The emergence of the term "engineer" refers to the 17th century. Then this word called people who committed dig under the wall of the enemy's fortresses to their next fracture. At the end of the same century sapper units were isolated in a separate division in France, and in 1712 — and in Russia. Over time, the specialization of engineers has expanded significantly.
Surely everyone knows the expression "Sapper wrong once. " The appearance of it is due to the very highest risk of work on mine clearance and explosive ordnance disposal area. Known, and another phrase — "Sapper wrong twice and the first time — when it became a sapper. " Indeed, not everyone will be able to adequately carry so heavy and terrible for your life's purpose.
Every year, mines, shells and bombs killed about 25 thousand people. Each sapper must have knowledge of more than 700 types of mines, and to know the main types of ammunition used in all armies of the world. So, for example, at the time of clearance in Yugoslavia Russian engineers have dealt in the main with the so-referred to as the British Mk1 submunitions and South American BLU 97B / B and A / B. These types of objects are registered minopodobnyh even more unsafe than the standard mines themselves, as the detonator used in their construction, has the ability to produce current for the operation of the detonator even after a long period of stay in the ground.
In late 2011, Russian sappers completed its demining Serb areas, which must pass a part of the gas pipeline "South Stream". For whole the period of military operations failed to neutralize the above fifteen hundred explosive devices, including bombs, mortars and landmines, artillery shells. The works were carried out, in the main, near the town of Paracin. There could find 400 explosive devices, which have appeared at different times — since World War II through 1999, when NATO bombed Serb forces conducted terrain.
Little earlier, in the autumn of the same year, in the suburbs forces 179 Emergency Center of the Russian Federation was found and defused an artillery shell since the second world war. For whole autumn period were destroyed in the general difficulties of about 12 thousand shells.
Lack of work can not complain about the sappers of the Republic of Dagestan. There, every day or even more often heard reports about mining of some objects.
So, on the days are not far from the village Nechaevka had found the car in which revealed an improvised explosive device. According to estimates of professionals, the total power it was about 35 kg of TNT. The device was destroyed with the help of hydrodynamic destroyer. The device was made from zinc buckets, which are located inside the explosives. And there was a detonator. Moreover, the car was found two bags of ammonium nitrate, which, of course, would help to strengthen the power of the explosion.
Another similar operation was mine near the village of Komsomolsk, where on the side of the federal highway "Kavkaz" was found four improvised explosive devices. All of them blew up. After their destruction crater depth of about 2-meters, diameter of up 5 meters. The next day the movement by road was restored. Recall that only found six cans of explosives buried by the wayside. First bomb was destroyed almost immediately. When neutralization second died sapper Dagestani Interior Ministry, and another 8 people were injured.
Usually, most of the reports of mines and other explosive substances come from builders who are digging the foundation pit for the future of the structure, or by gardeners. That exhibit such "surprises" during the harvest.
As they say spices, nothing terrible, and in particular there is no clearance. Most importantly — great to know how to look like this or other projectile in the context of what type of fuse is installed, and the principle on which it is running. For all you need to follow all safety rules and do not rush.
When there comes a lull and critical challenges is received, engineers spend most of the time at the sites where friction to bring their acts to automatism. Special equipment sapper weighs around 16 kg, well, bulletproof vest, knee pads and the highest kevlar gates stifle the movement, but the inconvenience may suffer, because life is more expensive.
Each of pyrotechnics have kids. And yet, every day they risk their lives. They themselves they say that each chose a profession to their liking, and that if perfectly aware that in some situations it is better to do, the problems generally do not need to appear.
Specifically, in order to not appear problems with radio-controlled land mine clearance, used a special bag with which a cordoned area jammed radio waves. Next, begin to work with the dog handler. In order to make the dog feel adept explosives, no training runs.
Once dog see dangerous device sapper with narrow gauge, entrenching tool, and then digs his hands. After that, the person in charge of working with the land mine, hiding behind a shield, with a special mechanical arm moves the bomb in an armored tank. Even if now the bomb will explode and, in fact no adverse effects will be.
Hard to imagine for themselves, but in practice a couple of years back the uniforms of the sappers had only primitive mine detectors, but personal protective equipment. Now all this is, of course, is also in the arsenal of combat engineers, but now they can brag and special suit, mechanized means for detecting mines and shells, universal remote-controlled mine kits. In addition, the Russian Explosives also have night vision device for the localization of the explosion, a set of Inspection mirror, telescopic probes with disposable tips. Moreover, there are ultra-modern and mine detectors to find mines of various types.
Over the last couple of years have been developed for engineers special suits that can protect against various causes of the explosion. The structure of a suit comes protective jacket and pants, helmet with armored glass, anti-mine boots, gloves, Kevlar, and additional armor panels, designed to protect the most vulnerable areas of the body. Very fundamental feature of a suit is that it can be rapidly removed in case of an emergency.
All such suits have built-in voice communication, and climate control. In the suit has a self-contained power supply unit, which are designed for eight hours of continuous operation. On helmets, excluding remote control unit is set and a powerful flashlight.
Apart from a suit, to save the sapper from undermining and have new shoes, developed in Canada. They have already received the title of "Spider shoes." This device is a "foot-stilts", attached to the shoe. A similar device reduces the ability to touch mine, also forms a small gap Mezhuyev explosive device and shoe, reducing such Makar. The degree of damage of the explosion. The tests have shown that even in this
case, if the shoe hits the fuse, sapper receives significant damage. Not counting the "spider shoe", was developed as special nozzles started to carry out work on the sand or soil Myagenko.
Now, even in peacetime criteria, thousands of square miles around the globe are hazardous area due to the sheer number of remaining mines and missiles there. So relax sappers did not have to.