History of in the proper sense is quite unique. No people in the world whose representatives would podymali to such heights of self-denial and self-sacrifice for the sake of their own homeland, and there's people from the ranks of which would come out as traitors, ready to go into all the meanness to inflict more harm to the land, grow them, which gave the name and education. A string of endless number Kurbski, Mazepa, Vlasova, vovalevyh, Kasparov and Novodvorskaya able to circumnavigate the globe a dozen times and probably stretch from the Capital of the Kremlin until the moon.
The most disgusting is that these traitors have in Russian society to the present. In the world of the Web, they were apt nickname of "defeatists." First, since constantly want to RF lesions in all endeavors. They heartily (either real reward) believe in the fact that our homeland will die, fall apart, dies, that all its leaders — the traitors that people — silly slackers and zapivohi that all was lost and that the Russian has long been time to go to the cemetery and die quietly, so as not to interfere with the development of all other civilizations. "Defeatists" always "against!." They are against all endeavors, initiatives and plans of the Russian state, they are always fully convinced that the ruling "regime" in Russia need to throw in a whirlwind of revolutionary violence. They were against the royal "tyranny" were later against the "communist prisons", now they are against malicious "occupation regime". Meaning, the essence of the government's never interested. They are only interested in how well it will turn out to overthrow the government. As known to all and sundry "International" are known to them only half the lines:
"The whole world of violence we destroy,
to the ground and … "
The forthcoming text for defeatists does not make sense, since nothing except destruction, they do not understand the intensity.
Why I intended not so little attention is hereby null and void creatures?
First, as in the course of the twentieth century "defeatist" twice managed to come to power in Russia and to make their dreams come true in practice. It came out in 1917 and 1990. Both times, the result of their short reign was completely similar: the loss of significant Russian territories, the bloody internal conflict, the destruction of the army and the economy. And both times Russia had to raise from the ruins of a great personality with bukovkoy, chances are, the successes and troubles me, and I would like to compare to this article.
To conduct this analysis also prompted me to work, the first paragraph of which I am willing to lead all the way to something does not make a mess. So:
"The crisis in the Russian economy during the 1914-1921 period.
Zorkal'tsev Valery Ivanovich — head of the department of applied arithmetic Institute of Energy Systems, Ph.D., Doctor.
Corned beef Zoya V. — student Municipal Institute of Irkutsk. She has prepared a thesis project on the dilemmas of Russian economy in the 20's.
In this and the following articles on the economic history of the XX century, the Russian Federation except the designated literature will be used by Boris Pavlovich Orlov lecture on the history of the Soviet economy, which he read for students of Economics Department of the Novosibirsk Institute for many years. Research is conducted with the support of Russian Foundation for the Humanities, the project № 00-02-00069 ».
Personally, I was most intrigued to study a small sign with the dry figures, which were compared to the results of 2-worst crises of the twentieth century, as a result of which the fall of the Russian economy amounted to:
It is easy to see that the results of the reforms Yeltsin / Gorbachev in its results were virtually equal to the results of economic decline as a result of the First World War and the bloody war in civilian areas of the USSR taken together.
How to solve the problem with a similar legacy of the rulers, moved the junta "defeatists"? Let's try to look at their actions during their stay on the imperative Olympus.
Putin and Stalin. Beginning of the reign of these politicians are very similar. This is the figure of the "middle ground", little known to the general public who do not have in their own hands the levers of real imperative, links, popularity. These figures are displayed upstairs, then to use them as puppets, controlling the situation out of the shadows. But the two heroes of our research for its own puppeteers suddenly showed character and of the performers were able to transform into real figures. Hardly Zinoviev and Kamenev, Stalin appointing the Secretary-General, waiting their protege soon sentenced both to death. Hardly Berezovsky, Putin leading the campaign, think out that soon, and he'll have to hide from the new president in the global gangster sump.
In 1926, in the fourth year of the reign, Stalin brought from the Central Committee of Kamenev, Trotsky, Zinoviev, getting rid of the main opponents. In 2004, for the fourth year, Putin has sent down Kasyanov, getting rid of the head representative of the "family." As can be seen, in terms of taking on mandatory leverage both the governor, too, were identical for a surprise. We'll see how successful they have been in other areas of their activities.
Stalin was elected to the just established the post of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) in 1922 on the initiative of Lenin and Kamenev. Usmotritelny pragmatist, a professional technologist power, he seemed a nice performer. Stalin had to clean up the balance of the party cadres. In 1923, he introduced a system of "nomenklatura," organized party apparatus, the bureaucrats who owed his nomination to Stalin. Growth, the impact of the unit in 1920. Stalin ensured success in the inner-struggle. (C & M)
It should be noted that initially the position of General Secretary of the Central Committee was of faster technical in nature, but by the end of the 20s Stalin concentrated in his hands so much personal power that the office has become associated with a higher post in the party leadership, but got tired of the CPSU (b) does not foresaw its existence.
By the time of Stalin's accession to the position, which became for him a perpetual, the Soviet Union had already started (in 1921) to develop NEP (Bimbo Financial Policy).
In just 5 years, from 1921 to 1926, the index of industrial production increased more than 3 times; agricultural establishment has increased by 2 times and exceeded the 18% level in 1913 And after the end of the recovery period lasted spirited growth rates: in 1927 and 1928. industrial production grew by 13 and 19%, respectively. In general, for the period 1921-1928 years. average annual growth rate of national income was 18%.
In the industry, and other industries has been restored monetary remuneration, introduced tariffs, wages, excluding equalization, and lifted restrictions for earnings growth with an increase in output. Labor armies were eliminated, canceled of mandatory national service and the main constra
ints on the change work. Work organization built on the principles of a real stimulus came to replace the non-economic coercion "war communism." The absolute number of unemployed registered with the labor exchange in the period of the NEP has increased (from 1.2 million in 1924 initially to 1.7 million people at first in 1929), but the expansion of the labor market was even more significant (the number of workers and employees in all sectors of the economy has risen from 5.8 million in 1924 to 12.4 million in 1929), so that the unemployment rate fell substantially.
