January 16, 2013 4:17
Since ancient times, people have constructed a maze. They existed in the hundreds and even thousands of geometric variations — the Incas, constructed of stones and build walls, performing certain magical figure.
Remember the Greek myths that tell of the Palace of Knossos in Crete! Maybe maze — this is not a maze, but, for example, the symbolism of a certain action — for example, a dance? Undoubtedly, this ancient magical symbol was of particular importance. Then what it is?
Alas, today, to answer this question with reasonable certainty is not possible. Speculation, assumptions, and even science-based theories are many, but all of them can be considered a great interference key to the mystery. Necessarily is a skeptic who debunks beautiful idea, offering its — not less interesting and, as always, subjective arguments.
On the island of Sardinia — Ludzanas in Spanish Galicia — Pontevedra, in the English Cornwall — Tintadzhel in Chalon-sur-Marne — the French monastery of All Saints, in the church of Cibo — near Helsinki, on the island of Sumatra — the royal palace Permatang-Purba in Central India — Tickle in Gwalior — here and in many other places at any given time to create mazes. It is us they seem to be some kind of complex and intricate. In reality, they are based on a simple but at the same time strict principle, in fact, transforming the construction or design the maze.
If you ask any of our contemporaries, what is the maze, the answer will probably be this: a maze — a complex tangle of moves. However, pralabirinte — great-grandfather of all labyrinths — there’s nothing like it. It is impossible to get lost in, since there is no intersection, no forks. Starting from the entrance, the path leads inevitably to the center. It is pertinent to the question: a maze at all? The answer is not so simple.
What is the meaning of the term «labyrinth», which was used by Herodotus, speaking of the complex and intricate architectural structure? And that was mostly in the construction of: beauty, or confusion? The ancient Greeks (in Greece, is considered, although this fact and challenged for the first time and there was a maze) designated by him and then, and more. However, there is reason to believe that this figure has been known by people for a long time — so, in the town of Sardinia Ludzanas on one of the rocks carved pralabirint, dating III millennium BC
Plutarch — Greek philosopher and biographer, who lived at the end of the I century, tells us that in the legend, in which Theseus freed from Crete Minotaur (bull-man), is clearly visible connection with the labyrinth. True, the wise man lived for at least a thousand years after the Minoan era, where, in fact, and legendary events unfold, so surely it is something to invent, confused and embellished — at least today, no archaeologist, as neither sought , failed to discover the ruins of Crete even remotely resembling a maze.
However, in the maze of ancient sources describe as «Horos», meaning «circle.» However, this concept can be interpreted in different ways — not only as a form of the building, but the circus as a form of movement, «dance.» It is no accident in the myths narrated that Daedalus, teaching people to fly, built the most maze in Crete for King Minos’ daughter Ariadne. This is already in Homer in the «Iliad.» There he tells of the way, which is nothing more than overcoming one by one concentric turns of the labyrinth, which is essentially like the dance floor, where the girls were taught to dance, — and, where there were only marked major steps. Perhaps this hypothesis makes sense because of those same myths know that Theseus, having got out of the maze with the thread of Ariadne, brought to the island of Delos dance called «Geranos» (Crane), a movement which is repeated passages of the maze.
But this fact does not bring us closer to the truth and thus to solve the puzzle: why was invented symbol of the labyrinth? One suggestion — it was originally recorded the movement pattern of a ritual dance. One way or another, but soon the symbol migrated to Europe, India, to Java and Sumatra … But this raises another question: in order to become a symbol of popular other people need to become important to them. Otherwise, why in their sanctuaries play strangers rituals? Would not help?
