February 20, 2012 18:04
It was named in honor of the king, as his birthday coincided with the birthday of King Frederick William IV. He was born in the deeply religious family, and faith is the basis of his children's attitude, which, however, did not prevent him to the end of his life to write "Twilight of the Idols" and "Antichrist", which was launched a strong criticism of the Christian churches and the people who call themselves Christians not actually being them.
SHAGNUVSHY OF MUSIC
Few people know that Nietzsche was gifted musically, enjoyed playing the piano, composing music and dreamed of becoming a musician. Mozart, Haydn, Schubert, Beethoven and Bach were his idols. People who despise music, Nietzsche would later call "soulless creatures like animals." He also owned and these words: "I'm annoyed that it is impossible to express the music."
In "The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music," Nietzsche in full ravaging central tenet of Christianity — of the eternal existence of the mercy of God in the afterlife. Nietzsche seemed absurd that the death should be the redemption of original sin. He believed that the stronger the will to death, the terrible fear of death. How can we live without thinking about death, and knowing its relentlessness and inevitability, not afraid of it?
There are strange relationship with Nietzsche composer Richard Wagner. At first acquaintance Nietzsche was so fascinated by the personality of the genius that thought it possible to devote himself to the service of this great composer and thinker.
But over the years, lost interest in Nietzsche Wagner, and the first of the real friendship turned into a war of two great minds. Wagner preferred to see in Nietzsche's still bright and enthusiastic promoter of his own views. And Nietzsche's views have undergone major changes.
In 1878 he published his famous book Nietzsche, "Human, All Too Human," the explosive subtitle: "A book for free spirits," where the author without much ado broke with all at once: with Hellenism, Christianity, Schopenhauer, and, of course, Wagner.
Wagner fans were shocked by the "treachery" of Nietzsche and this "betrayal" explained the usual envy failed musician to genius. Was released extremely vicious and aggressive article "The public and the popularity of" where Nietzsche, though not named, but it is understood, and where his "Human …" was seen as a consequence of the disease, and aphorisms masterpieces — as insignificant intellectually and morally deplorable. Blow for blow. Truce in the war with Wagner did not come.
MYSTERY OF DESTRUCTION OF MIND
One of the puzzles of Nietzsche is his madness. More precisely, the reason for the loss of reason. Clerics angrily noticed that Nietzsche chastise God's hand for his sharp attacks on the Church and Christian morality. But God does not care a whit for the unfortunate half-blind philosopher.
Justify its being almost Buddhist principle — "life is suffering": the band endless wanderings, squalid room in a cheap boarding houses, where he wrote the day and night, almost double pressing points to a sheet of paper, while sore eyes are not denied; horrendous means insomnia — chloral, barbital, and it is suspected Indian hemp.
He suffered terrible headaches, frequent stomach cramps and vomiting spasms, he suffered several seizures. Proven fact — health Nietzsche was directly related to his state of mind, which, in turn, depended on the recognition of his work. It "blew up" brains townsfolk and could not be taken "with a bang." Nietzsche was doomed.
Fatal fracture in his mind there was in 1889. Nietzsche thought that he was in Rome, and the convening of the Congress is preparing the European powers against Germany. And in this state of Nietzsche to send the letter by which the hair stood on end, "The world transformed by God in the land again … I take possession of my empire, and throw the pope in prison and order to shoot Wilhelm, Bismarck, and Stocker," or "with William , Bismarck finished. Antichrist. Friedrich Nietzsche. Fromentin. "
Doctors put Nietzsche diagnosis — progressive paralysis. But paralysis — it's not crazy, and disruption of the brain caused by an external infection, most often — syphilis. According to some, Nietzsche really ill with syphilis was a student. But it is doubtful whether syphilis was "waiting" in the wings for 20 years. Moreover, after the peace of fracture Nietzsche lived another 11 years, which does not fit into the framework of progressive paralysis, and even death from pneumonia in a hospital for the mentally ill.
In his book "Beyond Good and Evil" Nietzsche argued that man creature and creator in one. And he tried to destroy a "creature" to save the creator. But the attempt ended when was destroyed not only the "beast", but also the creator.
Before the First World War, it was Nietzsche justified territorial and political ambitions of Germany. Lord Kramer, one of the prominent British politicians, even said: "One of the reasons that forced us to take part in the war, is that we must protect the peace, progress and culture, so they do not fall victim to the philosophy of Nietzsche."
In fact, Nietzsche just irritated militant nationalism of the Germans. His quote literally scream about it. For example, about Wagner, who preached this nationalism, he wrote: "Poor Wagner! Where he was! You could go to the pigs! And then the Germans … "
Conflict with reality was awesome: Germans admired their belonging to the Nietzschean "superman", and Nietzsche himself coldly treated followers of German exceptionalism, if not contempt. That there are such of his aphorisms: "The origin of the German spirit — of intestinal upset," "Where would not extend Germany, it spoils the culture." He wanted to put on a straitjacket Reich or provoke him to an unwinnable war against Europe. In general, Nietzsche vehemently denied aggression. In his view, a person can only attack on itself.
If Nietzsche thought so, then why is it that after his death Nietzscheanism in Germany, the mass distribution, the text began to study mandatory in German schools, and German soldiers went to the front of the First World War, in a backpack along with the Bible and "Faust "Goethe necessarily put" Thus Spake Zarathustra "Nietzsche? Because they did not know of this Nietzsche! After the death of the philosopher began terrible falsification of his manuscripts, implemented … Nietzsche's sister — Elizabeth.
Nietzsche foresaw something like this. With sister he had not the best of relationships. Nietzsche called Elizabeth "vengeful anti-Semitic idiot", saying that "… people like my sister are necessarily irreconcilable enemies of my thinking and philosophy."
But this did not prevent the contempt Elizabeth "give birth" multi-volume opus, "Life of Friedrich Nietzsche," where she described herself fiery minded and perhaps the only student of the deceased brother. Immediately after his death, Elizabeth to seize the entire philosophical heritage. She shamelessly excluded from participation in the preparation of the collected works of Nietzsche's publisher, a good friend of Nietzsche, and a number of other people, resisted all sorts of random forgeries, and editing manuscripts from the archive.
The result was a monstrous fabrication called "will to power", which later became almost required reading Hitler. It is because of "Zarathustra" and "will to power" Nazi ideology drew most thoughts of Nietzsche.
In reality, Nietzsche wrote "Will to Power"! This book by Nietzsche simply does not exist! "The will to power" — is an absolute compilation of disparate fabricated Elizabeth Nietzsche notes, written in the 80's of the XIX century. Nietzsche then conceived to create a "first product" of all life and outlined a number of ideas, a total of 372.
Woe, designers have pushed the book not only all the notes, but also many others, so that the total number leapt over a thousand and essentially perverted the original idea. Only in 1956, Professor Karl Darmstadt Shlehta restored chronological composition of these notes, and published under the title "From the Heritage 80's." Needless to say that this book was a real bombshell? It convincingly demonstrated a truly terrible incommensurability Nietzschean nightmare notes and fabrication of these books. The damage from a fake — almost the most colossal ever built. The name of this damage — the Second World War.