The industry and commerce appeared personal sector, some municipal enterprises were denationalized, while others — leased; were allowed to create their own personal party manufacturing companies that employ fewer than 20 people (later this "ceiling" has been raised.) In the middle of the paid "private traders" factories were those who numbered 200-300 people, and in general, the share of private sector in the period of the NEP accounted for about one fifth of industrial products, 40-80% of the retail trade, and a small part of the wholesale trade. (Quote from Wikipedia)
Poorly educated or wishing to belittle other people's achievements read people very love that the success of the Russian Federation appear by themselves, as a result of natural development progress, and to praise the government for new factories, and for the welfare of the people can not satiety. In fact it is, of course, not the case and the examples are innumerable. No "natural progression" can not catch up in terms of life and the index of production of North and South Korea, Argentina and France, Brazil and Russia, Switzerland and Georgia. Honesty and willingness to follow the interests of the country are always decisive. For the USSR during the NEP was the catalyst for a competent financial policy of the government.
Instead devalued and rejected by practically Sovznaks turnover in 1922 was launched the newest unit of currency — gold pieces that took the gold content of the course and in gold (1 gold piece = 10 pre-revolutionary gold rubles = 7.74 g untainted gold). In 1924, the Soviet notes rapidly displaces the gold coins in general have finished printing and seized of the appeal, in the same year, the budget was balanced and allowed the introduction of the currency issue to cover the costs of the country, were issued new Treasury notes — rubles (10 rubles = 1 ten rubles). In the money market as inside the country and abroad freely exchanged for gold coins and gold major foreign currencies at pre-war exchange rate of the ruble Royal (South American 1 dollar = 1.94 rubles).
Revived the credit system. In 1921 he was re-established State Bank of the USSR, which began lending industry and trade on a commercial basis. In the 1922-1925 years. was created by a number of specialized banks: the companies in which shareholders are the State Bank, syndicates, cooperatives, private, and at one time even overseas for lending to individual industries and regions of the country; cooperative — for credit consumer cooperatives, organized on shares of agricultural credit societies, the closing at the national and central agricultural banks, mutual societies credit — personal loans for industry and trade; BEAC cash — to mobilize foreign population clusters. On 1 October 1923 the country had 17 independent banks and the State Bank fraction of total credit investments in the banking system accounted for two thirds. By October 1, 1926 the number of banks has increased to 61, and the fraction of the State Bank in lending to the economy dropped to 48%. (Wikipedia)
Reform was carried out under the control of the People's Commissar of money GY Sokolnikova. But all the same it was the victory of Stalin, who has already become one of the managers of the country to choose such control on the post of Commissar and his supporting act. Stalin was equally imperative for itself confiscates arms, eliminating enemies: in 1926, removed from the Politburo, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev — authoritative enemies of Stalin, the old Bolsheviks, the participants of the revolution, opposed the politics and power of the "leader."
But economic policy was not all that smooth. The achieved level of life of the royal Russian Federation was obviously lacking to ensure social stability — its smallest decline threatened by new social upheavals. In 1923 and 1925. the country even drove workers strike against the "working" of the country.
To restore the power industry the most violent way to use the "scissors" prices when deliberately inflate the price of industrial products and food prices are undercounted. So makarom Bolsheviks shifted burden of the economic recovery of the country on the shoulders of farmers. The result was not long to expect:
By 1927, after a 2-yielding years, the peasantry have accumulated stores of grain and money. Industrial products, which he needed, it was nearly impossible to acquire. Tools inflation devalued again, in such an uncertain situation grain exerted the most reliable currency. The peasants, who had huge supplies of grain, there was no point in sending them to the market. Moreover, they "regulate" the creation, reducing its volume in accordance with more than moderate ability to buy something from the town. In 1926-1927,. the creation of bread had fallen by 300 million pounds. In the 1927-1928. government was able to procure 630 million tons of grain, which was less than half the harvested tsarist government. Bread lacked not only for the construction of new companies, and to ensure the cities. The 1927-1928 winter. in the towns for the first time since 1921 there were bread lines.
In January 1928, Stalin authorized the use of "extraordinary ways procurements", in other words, the administrative withdrawal of grain from farmers, accompanied by arbitrary authority and repression. Began intensively used article of the Criminal Code on "speculation" bread, which was adjusted by trial and bring the bread market method. Emergency measures were given bread in 1928, but recaptured the farmers desire to create his excesses. In August 1929 the Soviet Union was a card system. (C & M)
This situation prompted the collapse of Stalin's economy "NEP" and try to make an arbitrary decision sharp jolt the economy. This step is the development of the USSR received the name of "industrialization".
In rural areas, the intensification of Stalin resulted in the forced amalgamation of farms. After all, as you know, almost always — the larger the farm, the higher the productivity of labor, the greater the ability for its mechanization, the lower the cost. Enlargement performed by the small details of the property owners in the collective farms.
Collectivization was carried out in the traditional medieval tradition of "ring-fencing" and had virtually the same consequences for rural dwellers: the taking of lands, the finale of their villages, the repression of the discontented. In the process of forced collectivization of agriculture, held in the USSR in 1928-1932 gg., One of the directions of state policy was anti-Soviet oppression of the farmers and the associated "liquidation of the kulaks as a class" — "cannibalization" of alleged extrajudicial deprivation and force-rich farmers using hired labor, all means of production, land and civilian rights and evictions in remote areas of the country. In the fight against "kulaks" for the years 1930-1931, as indicated in the certificate of the Division for special settlers GULAG OGPU, was sent to special settlements 381,026 families a total of 1,803,392 people.
The main results of collectivization was four.
1. Collective farms in the next really showed significantly more higher productivity.
2. Available Stalin was a significant amount of hands: the city came to the same farmers that proved unneces
sary in the countryside.