Hence, the labyrinth and the related dance — part of the ritual, and which was devoted to the ritual? Answer, alas, is no more, although speculation abound. One of them is a maze — a primitive symbol of fertility. Especially this view has come to dominate, when Galicia was found cave drawing of the maze, under which the image found phallus. Another theory: a maze — scheme orbits the Sun and planets. But the most interesting theory, perhaps, is: Maze — a symbol of a magical initiation. He allegedly represents penetration into another world, a better, perhaps, compared to ours, but the way to the center — a way of understanding, a way of knowing. Upon reaching the center, «Dedications» came back to his world. Many archaic peoples, and in more recent times, and in some secret societies existed such rituals, means death and rebirth — that is, the resurrection of the end times. So, for the Hopi labyrinth — a symbol of spiritual rebirth, mystical initiation and salvation.
It is understandable why it was not in Judaism and Islam. But in the Christian world, on the contrary, it is the most important motive of faith. No, no chance in many churches of Europe until the XV century labyrinth serves as an important element of the interior, and to the middle of XVIII — element of monastic gardens and parks. The image of the labyrinth is usually placed at the entrance of that as this place would protect against the penetration of evil spirits.
Especially a lot of preserved labyrinth in the Scandinavian countries: in Sweden there are about 300 in Norway — more than 20, in Finland — 141, Denmark — 31. And on an island north of the Baltic enough.
But the last place that remembers «dance of the labyrinth,» was, apparently, the Basque Country, where the area from sul even less than a hundred years ago in the village celebrations danced so-called «snail», during which the dancers become a chain and moved by running «turns» and «pass». The purpose of this dance game is to gradually form a pattern, to bring down the leader with a sense that he had «lost the thread» and cornered, was within the chain. But at the time no one knew where this tradition has gone, and what it means.
This land is generally full of unsolved mysteries. Take, for example, the amazing Uffington «White Horse» — perhaps one of the most famous rock paintings length of 112 m is 17 km from the town of Swindon. And these figures, though somewhat less, in the hilly parts of the UK in excess. When they emerged — a mystery. This is so accurate and have not determined, but is believed to have somewhere in the Iron Age. Not far from these figures are incomprehensible earthworks whose purpose — quite dark story. What is this? The complex character of the gods of fertility, enhance or site for religious ceremonies? And why do these figures then these huge, and they are visible only from the air.
It is said that where the British highway Tidvord Road close to the little town of Hungerford, many drivers often see a young girl on a white horse, slowly crossing the road. Cursing, the drivers are too tight on the brakes, quickly opened the box to say loudly muzzy lady all think about it, but the words on their lips freeze because the young lady literally evaporates in the air. For it is a ghost — a disembodied ghost, whom the British Isles are nothing new.
And this is not the only ghost of the horsemen, ghosts or phantoms, as they are called. White horses are often lovers of legend and fearful townsfolk, especially in the county of Berkshire. They quietly go for whatever their business, not bothering anyone and as mysteriously as they had appeared, disappeared.
But back to the Uffington still «White Horse.» Sure, it would have long since overgrown with grass, if not centuries-old customs meticulous British support it in its original form — so far this horse restored after seven years at the summer solstice. For a long time the people next to a white horse celebrated Midsummer, but somehow, for 150 years, do not do it, but look after the horse properly. Determine the exact age of the picture not taken one. Called the V century BC But this is only a hypothesis. Another pattern that is a genuine interest among his contemporaries — «Vilmingtonsky bruiser», shown on the hill Vindover Hill, in the county of Sussex. Its growth is impressive — 77 meters, and it can be considered the almost biggest image of man on earth.
Like him, but a few smaller shoots, the other giant — in the village of Cerne Ebbas. There lies Xolm Giant, which is incomprehensible earthworks, previously, as noted, were the either the fortress, or had some other destination, and there is also a chalk drawing — this time, not a horse, and a huge deity with a club in his raised right hand. Many researchers believe that the emergence of this giant is associated with the celebration of the ancient fertility cult. Is it real or not for sure is also unknown. In short, the entire «Black Square» Malevicha.I boundary between scientific conjecture and speculative conjectures one has yet identified. What is clear is that the giant rock paintings were iconic British character and, most likely, they were associated with the annual cycle of country life with a prayer for the fertility, childbirth and crops. But why they are so big, in fact in all its beauty, as they say, the ancient Anglo-Saxons could not see them? Maybe here it in their eternal love for all kinds of falsehoods and exaggerations? Incidentally, this feature is inherent in this nation today. Although this explanation can seem very convincing. But as they say, the taste and color …
And here is another mystery. In the Old Testament, not once, not twice that to go to the direct path, will not shy away. How should we understand these statements? Definitely, not only in the figurative sense. «Put yourself road signs, put yourself posts, go back to your cities» — clearly sounds like a topographical orientation.
