January 17, 2013 18:37
Tourists ferried in Canakkale Dardanelles Strait, usually so keen on stories about the armies of Xerxes and Alexander the Great, crossed the Dardanelles centuries ago, which does not pay attention to the modest bust, mounted on the European side of the strait near the crossing. Few people know that the modest signature "Piri Reis" under the bust connects this place with one of the most intriguing mysteries of history.
In 1929, in one of the ancient palaces of Constantinople was detected card, dated 1513 year. Map may not be aroused much interest, if not a picture on it of the Americas (one of the earliest stories) and signature of the Turkish admiral Piri Reis. Then, in the 20s, in the wake of the national recovery, the Turks were particularly important to emphasize the role of the Turkish cartographer in creating one of the earliest maps of America. Began to study the map carefully, as well as the story of its creation. And this is what became known.
In 1513, the Turkish fleet admiral Piri Reis finished work on a large map of the world for his atlas "Bahriye." He did not so much traveling, but, Mapping, used about 20 cartographic sources. Eight of them date back to the maps of Ptolemy, some belonged to Alexander the Great, and one as Piri Reis wrote his book "Seven Seas", "was recently named the wrong Colombo." And then the Admiral says: "Invalid named Colombo, Genovese, opened the land. In the hands of the named Colombo got one book, which he read that on the edge of the Western Sea, far to the west, there is the beach and the island. There we find all sorts of metals and precious stones. Colombo aforesaid long studied this book … about passion natives to glass ornaments Colombo also learned from this book and took them with him to exchange for gold. "
Leaving aside the Columbus and his mysterious book, even a direct reference to the fact that he knew where to sail, already striking. Before us, unfortunately, has not reached neither the book nor map of Columbus. And here are some map sheets of satin "Bahriye" miraculously survived and in 1811 have been published in Europe. But then they did not attach much importance. Only in 1956, when a Turkish naval officer gave a gift card to American naval hydrographic office, the U.S. military cartographers conducted a study to confirm or refute the seemingly impossible: on the map was a picture of the coastline of Antarctica — for 300 years before it opened!
Soon after the report was received: "The claim that the lower part of the map shows the Princess Martha Coast [part] of the Queen Maud Land in Antarctica, and the Palmer Peninsula, is groundless. We found this explanation is the most logical and probably correct. Geographical details portrayed in the bottom of the map, in excellent agreement with the seismic data, performed through the thickness of the ice cap of the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition in 1949. This means that the coastline had been mapped before it was covered with ice. Ice in the area has a thickness of about 1.5 km. We have no clue how this data could be obtained with the proposed level of geographical knowledge in 1513. "
Since the beginning of the Piri Reis map to open its secrets. Here are just some of them.
Map accurately display coastline of Antarctica
Antarctica as a continent was opened in 1818, but many cartographers, including Gerard Mercator, and until that time believed in the extreme south of the continent, and applied to the cards his alleged shape. Piri Reis map is, as has already been said, accurately reflects the coastline of Antarctica — for 300 years before it opened!
But it is not the biggest mystery, especially since there are several ancient maps, including the Mercator map, which, as it turns out, is shown, and very accurately, Antarctica. Previously, it just did not pay attention because the "appearance" of the continent on the map can be very distorted depending on the map projections, not so easy to project onto the plane surface of the globe. The fact that many of the ancient maps accurately reproduce not only Antarctica but also other continents, it became known after done in the middle of the last century, calculations based on various projections, which used old maps.
But the fact that the Piri Reis map shows the coast of Antarctica, is not covered by ice — difficult to comprehension! After all, the modern look of the southern coastline of the continent is set thick ice cover, go far beyond the actual land. It turns out that the Piri Reis use the sources, who were people who had seen the glaciers of Antarctica to? But this can not be, because these people would have to live millions of years ago! The only accept modern scientists explain this fact — the theory of periodic change of the poles of the Earth, according to which the last such change could have occurred about 6,000 years ago, and it was then that Antarctica was recovering freeze. We are talking about the navigators, who lived 6000 years ago and formed the respective card (both Piri Reis map) were updated today? Unbelievable …
Card is linked to Cairo
Interestingly, the Piri Reis map and gives an answer to the question of where they lived, these ancient mariners. (Or not sailors if they used other means of transportation?) The fact that a professional cartographer, studying ancient maps and comparing it with modern, can determine what type of projection used the card maker. And when the Piri Reis map was compared with modern, compiled in the polar equal area and found them almost complete similarity. In particular, the map of the XVI century Turkish admiral literally repeats the map prepared by the U.S. Air Force during World War II.