3. Collectivization led to widespread famine in the USSR in 1932-1933, which claimed, according to various estimates, from 2 to 8 million people. (Wikipedia, the famine in the USSR (1932-1933)).
Prerequisites hunger are on the surface: the rich farmers do not lusted simple, so bestow on their own livestock and property power, they preferred to eat a milk cow or ox draft power, but did not give the farm. Later it became clear that there is nothing on the farm where there is no plowing, no milk, no seed grain, without the repressed "fist" the poor are not able to organize the planting, etc.
4. Came a sharp decline in living standards of farmers.
Average standard of living of the rural population for the subsequent history of the Soviet Union never returned to features in 1929
Collectivization was a disaster for agriculture According to official data, the gross grain harvests declined from 733.3 million centners in 1928 to 696.7 million in 1931-32 c. Grain yield in 1932 was 5.7 t / ha compared to 8.2 t / ha in 1913. Gross agricultural output in 1928 was 124% compared with 1913, in 1929 — 121%, in 1930 — 117%, in 1931 — 114%, in 1932 — 107%, in 1933 — 101% Livestock production was in 1933 65% of the 1913 level. (Wikipedia, Stalin)
The money gained from destroying farms, from the sale of raw materials over the limit, and even works of art that have freed the hands of rural workers were targeted by Stalin in the Soviet Union on the development of heavy industry.
Rapid industrialization was carried out during the first five years. First Five-Year Plan (1928-1932) was designed with the mid-1920s. in the structures of the State Planning Commission and the SEC. V Congress of Soviets of the USSR (20 -28 May 1929), approved the plan into law. If the previous decade finansovlozheniya totaled 26.5 billion. rub., now planned 64.6 billion., with all this investment in the industry has risen significantly faster — with 4.4 billion. to 16.4 billion dollars. rub. 78% of investments in the industry on establishing the means of production rather than consumer products. This meant the withdrawal of funds from the large farms, which could give out a couple of years. Industrial production had to grow for five years by 180%, and the creation of the means of production — 230%. 16-18% of the peasantry was to be collectivized. Labor productivity would go up by 110%, wages — by 71%, while the income of farmers — by 67%. (C & M)
In 1930, construction was deployed about 1,500 objects, of which 50 have sucked nearly half of all finansovlozheny. Was erected a number of industrial buildings Cyclopean: DnieproGES, metallurgical factory in Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, Lipetsk and, Novokuznetsk, Norilsk, also Uralmash, tractor factory in Volgograd, Chelyabinsk, Kharkov, UralVagonZavod, GAZ, VMS. However, about 40% in 1930 finansovlozheny had to freeze construction in progress because of the inefficiency of planning and put in place in throughout the 1930s. The focus (finance, procurement, etc.) to provide 50-60 shock construction projects. For their implemented massive importation of machinery from abroad. From abroad were invited engineers, many well-known companies such as Siemens-Schuckertwerke AG and General Electric, to involve and produced supply of modern equipment.
The industrialization of high costs and sought to import equipment, and to maintain the current low level of workers employed as construction sites themselves and in the extraction of raw materials for them. Difficulties cash shortage is partly solved by domestic loans, the growth of the vodka issue (in the 1929-1932 monetary supply increased by 4 times (which led to a growth in prices and a lack of consumer products.)), Taxes, export, timber, oil, furs Also bread, large volumes of which were required inside the country.
Rapid construction industry giants has led to the ruin of the rest of the economy. In the conditions of modern ruin Stalin decided to declare the leap into a bright future. Speaking at the plenary session of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission, January 7, 1933, he stated that the five-year plan made in advance for four years and four months.
The actual results were more modest five-year period of Stalin's plans. The best plan was executed in 1929 for the production of oil and gas, peat, locomotives and agricultural machinery. For the production of electricity, iron, steel, rolled products, coal, iron ore was made even starting the plan in 1929. Create tractors funded above just before it. By 1930 the plans could not even come close. Creation of oil even on outstanding data have gained 22.2 million tons in 1930, the planned 40-42 million tons of steel — 5.9 million tons of the planned 12 million tons, tractors — 50 thousand. scheduled for November 1929 201 thousand., power generation 13100000000. kw. including the planned 33-35 billion in 1930. (K & M Industrialization)
The merits of Stalin for the first five years on the main characteristics were as follows:
Rental ferrous metals — Growth, 129%
Creating electricity — growth, 270%
Oil production — increase, 184%
Creating cement — growth, 194%
Create sugar — falling to 65% from the level in 1928
Footwear — increase, 150%
Through the development of Russian tractor, in 1932, the Soviet Union refused to import tractors from abroad.
In 1930, the Soviet Union had introduced universal initial education, and in the cities — an indispensable seven years.
But not everything in the life of the Russian people was so rosy.
On the contrary, according to the views of critics of industrialization, it was bad obmyslennoy, which was manifested in a series of declared "fractures" (April-May 1929, January-February 1930, June 1931). There was an excellent and thoroughly politicized system, the relevant features of which were economic "megalomania", acquired the goods shortage, organizational prepyadstviya, profligacy and loss-making companies. Target (ie, the plan) was to determine the means for its implementation. Neglect of real software and infrastructure development over time was applied to significant economic harm.
Industrialization sought all the huge labor costs, verbovaniya million slum villages in the town and was accompanied by a sharp fall in real wages. Zeal to fulfill the plan led to the setting-voltage power and a permanent search of circumstances to justify the failure to comply with excessive problems. Because of this, industrialization could not eat alone enthusiasm and achieved a number of coercive nature. Since 1930 the free movement of labor was forbidden to have been introduced criminal penalties for violations of labor discipline and negligence. Since 1931, the workers were responsible for the damage caused to the equipment. In 1932, he became probable forced transfer of labor between enterprises, for the theft of state property was put to death. December 27, 1932 was rebuilt internal passport that Lenin once condemned as "Tsarist despotism and backwardness." Despite the efforts to increase productivity, in practice the average labor productivity in 1932 compared with 1928 fell by 8%.
