They became — a nuclear reactor
No one knew how to behave in the nuclear genie, enclosed in an iron "bottle" strong body, squeezed pressure of depth, but in the case of success benefit of this solution was very high. And the Americans took a chance. In 1955, 50 years after the first five dives the first American submarine, the water was launched first in the world ship with a nuclear engine. He was named in honor of Underwater boat, invented by Jules Verne — "Nautilus".
Home Russian nuclear fleet was laid in 1952, when intelligence reported to Stalin that the Americans began construction of a nuclear submarine. And after 6 years of Russian atomarina "K-3" spread his sides first snow-white sea, the Barents later, and then the Atlantic Ocean. Her commander was Captain 1st Rank Leonid Osipenko and creator — General Designer Vladimir Peregoudov. Apart from the tactical numbers at the "K-3" and had his own name, not as romantic as the Yankees, but in the spirit of the time — "Leninsky Komsomol". "In essence, CB Peregudova — said the historian Russian submarine fleet, Rear Admiral Nikolai Mormul — made a fundamentally new ship: from the external appearance to the product range.
Peregudova managed to make the shape of submarine, better to go under water, removing all that prevented its complete circularity. "
However, armed with the "K-3" were only a torpedo, and sought the same time dalnohodnyh, dolgohodnyh, and fundamentally other missile cruisers. And so in 1960 — 1980 years, the main rate did on missile submarines. And do not make a mistake. First, because the concrete atomariny — nomadic underwater raketodromy — were less vulnerable carriers of nuclear weapons. While underground missile silos at some point from space pinpoint to within a meter, and here became the first targets hit. Conscious of this, at first South American, and later Russian Navy became the placed missile silos in hard cases submarines.
Shestiraketnaya Nuclear submarine "K-19" Launched in 1961, was the first Russian rocket atomarinoy. Her cradle, precisely stocks stood stately academicians Alexandrov, Kovalev, Spassky, Queens. The boat struck and not out of habit highest underwater rate, and duration of stay under the water, and the criteria for crew comfort.
"In NATO, — says Nikolay Mormul — operated interstate integration: the United States built the only ocean-going fleet, England, Belgium, Netherlands — anti-submarine ships, while others specialize in ships for closed theaters of war. At this point we were leading shipbuilding for many tactical and technical elements. We were put into operation an integrated circuit speed and deep combat submarine, naikrupneyshie amphibious hovercraft. We are the first to introduce high-speed large anti-submarine ships on managed hydrofoil gas turbine power, supersonic cruise missile, rocket and landing WIG. It should, however, be noted that in the budget of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR Navy fraction does not exceed 15%, in the United States and England, it was two to three times more. "
Yet, according to the official historian of the Navy M. Monakova, combat strength of the Soviet Navy in the mid-80s "consisted of 192 nuclear submarines (including 60 strategic missile submarines use), 183 diesel submarines, five aircraft carriers (in including 3 languid type of "Kiev"), 38 cruisers and large anti-submarine ships of rank 1, 68 large anti-submarine ships and destroyers, 32 frigates of rank 2, more than 1,000 ships near maritime zones and combat boats, above the 1600 war and transport aircraft. The use of these forces was made for strategic nuclear deterrence and national interests of the country in the oceans. "
In the Russian Federation there has never been such a large and massive fleet.
In the years of peace — in so far and more than there is a clear title: "Cold War" in the oceans — divers and submarines in Russia killed more than in the Russian-Japanese, the first world war, civilian clothes, the Soviet-Finnish War, taken together. It was a real war against the Rams, explosions, fires, with sunken ships and mass graves dead crew. In its course, we lost 5 and 6 atomic diesel submarines. Opposing us U.S. Navy — 2 nuclear submarines.
The active phase of confrontation between the superpowers started in August of 1958, when the Russian submarines for the first time entered the Mediterranean Sea. Four "Eski" — submarine medium displacement "C" (613th project) — otshvartovalis in agreement with the Albanian government in the Bay of Vlora. Through year they have become 12. Underwater cruisers and destroyers circling in the depths of the oceans, tracking each other. But despite the fact that none of the majestic power had no such submarines as Russian Alliance — it was an unequal war. We did not have any 1st nuclear aircraft carrier and no comfort in geographical location database.
On the Neva River and the Northern Dvina in Portsmouth and Groton, on the Volga and Amur, in Charleston and Annapolis born new submarines, adding to the Joint Grand Fleet and NATO majestically underwater armada USSR. All defined the excitement of chasing the latest mistress of the seas — America, which proclaimed: "Who has the trident of Neptune, who has the world." The machine is a third world was running on idle …
Early 70's was one of the peaks in the ocean "cold war." In the midst of anger was the U.S. in Vietnam. Pacific Fleet submarines were monitoring the South American combat aircraft carriers kreysiruyuschimi in the South China Sea. In the Indian Ocean was once a volatile region — Bangladesh, where the Pakistani forces counter Russian trawlers mines exposed during the Indo-Pakistani conflict. Warmly was in the Mediterranean. In October, broke yet another Arab-Israeli war. Was mined the Suez Canal. Ships 5th operational squadron escorted Russian, Bulgarian, East German cargo ships and liners on all the rules of war, shielding them from terrorist attacks, missiles, torpedoes and mines. Every age has its own military logic. And the logic of confrontation between the world's maritime powers brutal nuclear missile fleet for the Soviet Union was a historical inevitability. In the many years we have played with America by taking away the title of Britain mistress of the seas, in the nuclear baseball.