But the map, drawn up in the polar equal area must have a center. In the case of the U.S. it was a map of Cairo, where the war was an American military base. And from this, as shown by the Chicago scientist Charles Hapgood, having thoroughly studied the Piri Reis map, directly follows that the center of an ancient map, which became the prototype card admiral, was there, in Cairo, or the surrounding area. That is ancient cartographers were Egyptians who lived in Memphis, or their more ancient ancestors, have made it a point of reference.
The mathematical apparatus of cartographers
But no matter who they were, they skilfully owned his craft. Once researchers began to study the extant fragments of the Turkish admiral cards in front of them was a question about the authorship of its source. Piri Reis map is a so-called portulanom, Charts, allows you to build the "lines between the ports," that is navigating between the port cities. In the XV-XVI centuries, these cards were much more perfect cards sushi, but, as one of the leading scholars in the field of AE Nordenskiöld, they did not develop. Ie maps XV century were of the same quality as the card century XIV. This, in his view, shows that the skill of cartographers were not acquired and borrowed, that is, simply put, they just redraw the older cards, which in itself is natural.
But that does not fit in my head — and it is the accuracy of a mathematical apparatus, without which these constructions are simply impossible to fulfill. Here are some facts.
It is known that the construction of a geographical map, that is, display areas on a plane, you need to know the size of the sphere, that is the Earth. Circle the globe in ancient times was able to measure the Eratosthenes, but did it with a large error. To the XV century, these data did not specify one. However, a thorough investigation of the origin of objects on the map Pirie points out that the size of the Earth into account without error, that is available to the compilers of maps were more accurate information about the planet (not to mention the fact that they represented her ball). Researchers Turkish maps also clearly demonstrated that the drafters of the original source of the mysterious ancient owned trigonometry (Reis map drawn using planar geometry, where the latitude and longitude are at right angles. But it was copied from a card with a spherical trigonometry! Ancient cartographers not only knew that the Earth the ball, but the calculated length of the equator to within about 100 km!) and map projections, which were not known or Eratosphen or even Ptolemy, and they could theoretically use the old maps are stored in the Library of Alexandria. That is the source map clearly more ancient.
The map shows the Americas
Piri Reis map — one of the first, which are the Americas. It is composed of 21 years after the voyage of Columbus and the "official" discovery of America. And it marked not only the exact coastline and rivers, and even the Andes. And this despite the fact that he did not map the Columbus America, sailed only to the Caribbean!
The mouths of some rivers, including the Orinoco, the Piri Reis map shows the "mistake": not specified deltas. However, it says rather than an error, and about what happened over time expanding deltas, as it was with the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia in the last 3500 years.
Columbus knew where floats
Piri Reis claimed that Columbus knew where he floats through the book that has fallen into his hands. The fact that his wife was the daughter of Columbus Grand Master, had already by that time the name of the Knights Templar, has considerable archives of old books and maps, points to a possible way of acquiring a mysterious book (to date much has been written about the Navy Templar and the high probability of their regular voyages in America.)
There are many facts that indirectly confirm that Columbus owned one of the cards, which served as the source for the Piri Reis map. For example, Columbus did not stop the ship at night, as was the fear of fly on a reef in uncharted waters, and was under full sail, as if knowing exactly what obstacles will be. When the ship began to riot because the promised land is not shown, he managed to convince the sailors to wait another 1,000 miles, and I was right — exactly 1,000 miles seemed a welcome shore. Columbus was carrying a supply of glass jewelry, hoping to exchange them for gold from the Indians, as recommended in his book. Finally, on each ship had a sealed envelope with instructions on what to do in the event that during the storm the ships lose sight of each other. In short, the discoverer of America was well aware that he was not the first.
Piri Reis map — not only
A map of the Turkish admiral, which served as a source for including maps of Columbus, the only of its kind. If you ask for, as did Charles Hapgood, compare the images of Antarctica on several maps made before its "official" opening, there will be no doubt about the existence of a common source. Hapgood carefully compared the maps Peary Aranteusa Finausa, Haji Ahmed and Mercator, created at different times and independently from each other, and found that they all used the same unknown source, which enabled with the greatest certainty to represent the polar continent long before it opened.
Most likely, we will not know for sure when and who created this source. But its existence conclusively proven by researchers card Turkish admiral, indicates the existence of some ancient civilization to the level of scientific knowledge, which is comparable with a modern, at least in the field of geography (map Peary, as already mentioned, has helped to clarify some of the modern maps). This casts doubt on the hypothesis of a gradual linear progress of mankind in general and science in particular. One gets the feeling that the greatest knowledge of nature, as if obeying the law of the unknown, at some point become available to mankind, then to be lost … and be reborn again when it's time. And who knows how many discoveries will conceal the next discovery?