Russian propaganda also argued that economic growth, wore a unparalleled character. Studies show that the rate of growth of GDP and in the USSR (the aforementioned 4.6%) were comparable with similar indicators in Germany in the years 1930-38. (4.4%), and inferior to the growth in the Land of the Rising Sun (6.3%). (Vikipediya. industrialization of the USSR)
In addition rapid industrialization was accompanied by repression, when economic woes was accused of "wreckers and saboteurs", organized things like "Shachtinsky", "Industrial Party", "Farmer Labor Party," "Federal Bureau".
One of the important characteristics of the results was the growth spurt of Stalin, the level of consumption per capita. He grew … by 22% in 10 yea
rs from 1928 to 1938. In other words, the welfare of the people grew by 2.2% per year. Western historians in this place love to add that the improvement of well-being stung in the main nomenclature and select "shock troops" of the working environment, and go unnoticed to all other populations.
Perhaps at this point it's time to study the achievements of Stalin's finish. 1932, the end of the first five years — this is not an eight-and ten-year limit Stalin stay in power. Let's result. Having come to the office of Secretary General in 1922, Stalin got their hands on the country in which, thanks to the NEP, a year that began to rise, industry and agriculture. Thanks to the correct policy of the government as early as 1927 the Russian economy had skipped the pre-crisis level, the rate of use headed for use in the pre-war level, the tsarist era. The next breakthrough to the industrial growth of 4.6% per year, but has led to a decline in the production of agriculture and was followed by reprisals against people who are unhappy with the state's policy. In general, the initial industrialization of the USSR, the Russian people had to pay tyschami of human lives and the freezing of living on a pre-revolutionary level for a very long years.
In addition, the first step in the development of the country "by Stalin" was accompanied by a series of economic crises in the end brought the country — regardless of the time of peace! — A card system and almost medieval subjugation of the working class and the peasantry.
But, untainted number insidious and do not reflect the whole picture of what was happening in the country.
First, 4.6% per year — it is not just the increase in industrial production. Non-economic methods developed specifically languid industry: metallurgy, machinery, tractors. In other words, the USSR is a base that is allowed to do in the future as a powerful branch of the defense and to gain independence in the forthcoming development of its own production. Even in the midst of pro-Western historians not convinced that a similar industry could emerge on the basis of the NEP. Acts of Stalin, for all their ruthlessness, were focused on preserving the country's future, its future security.
The population of the Soviet Union, though not beheld improve their real situation, yet the country has received the right to free medical service, free education. Awesome for long goods, the envy of the people in all the surrounding countries. At that time, as the 10's of thousands of people cursing and lusted after Stalin's death to him and to the Bolsheviks, many millions were able to learn to read, to become engineers, officers, pilots, tank crews, skilled workers. Most of them understood that under the previous government such a career for rural adolescents was impossible. People beheld before him the prospect, believed in the possibility of a bright future that is just beginning to build in their eyes were full of interest, feel happy. Such confidence in the next day, too, can be attributed to Joseph Stalin prizes.
Putin the de facto ruler of the modern Russian Federation 1 January 2000.
The legacy he got much more difficult, if Stalin. If the disruption in the economy after the war and civilian reforms Yeltsin was approximately similar in scope, then Stalin was a peaceful country, has already begun to revive after the violence of the defeatists. The president was number 2 in the heart of the collapse of organized defeatists. Across the country raged payments crisis, rolling blackouts of electricity and heat were the norm, payable on pensions and salaries in some areas reached 2 years, delays in foreign currency allowances in the army — many months. Vpribavok, the Caucasus was a very real regional war in the finals of which the majority of the population had strong doubts. RF rebuked defeat in the first war, and people were convinced that they had forbidden to beat again — with the defeatists shouting about such a future is open and exaltation.
GDP but said, "wet" — and it was made. During the second war in Chechnya was not on the neck noose with which they were forced to nepobezhdat in past times. I have not forgotten — resentful all the same — as M. Leontiev begged on television, that the troops have reached at least to the Terek and defended the eternal Russian land. Even in this one did not believe! From all sides vigorously sought to make our homeland did not go over the border of Chechnya, that she did not pass the Terek, so she did not climb into the mountains — so at least she has entered into negotiations! I do not know how hard it was to survive GDP — but it has permitted the military to reach the end.
The war is over — but for the economic recovery required a very long painstaking work. Non-payment, delayed salaries and pensions, unemployment, blackouts … According to the country scoured defeatists: Berezovsky, Gusinsky and others like them were created Hopper, Ava and the rest MMMy. They fatten, sucking out the already impoverished people everywhere and everything, down to the last penny and the last drop of blood, milled economy, trying to change the Russian industry by foreign concessions — and this is something where they even managed! According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in the year 2000-2002 in Russia were suffering from hunger 4% of the population (5.2 million people).
Required to stop the degradation of the country, turn to the best development.
For the assessment of the economic situation, I enjoyed the work of a doctor, Doctor of Technical Sciences AI Orlov. Worthy of special: born in 1949, Dr. (1995 — in the department of mathematical economics), Doctor of Technical Sciences (1992 — on the application of mathematical methods), the candidate of physical and mathematical sciences (1976 — Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics), 18 books and textbooks.
So, a quote from an article from 1999:
The actual article is aimed at the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation and the dynamics of the main macroeconomic indicators — gross domestic product (GDP) growth of 7 years (2000-2007). During this period, there will be different political action, namely, at least another round of parliamentary and presidential elections (provided that the current political structures), the results of which can not be predicted exactly. Because prognosis can only be produced separately for each scenario of a certain palette, spanning the likely path of socio-economic dynamics of.
Alternately make out these scenarios:
scenario "Continuation of reforms" (on the instructions of a possible enemy);
scenario of "stagnation" (dynamic equilibrium of forces reformers and patriots, as a consequence — the inhibition of "reform");
scenario "Changing course in the direction of Russia's national interests" (implies a shift of state power in the hands of the Patriots);
scenario "Troubles" (final struggle — the collapse of the Russian Federation on the individual municipalities).