More recently, many people, such as the Indians and the people of Uganda, had a rule: any way to lay just right. Traces of ancient ways can be found in the South of England and Wales. Here even the historical sites are on the same line. Why did our ancestors set their own direct path? Were they a kind of religious buildings? But then who and when they paved? It happened over hundreds or thousands of years before Christ? And if by chance the Israelis in 980 BC moved their religious center from Mount Gerizim in Jerusalem? According to some historians, this mountain once served as a guide to determine the direction and distance, as later the Kaaba in Mecca. Here is the famous black stone, which, according to tradition, Abraham built the «house of God.» From iconic shrines were counting distances and determine directions. By the way, it is believed that the pyramid of Cheops was built not only as a shrine, but also as a reference for geodetic measurements.
A biblical teachings, perhaps, there is nothing but a kind of reminder «virgin of Israel», which should not forget the ancient direct roads leading to the cities of their ancestors.
Thus, the Indians of Texas laid on the ground special lines, spacing them heaps of stones to fix the direction of the sources of water for many miles distant, and the people of the tribe of rank, living on the border of India and Burma, but always went straight paths — even if this the path was steep and at first glance does not attractive. Some tribes living in Uganda, yet until recently, there were their direct routes with as consistently as the Romans built them on the same roads.
Interesting, but many medieval castles and churches were built in the same place where once were the ancient pagan temples. And almost all of them are connected by straight roads, which are sometimes designated «standing stones» set earlier cult stones menhirs relating to megalithic. Some scientists believe that much in England, famous for its abundance of historical sites, certainly be the objects located not in one line. But no, it turned out that they were wrong — despite a thorough search, did not find either one of the ancient cult of the object that would lie not in one line.
It turns out that old pair of surveyors found natural objects or picking up a pair to the object direction on some light on them and had planned their lines. From then on it was a matter of technique — to pave the paths and roads that, regardless of the terrain were always perfectly straight. Typically, these roads link the major places of fairs and space for meetings.
The famous «Nazca lines» — the images on the basis of the eponymous desert plateaus of Peru — has long intrigued researchers South American cultures. Dry climate for centuries stores this absolutely straight lines, geometric patterns and stylized images of animals, once embedded in the sun baked soil. Who and why created these paintings ground? And why do we need them in this area Incinerate sun? Some romantic-minded scholars of nature make intriguing statement: say, it signs on to the ancient astronauts. Other, more «mundane subjects» are sure that this is not no alien platforms, and certain formulas for astronomical observations. And they both believe in the right. And, who knows, maybe they are wrong?
And it all started with a not-so-distant 30-ies of the last century, when the Nazca desert between 14 and 15 degrees south of the rocky plateau started flying airplanes. Their pilots have reported a large number of different lines — and straight and zigzag, and emerging in a variety of patterns — they literally were plotted on natural canvas high plains.
These messages interested historian Paul Kosok of Long Island University in New York, who first decided that this irrigation canals, laid some ancient Indian tribes. However, his assumption was not to be: very soon Kosak convinced that what he saw did not have anything to do with irrigation canals, or the culture of the Incas. And he found embedded in the soil patterns, such huge that an observer from the ground could not cover their eyes. He carefully measured the lines that make up one of the drawings, and transferred them to the paper in a very small size. So before his eyes there was a stylized image of a bird. In the evening, the winter solstice (in the southern hemisphere, it’s the middle of summer) — December 21 — he and his wife, who was at that time with him, made another significant discovery: the sun went down almost exactly at the end of one of the direct line, Birds make up the figure. Later these lines found on the plateau set, which gave grounds OKSNA call it a plateau, «the world’s largest textbook of astronomy.»