Sad score in this match opened up America: April 10, 1963 nuclear submarine boat "Thresher" for unclear reasons sank at a depth of 2800 meters in the Atlantic Ocean. After 5 years of repeated disaster 450 miles southwest of the Azores: the atomic submarine "Scorpion" of the U.S. Navy with 99 sailors forever remaine
d in the three-kilometer depth. In 1968, sank in the Mediterranean for some unknown reasons, the French submarine boat "Minerve" Israel — "Dakar", as our diesel missile boat "K-129". On its board were and nuclear torpedoes. Despite the depth of four thousand meters, the Americans were able to pick up the first two sections of the submarine by faults. But instead of hidden documents have difficulties with the burial of the remains of Russian sailors and nuclear torpedoes lying in the nasal apparatus.
We leveled the score with the Yankees lost atomarin first in October 1986. Then in the 1000 km north-east of Bermuda in missile compartment submarine "K-219" exploded fuel. There was a fire. 20-year-old sailor Sergei Preminin could stifle both reactors, but he died. Superlodka remained at a depth of the Atlantic.
April 8, 1970 in the Bay of Biscay after the fire in deep sank the first Russian atomarina "K-8", taking with him 52 lives and two nuclear reactors.
April 7, 1989 in the Norwegian Sea sank atomarina "K-278" is more popular under the name of "Komsomolets". When submerged bow of the ship explosion actually destroyed and damaged the hull of the boat fighting torpedo with a nuclear charge. This disaster killed 42 people. "K-278" was a unique submarine. Specifically, it was supposed to begin with the construction of a deep navy XXI century. Titanium body allowed her to dive and act at a depth of a kilometer — in other words three times deeper than the rest of the submarines of the world …
Stan submarine was divided into two camps: those accused of bad luck and the high command of the crew, while others beheld the root of evil in low quality marine equipment and monopoly Minsudproma. This split has caused an angry debate in the press, and the country has finally figured out that this is our third sunken nuclear submarine. Newspapers are vying with each other to name the names of ships and submarines numbers killed in "peacetime" — battleship "Novorossiysk", large anti- ship "Brave" submarines "S-80" and "K-129", "S-178" and "B-37" … And, in the end, the last victim — Nuclear Submarine "Kursk".
We are not defeated … in the "cold war", but urged the world to reckon with the presence in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Pacific and Indian oceans of our submarines and our cruisers.
In the 60 years of nuclear submarines firmly established themselves in battle array South American, Russian, British and French fleets. Giving a new type of engine submarines, designers equip submarines and a new weapon — missiles. Now nuclear submarines (the Americans called them "boomers" or "sitikillerz" we — the strategic submarine cruisers purpose) began to threaten not only the world's shipping, and the world at large.
Imaginative concept of "arms race" has acquired a literal meaning when it came to such distinct characteristics, such as, for example, the speed underwater. Record Underwater speeds (none so far not broken) set our submarine "K-162" in 1969 to "dive — says party testing Rear Admiral Nikolai Mormul — chosen, the average depth — 100 meters. Have set in motion. With the growth speed all felt that the boat is moving with acceleration. After all, usually move under water notice unless on the testimony of lag. But here, as in the train — all led back. We heard the sound of water flowing past the boat. It grew along with the ship's speed, and when we crossed over 35 knots (65 km / h) in the ears already standing roar of aircraft. According to our estimates, the noise level reaches up to 100 decibels. In the end, left on record — sorokadvuhuzlovuyu speed! Not a single inhabitable "underwater missile" does not cut the thickness of the sea so swiftly. "
A new record was set Russian submarine "Komsomolets" for 5 years before his death. August 5, 1984 she made unprecedented in the history of military navigation dive to 1,000 meters.
In March of last year in the village of severoflotskom Gadzhievo celebrated the 30th anniversary of the fleet of nuclear submarines. It is here, in Lapland gluhomannyh bays, mastered the most difficult in the history of civilization equipment: atomohodnye underwater raketodromy. Specifically here in Gadzhievo, came to pervoprohodchikam Hydrospace first astronaut planet. Here, on board the "K-149", Yuri Gagarin, honestly, "Your ships more difficult gallakticheskih!" And God rocketry Sergei Queens, who offered to do the underwater missile for launch, said another significant phrase: "The missile under water — this is nonsense . But that's why I take to do it. "
And did … If I knew the Queens, that at one point, having started from the water, boat launch will not only cover the intercontinental distances, and run into space satellites. The first time it performed the crew gadzhievskogo submarine "K-407" under the command of Captain 1st Rank Alexander Moiseyev. July 7, 1998 in the history of space exploration gallakticheskogo was opened brand new Page: from the depths of the Barents Sea in the near-earth orbit regular ship missile was launched artificial satellite of the Earth …
And a new type of engine — a single, oxygen-free, and occasionally (once every couple of years) refillable fuel — has permitted the population of the earth to seep into the last area of the planet unattainable until now — under the Arctic ice dome. In the last years of the XX century, talking about what nuclear submarines — a terrific Trans-ts. The shortest path from the Western Hemisphere in eastern lies under the ice of the Arctic Ocean. But if atomariny converted to a submarine tankers, freighters and even cruise ships, it will be revealed to the world shipping brand new era. In the meantime, the very first ship of the Russian Navy in the XXI century was the nuclear submarine "Gepard". In January 2001 it was raised wrapped up in the glory of a century St. Andrew's flag.