As shown above, the conversion ("reform"), implemented since 1987, impartially does not lead to the development of market economy, ie the construction of capitalism and the destruction of the Russian Federation as an independent country. The next steps of this destruction — begin reform of the army, education, science, housing and communal services, the privatization of the remaining state property, the transition to the free sale of land, etc. Since the real (executive) power in Russia belongs in the main proponents of the "reforms", the script of the upcoming reform course entirely likely.
The script of the upcoming reform of the course is based on guesswork smooth implementation plans for a possible opponent, as the transformation ("reform"), implemented since 1987, impartially contribute specifically to this.
We now tu
rn to the forecast of GDP growth. Let us accept the assumption that the average rate of decline of GDP for the years 1992-1996. (1997, from this point of view, is not typical, it is faster corresponds to the scenario of stagnation) was elected as possible to the enemy is normal — from the standpoint of its objectives. Let us take the official figures: over 5 years (1992-1996). Decline in GDP was 38.6%, ie an average of 9.3% per year. At this rate of GDP decline in 2007 amount to 34.2% of GDP in 1996, or 19.9% of the 1990 level Given the underestimation of inflation authorities to 2 times — 10% of the level in 1990 (This slightly larger than the decline in production in the USSR in 1923 — after the end of civilian war — in comparison with 1913) is up to date on it will fit the post-war period (1948 or 1923), but with a somewhat preserved in the population with housing , the clothes, televisions …
Draw another calculation, taking the 1992-1997. the six-year cycle of "shock-stabilization" and using official data (the results are controversial 1997 — from 100.4% according to government data on 98.4% Chairman of the Duma Committee on conversion G.V.Kostina). Over 6 years (1992-1997). Decline in GDP was 38.4%, ie an average of 7.75% per annum. At this rate of GDP decline in 2007 amount to 44.6% of GDP in 1997, or 26.1% of the 1990 level Given the underestimation of inflation authorities to 2 times — 13% of the 1990 level
Thus, the forecast for the official data gives GDP in 2007 will amount to 19,9-26,1% of the 1990 level, or 34,1-44,6% of the 1997 level, which corresponds to approximately 37,5-50.6 % of the 1999
If we assume that the financing of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in 2007 will be the same percentage of GDP, and in 1997, it will be reduced by 2.24 — 2.93 times, while compared with 1990 — 3 , 83 — 5.03 times. The reasons described above, actual financing will be approximately halved. Will be destroyed operating structure of the Armed Forces, significantly reduced their combat effectiveness and readiness. Of course, this is the purpose of a possible opponent.
Inclusion of 1998 and 1999. impractical because the recognizable "August crisis" in 1998 — is an analogue of "shock therapy" in 1992 is interesting that all strata of Russian society was the fall of the current level of 2 times in the end of August 1998 crisis fairly quiet. Although the magnitude of this decline was only nekordinalno less decline over the past years. For 1991-1997. current level fell by approximately 2.5 times. "Shock therapy" intensely open a discussion, there were numerous protests from abroad was humanitarian aid. In 1998, everything was relaxed. Perhaps the real scale of the disaster were not comprehended, namely, therefore, inflation stood at the end of 1998 "only" 80% compared with 2600% in 1992 Maybe people get used to the permanent loss of welfare. Eventual outcome is favorable to the enemy. He points out that you can "quietly" to continue to significantly reduce the current level of the Russians. Is near "ideal" when a plate of soup a day of charity is the highest good. Recall that the overall result for the years 1991-1999. — A fall in real incomes at very least 5 times.
The script for "Changing course in the direction of Russia's national interests." As carefully explained above and the pursuit of "reform" leads to death of. The transition to independence and the protection of the public interest of, to rebuild the economy and the state of cultural and moral values has long been overdue. Not once formulated a set of economic and political measures, revealing the meaning of this so desired RF transition. It can be associated with measures to restore the economy after the mighty Russian civilian wars.
Let us estimate the growth and GDP in the case came to power as a result of the Patriots win the presidential election in 2000 (ie, make out a case of picking Vladimir Putin patriotic way). Note that in 2000 in accordance with the cycles of Chizhevskogo — a year more solar activity and the activity of popular movements. However, this theory does not seem confirmed by the practice of this year.
During the first cycle of "shock-stabilization", ie for 7 years (1992-1997). decline in GDP was 41.7%, ie an average of about 7% per year. We assume that it will be the same in 1998 and 1999. (Official statistics are unreliable, not once demonstrated, for example, in the speeches of the deputies of the Duma Council). Then, by the end of 1999 will come to 54.2% of the 1991 level
In 2000, we should expect a significant fall of GDP in the first half — because of the concentration of the presidential team and the government all of a provision to the pre-election propaganda, in the second — because of external and internal sabotage, blockades after beating the Patriots. We assume that the decline in GDP will be the same as in 1992 — the year of the "shock therapy" (price liberalization), ie 14.5%. Then the twenty-first century we meet at the level of 46.4% from 1991
By the beginning of 2001 will unfold recovery of the economy. In assessing the pace of this recovery must take into account that, on the one hand, industrial technologies are currently far more complex than after majestically Russian war, making it difficult frisky capacity expansion, but on the other hand, many businesses are quite easy to "run" as in the main preserved footage and the main assets (buildings, machinery, …). Let us assume that the average growth of GDP will be such as growth of gross social product in the years 1951-1965. Then, for 15 years the gross public product grew by 253.66% (to 3.53 times), ie the average growth was 8.79% per year. As can be seen, we can expect that in 7 years (2001-2007) GDP will increase by 1.8 times (80.3%) at the same average height, e 8.79% per year.
So, by the end of 2007, the GDP reached 154.2% of the level in 1999, or 71.5% of the 1991 level Saving marked increase in the rate and the GDP will reach 1990 at the end of 2011 it same time, only since the last months of 2002, the GDP level of 1999 eclipse.
