchestra", working for our intelligence, reported that the construction of the German troops on the border with the Soviet Union on the eve of their construction follows the invasion of France.
June 17, 1941 Arvid Harnack and Harro Schulze-Bolzen reported: "German military preparations for an armed attack on the Soviet Union fully completed and impact can be expected at any time." For information about the imminent aggression came from stations in Helsinki, Rome, Vichy, Shanghai, Berlin, Geneva, Tokyo. But when and how it actually happens, only knew a few people in Berlin.
Intelligence fully received only Stalin himself to analyze it. In the cult of personality of his vision of the military-political situation on the eve of World War II became the ultimate truth. The fact that Germany attacked us, Stalin was sure. For a long time, ignoring the reports of our intelligence, to obtain information from the risk of his life, "the father of nations" was convinced that Hitler would unleash a war not until the spring or summer of 1942. By this time, supposed to basically complete the restructuring and modernization of the Red Army.
Stalin believed that Germany will not start war against the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941, since the outcome is not clear, "the Battle of Britain." Besides Berlin had to keep large military forces in Greece and Yugoslavia. Stalin made a mistake in his calculations. And this error has cost our people.