Maxim machine gun designed Hiram Stevens Maxim (February 4, 1840 — November 24, 1916) in 1884.
His construction machine gun, he suggested the U.S. military, but the military establishment is not interested in them, finding new tool very wasteful because of the huge expense of cartridges, calling Hiram Maxim's machine gun just only exciting, but futile mechanical gimmick.
Not convinced of the futility of this failure of his own design, Hiram Maxim emigrated to England, where his gun is totally different assessment.
Maxim making the company "Maksim-Norfeld" in the town of Crayford, Kent, which after merging in 1897 with the British arms company, "Vickers" is converted into a corporation, "Vickers, Sons and Maxim Ltd." (later — "Vickers Limited").
In 1899, Hiram Maxim received British citizenship, and in 1901, a knighthood from Queen Victoria.
After the successful demonstration of a machine gun in Switzerland, Italy and Austria in 1887 gun Maxima arrives in Russia. Gun tests were held in April 1887, but in spite of this promising new weapon huge ecstasy among professionals of the Russian Defense Ministry did not call. Military frightened easy automatic machine gun, and is not paradoxically, its highest rate. Excessive speed shooting, according to the views of the general Dragomirova do not need in order to "shoot after the man rather shoot once."
Notwithstanding the submission of the skeptics, was made the first order to supply 12 caliber machine guns in the Russian Berdan rifle 10.67 mm.
In May 1889 guns were taken to St. Petersburg. Russian Navy is also interested in them and ordered two standards for conducting the tests. For professionals Navy produced a new tool may have a few best recollection, and for years 1897-1904 the Russian Navy ordered and received 291 Maxim machine gun system.
By the time the gun Berdan has been removed from service, and Maxim machine guns were adapted to the caliber of the Russian Mosin trehlineyki: 7.62 mm.
Hiram Maxim was achieved prodigious vitality of its own guns. Thus, during the trial in November 1899 of his machine gun under the English .303 caliber cartridge produced 15 thousand rounds without any severe delays.
To the license production of machine-gun "Maxim" in Russia started in February 1904 at the Tula arms factory, which allowed, first, to significantly reduce costs for the purchase of guns abroad, and secondly, quickly upgrade the machine guns on the practice of their operational implementation by the Russian army.
The final declaration of the RF gun "Maxim" is in the first battles of the Russian-Japanese war, showing in a battle to be extremely effective.
Tula gunsmiths Tretyakov and Shepherds acquainted with the creation of machine guns in the UK, having spent the Tula arms factory vast design and technological research, significantly redesigned and improved in almost all construction of "Maxim", and in 1908 the designer Sokolov made a very successful infantry wheeled machine.
Immediately to the development of a more maneuverable machine has been reduced mass of the machine gun, also changed some details in connection with the introduction of a new cartridge standard 1908 with a pointed bullet.
First "Maxim", made in Russia at the "Tula arsenal", dubbed the Model 1905. Russian Zakharov engineer in 1910 facilitated the Maxim machine gun. His model weighs 20 kg, which is a few pounds lighter than the 1905 model.
Upgraded Tula gun was adopted in 1910 by the Russian Army under the official name "7.62-mm machine gun."
Easel gun 1910 has repeatedly been improvements that significantly improved its operating performance and a slight decline in production costs in its manufacture.
With the latest upgrade a machine gun in 1941, has been set up lightweight sight in the jacket cooling system was made wide neck (taken from the Finnish standard machine gun in 1932) that allowed you to fill in the winter with snow or ice cover.