As an alternative basis for calculating take 1946-1950,., When the 5-year gross public product grew 1.94 times, ie to 93.98%, i.e. an average of 14.17% per year. Then we can expect that in 7 years (2001-2007) GDP will increase by 2.53 times (152.8%) for the same average height, e 14.17% per year and 117.4% of the 1991 level When the designated growth rate and the GDP will reach 1991 at the end of 2006
Since unrealistic to accurately predict the time of the transfer of power into the hands of patriotic administration, the above numerical values are very conditional nature. So, if the Patriots did not prevail against in 2000, and in 2004, and earlier time will last "reform", similar calculations give the end of the 2003 GDP of 40.5% from the level in 1991 (assuming that for 4 years (2000-2003) the decline in GDP of 7% per year). As before, we assume that in the year of rotation (2004), the decline in GDP will be the same as in 1992 — the year of the "shock therapy" (price liberalization), ie 14.5%. Then, by the end of 2004, Russia's GDP will reach 34.7% of the 1991 level (ie, one third part). Even with the growth, and e to 14.17% per year for 2005-2007. GDP will pick up only by 48.8%, ie to 51.6% of the 1991 level
In general, all such calculations are purely approximate nature. They demonstrate, but that in the coming five years there is no reason to expect a significant improvement in the economic situation of, on the contrary, we will most likely macro-economic features of the upcoming fall and living standards of the majority. In the best case — the stagnation unbalanced stabilization.
But the transition of power in the hands of the patriotic administration, defending the interests of, despite the pressure of a possible opponent — the only hope for o
(One hundred percent of the article can be found at http://orlovs.pp.ru/diff/antorlov/scen.htm)
It is easy to see the doctor is waiting pochetaemy growth of the economy under the control of the patriotic and Prof. government so that the level of 1990 will only be achieved by 2011. As an unattainable standard (no resistance, patriotic master on main posts) been fully considered a real example of the experience of the Stalinist economy. Even with flawless criteria (under the control of Stalin) the level of the crisis year 1991 could be achieved only at the end of 2006.
At this point, knowing what was in the world of reality, we can recall that Russia under the Putin managed to jump over the bar the economic level of 1990 first of 2007. In other words, the president managed to significantly overshadow the wildest predictions of economists and most patriotic ahead of the "late" Stalin in the pace of economic development in a direct comparison.
With all of this Putin has not made any recessions and crises in the economy and in political life — not to mention the fact, that brought the country to the card system. He did not resort to direct violence services for economic purposes. Putin did not build the economy of the latest on the bones of people. On the contrary — for 8 years of his government income in Baksova basis rose by 4 times. Or, adjusted for inflation, in real terms — by 2.5 times. Overall growth of retail sales is 15%, while the number of new cars purchased annually grew (and grow) by 30%, computers and home appliances — 50%. So Makarov, the real standard of living in the country has grown very, very noticeable that the policy of the President and provides massive support of the population.
With the development of the economy virtually the same means as Stalin: a limit on the sale of raw materials and active introduction of Western technology, Putin was able to dispose of the acquired resources more efficiently first. He did not just fork out money in the industry, giving municipal funds to the theft of government officials. He izderzhal them to create in the country suitable for the development of the industry climate, skillfully guiding the interests of producers in the appropriate direction for the country. Restoring the factory or building new instead of destroyed those who were willing and able to do so. To sum it up: the restoration of the Russian economy came with a speed yu, which did not want to even the bravest optimists. With all of this the standard of living of the population increased from faster pace, and the development itself came out without disruption, repression, without crises and disasters. It does not even talk about the historians. Simple, high-spirited for the smooth growth of the country from poverty to prosperity.
We compare Stalin "Five-Year Plan" and Putin's:
As with Stalin, we look significant growth, production perceptible decline in agriculture. Although Russia Putin to hunger as we all remember, it was possible. But the growth, production of household appliances and machinery — is impressive. On many fronts — one and a half to two times. In fact, every week reported on the construction of new plants in Russia and start new plants, the government provokes intense research and development
Not to recall recognizable slogan "doubling the GDP." In 1999, Russia's GDP was 300 billion dollars and in order to catch up with Portugal, Putin called to increment it twice. Now — Our homeland entered the top 10 most powerful economies in the world (10th in GDP in dollars or 7th in GDP based on purchasing power parity, if possible). And this change happened right before our eyes: just 8 years old.
Narrow-minded and ill-educated people who can not grasp the meaning of the control of the country, usually try to find some extraneous background, thanks to which the Russian Federation was "lucky." Like, from the Russian these 8 years, nothing was independent, it all happened by itself. And luck will end — and the economy will fall back into a catastrophe. Especially for them here are a few numbers:
Rating the States in terms of hydrocarbon production in tonnes of oil equivalent per capita:
1. Qatar — 1081
2. United Arab Emirates — 991
3. Norway — 872
4. Kuwait — 815
5. Saudi Arabia — 293
6. Oman — 246
7. Libya — 240
8. Bahrain 232
9. Netherlands — 119
10. Venezuela — 82
11. Canada — 79
12. Kazakhstan — 61
13. Algeria — 54
14. Iraq — 53
15. Our homeland — 47
16. Iran 37
17. England — 28
18. Mexico — 17
It is easy to see that the binding level of the economy or standard of living to the price of oil should be to equalize standards of living in countries with similar prey. Our homeland would have to live noticeably worse than Algeria, Venezuela or Kazakhstan, and one and a half times better than the English. And given that the value of the "cut-off", limiting the flow of petrodollars into the Russian economy, at $ 27 a barrel — we must live much worse than Mexicans. Canada has long been a fight in a panic because of a desperate dependence on natural resource exports. She's more rocking energoelementov Kazakhstan and almost as much as the Venezuela!
But none of that for some reason we do not watch.