More than fifty years of research have given some results — has become better understood, how were the lines. High plains paved with stones, the top layer which is covered with black and brown film «desert varnish.» To create lines, darkened stones removed, exposing a layer of yellow-white sandy soil beneath. Most of the cleared areas is rectangular with top and bottom lines of different lengths, and the triangles and, very rarely, — rectangles. Plus everything else found another forty silhouettes of animals and other figures. Almost all of them are on the edge of the valley of Pampa Ingen.
Several generations of scientists puzzled over the mystery called «figures of Nazca.» But suddenly descended trouble from where it nobody expected — hordes of tourists rushed to Peru to take a look at the mysterious drawings. But just take a look — this is not enough. Keep intact the line became even more difficult after the infamous Erich von Däniken published his best-selling book «Chariots of the Gods.» Now, the damage done was directly proportional to the number of visitors, who were determined to carry off a pebble as a relic.
Well, someone tell me, do not want to grab a souvenir from the airport aliens? That, at least, was the opinion of von Däniken, which always features the original: «If you look at a bird’s eye, it appears that the 37-mile valley is a Nazca airfield.» He also believed that the lines «could be carried out in accordance with instructions received from air vehicles».
One can not deny the striking similarity between the large areas, cleared of stones, and runways, but what about the long lines, «something like aircraft hangars in the modern airport.» In fact, in the photo — the foot giant figures of birds and sheds — a small part of a much larger silhouette and they are too small for any aircraft. True, the ordinary man in the street, covered ideas ufologist, it probably would not have understood at a glance.
But people are always susceptible to the most absurd ideas — no matter how strange, but in fact that is difficult to explain more clearly to believe, especially when it is surrounded by an aura of mystery. Even if the mystery is clearly affected character. However that may be, but even the most inveterate optimists, who believe in the hypothesis of von Däniken, can sleep peacefully. Unless, of course, a little spread out brains. It is hard to imagine that a civilization capable of interstellar voyages needed to make the runways. Even if on the Nazca landed spacecraft, they are likely to be stuck in the sand. Today, for example, sits on a plateau can only very light aircraft, while the clearings — the mildest of a cleaned layer of stones.
If astronauts von Däniken and where you can find, the only outside Nazca, however, to deny the possibility that the observed line from a great height, should not be excluded. There is an interesting study in the field of experimental archeology, which proved that the ancient Nazca people could build balloons filled with hot air.
Of course, to put forward theories and hypotheses about the Nazca figures can be very many, but the most likely of all of them still think this: the main purpose of drawing lines and other «drawing» of the ancient Peruvians were, I suppose, the calculation of the calendar. A mystery of the drawings it may be possible to open with an accurate mathematical analysis of their shape and size. In the meantime, do no one has.
As for why the inhabitants left the Nazca plateau between about 200 and 400-mi years, took with him all that could be taken away, even the wooden supports for the roof, in the opinion of the German archaeologist Marcus Reindelya, it could happen because of large showers and floods that literally fell on the region — today, this natural disaster is called El Niño. This is indicated by the remnants of the layers of silt to five centimeters, found in homes.
This looked through some bitter irony: wrapped in legends and myths, the Nazca culture, which reached its peak in one of the driest parts of the Earth, in the end was washed to the ground water!
Of course, is what was said above — this is just a tiny layer of the historical heritage of ancient times. Unsolved mysteries of the world are vast. Most likely, the majority of them have never and will not be solved. Although, who knows … maybe not bad at all, and that we perceive reality through trial, error, and sometimes ridiculous assumptions that, in the end, bring us to the knowledge of our being.