In fact the Russian economy is based on exports energoelementov no more than the economy of England. Hydrocarbon production gives the growth, the GDP of approximately $ 400 per capita per year. With a total GDP, according to various estimates, from $ 10,000 to $ 13,000 for each Russian soul. The value of noticeable — but not tragic.
Comparing the results of the board of both the politicians we litsezreem that in absolute terms, have the advantage of small solutions Stalin: he managed to reach the pre-crisis level of the economy in the second year of power, not the eighth. But Stalin began his reign in the more measured atmosphere and it gave him a certain advantage. So makarom luck of economic recovery in both the rulers can be considered roughly similar.
With all that Putin has managed to do without violence in the economy, has managed to do without a crisis, no mass arrests, he was able to not only restore the economic strength of the country, and significantly increase people's incomes. It should be recognized that the overall development of the country's luck, taking into account not only the manufacturing sector, and the well-being of the people, Putin is very noticeably ahead of Stalin.
Stalin's foreign policy in the first 8 or even 10 years of his rule can safely be called "no." In the process of civilian war the Red Army managed to kick the invaders from the Russian land, and the "democrats" has once again crept into their holes to lick their wounds. Reluctantly, they were obliged to recognize the right to existence of the USSR — and less. De facto, the USSR was the victor in the war and some time could not be afraid of the outside rage. But there is no impact on the action in the world it is not given and did not conduct an active policy.
The situation, in what turned out to Putin as president, was the very opposite. Our homeland was in the position of the defeated country, defeated, obliged to kowtow to favorites and do all their whims.
U.S. sought from traditional RF tribute "blood", the transfer under external control of their strategic weapons, the dismemberment of "Gazprom", the transfer of control of the mineral-South American firms.
At the moment, ha
rd to believe — but after only four years back the whole world was convinced that on the orders of the Bush Putin will send to Iraq Russian fighter breathe for the interests of the American monopolies. Exactly how do Poland, the Baltic States, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Romania, Bulgaria, Georgia and many other countries, lined "tribute in blood." Refresh a little bit memory:
Source: Pskov agency disk imaging.
Date of publication: 08/25/2003
Strongly protest against sending our Marines in Iraq
In the near future, many are very concerned about the people of Pskov often appearing in print media reports about the likely sending Russian troops to Iraq.
It is clear that the Americans, under the made-up and, as it turns out, false pretenses invaded Iraq and occupied it, the whole people have a guerrilla war in which they are constantly tangible loss. And so the prospect that the Iraqi guerrilla war against the aggressors and invaders will be expanded so that the berries from the Yankees ahead. All the more so that the hands of the Iraqis, there are about 7 million Kalashnikov assault rifles and other weapons and ammunition well enough. Bush clearly shines a new and very solid Vietnam. So the main way out of this "Vietnam" Bush sees the situation in the internationalization of its own military presence in Iraq, verbovanii there as "cannon fodder" own "vassals", including Putin's Russia. And excuse respective coined: "oil and other interests of the Russian Federation in Iraq would be taken into account in the case of sending Russian troops there." And no-brainer that this is not the interests of the Russian and the first of the Russian people, and the oil oligarchs Roman Abramovich, Khodorkovsky, Friedman, etc. Aven.
A.G.KRASNIKOV, I.V.KOSYAK, N.M.SIDORENKO, G.M.SEMENKOV, V.G.TSOGLINA,
members of the public committee for the commemoration of the 6th company of the Pskov paratroopers, veterans of military service, veterans of labor.
"Our Russian homeland" N 93 (12436), Saturday, August 23, 2003
U.S. stubbornly seek to take control of our tactical nuclear weapon
Russia visited the South American Senator Sam Nunn was concerned not only human rights, directly 1st — oil tycoon Khodorkovsky Misha, and the state of the Russian nuclear weapons, especially tactical. Friendly messenger of American democracy offered to establish control over it. In this area, no reciprocal obligations Our homeland and the United States have so far that, in the opinion of the people's choice overseas, abnormal and dangerous.
According to the latest least three times Our homeland precluded a U.S. proposal on the control of tactical nuclear weapon. Americans at this time to change the approach, putting in the first place the terrorist threat. Because Senator Nunn so concerned about the safety of Russian arsenals. At times in the Western press appear sensational articles about thefts "nuclear suitcases", "backpack" and other "valises" with the Russian hidden warehouses. The purpose of the accusations — prinevolit Russia to reveal their past nuclear lurking. Until it succeeds.
Let us hope that the management of the country will have enough political will and then not give in to the irritating suggestions about control. We have virtually eliminated the strategic nuclear potential of, at least in the field of tactical nuclear weapons positions should be maintained.
Nicholas Poroskov: Opposition to Putin in this country more than once declared that the U.S. has plans under the pretext of security, to take control of nuclear facilities of, including launchers and Strategic Rocket Forces mission. Indeed if such plans?
The Deputy Minister of Energy of the United States, managing Nuclear Security Administration, salting Linton F. Brooks: It's just not true. For example, we do not do any work on board the Russian nuclear submarines, mines, launchers, and will run from intercontinental ballistic missiles. We carry out work where storing nuclear materials or weapons and where they can be stolen. So that Russian authorities could use Russian as equipment for the best protection of such arsenals.
May 24, 2003
Here they are, the actions and representations of four years ago. Just four years back defeatists with a cool aplomb and complete confidence in himself stated that "treacherous regime" Putin's Russia will give America an instrument, will be slaughtered Russian fighter will give the deposit and the remains of independence. Could anyone believe, then, that in 2007 the Russian Air Force will patrol the distant oceans and borders of NATO, Putin carelessly break the contract CFE, simply calling it unprofitable, that our homeland will be opened to supply a tool of Syria and Iran in the event that If the U.S. thinks of their poruha that our home will be in the Security Council to block the desired resolution, the United States and Europe that it will hold its own navy maneuvers in the North Atlantic, it will force the West to ask your own presentation for virtually all international issues?
This is Putin's victory and only his 1st. Hard to even imagine what the merciless diplomatic war he had to endure, but something easy to guess. Apparently, he had to face even with the dangers of the use of force against Skynet, which became suddenly nepokorlivoy Russia. In any case, it came down to the fact that Putin has publicly promised to use against the nuclear weapon states in the West:
"Russia has a significant SUPPLIES these missiles that neither the 1st day or were not on active duty and stored in stockpiles in the" dry "form." This was announced by Vladimir Putin, October 2003, at a meeting with the leadership of the Armed Forces. These missiles were not on active duty in the Wet and because, at the request of the President and the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, may be used as part of the Strategic Missile Forces. "While these missiles are produced not yesterday or today, but in a certain sense, this new product, they are likely to use the term very important, — the President of the Russian Federation — and fighting abilities, including in overcoming all of missile defense, out of competition."
In the end, the Western world had to give in, to accept the independence of the Russian Federation and the step-by-step to take their positions in front of Russian pressure.
The difference between the state, paying tribute to the sovereign of the blood, and the state, patrolling the borders of the former suzerain its armed forces so great for a similar transformation, with the right to independence usually have a long and relentlessly wage war, to pay tyschami lives. Putin took to the Russian Federation the right to independence almost single-handedly, without firing the 1st shot and without losing any of the 1st fighter. Why for outstanding achievements in foreign policy it for sure: 5
About the construction of the Army by Stalin in his first 8-10 years of virtually nothing to say, too. After the war, reddish plainclothes army was fully ready for combat, could win at least some external enemy. What to modernize it — especially the progress of the beginning of the 30s was not observed.
About the military build-Putin can tell even more.
By the time of his arrival in power of the army actually was not. The teachings were not carried out, the aircraft did not fly, ships zarzhavevalie the wall, a new tool for the troops did not arrive, the real part of the tribute to service not performed. To engage ordinary gangs in Chechnya had to pull forces and military equipment from all over the country! In this case, the supply of parts and their level of equipment were far from perfect.
Our home had virtually no effective army capable of defending it against external invasion. Deterrent to NATO
nations remained only nuclear-missile shield will also continue to rapidly lose combat capability.
Resuscitation of the armed forces carried out promptly, good and surprisingly reasonably. So as not to spray small at first, Restoration began with the so-called "permanent readiness units." They have been providing funds to combat training, the maintenance of the real part. The number of these parts was noticeably less CA — but they were ready for combat. Over time, the number of permanent readiness units increased, non-operational connections or cut into a number of PBG, or disbanded.
In the end, the beginning of the second term of the army finally woke up from their slumber, began to conduct exercises and maneuvers to engage in the direct problem: combat training.
At this time of the defeatists of all stripes could be heard many reproaches to Putin that he refuses to take the new weapons in return for incoming troops had almost to Gorbachev. But the president and then showed character and did not succumb to the pressure. He needed not just a "wall" for the record, is not stupid, "cut" means, and the army, armed with the latest technology, which has the best tool in the world. Because funds were not plants. They were sent to the research and development. As a result — in 2007 adopted Russian army began to enter the most advanced standards of guns. "Mi-28N" and "SU-34", "Iskander" and "Barmitsa", "armor" and "C400", frigates of Project 22350. Underwater submarine force will get 3 types — SSBN 955 "Borey" SSN Project 885 "Yasen" Project 949A submarines "Antey" and Project 971 "Pike-B" diesel submarines of Project 677 "Lada" with airindependent power plant . In terrestrial and airborne troops on the newest weapons program there begins retooling the latest and upgraded appliances more than 300 units of battalion level. The work on the new types of strategic missiles, combat aircraft and other weapons that may soon go into the creation.
Orders Defense Ministry only on helicopters is 300 pieces, for new planes — 700 pieces. But other than that supplied arms to form new girl, new soldering, the new body armor and helmets. New, new, new … The pace of re-equipping the army Our homeland is currently out on first place in the world and thanks to the ongoing spurt in the next few years will be the second in the world in striking power.
At first glance, and then Putin's rule wins in all ways — but superficial look is deceptive. The Secretary-General is not worse than the president realized that the army needs modern weapons. Required for the production thereof, languid industry, engineering and science schools. And this and that, and the third was laid in the country specifically Stalin. He first began to develop in Russia general higher education, extensive training engineers, scientists, opened a specialized research institute, massively built power plants, open-hearth furnaces and rolling mills. Just like Putin, he looked to the future, and in the power of modern Russian army retained many awards and Joseph Stalin. Because in the field of both rulers will have to admit it is ravnouspeshnymi.
The information field
In order to bring the activities of the society and of the individual for the good of the country and the society of old, there is such a thing as education. Continuing education of the person from the cradle to greyish hair and gives it an internal support for the actions and motivations in decision making. Information field surrounding a person is very crucial since it determines all behavior, culture, and self-sacrifice.
For example, known to all Orthodox culture in Russia. Reared in the "information field" Orthodox culture people knew that it serves not only their own country, and a higher power that is always watching him and appreciates his deeds, which will reward him for his probable victims or deprivation. He knew that he is the bearer of this faith and to bear this truth to other people, pushing the boundaries of the Russian Federation and the introduction to the bosom of the Church of the new nations, giving them protection and happiness. This culture has cemented the country and directed its energies outward, developing and solidifying the government.
Stalin services for the country's unity and motivation deeds Russian people used the communist ideology, it is the bed frame in the state religion. Russian man was fully convinced that he's building a paradise on earth: the bright communist future. And the sacrifices at the moment, are not wasted, they will pay homage happy bright destiny if not himself, then at least the last of his children. Russian people knew that pushing the boundaries of the Soviet Union, he brings happiness to other people, giving them the freedom and eliminating the oppressors. The communist ideology gave people the inner core and allowed just confront other religions. Such as Christianity, democracy, Islam and all kinds of sects. It was directed outward, was presentable for other peoples and allowed the Soviet Union to receive adherents worldwide.
But most importantly, despite the low level of life, it gave people a sense of Russian election and happiness.
Putin Our homeland this area of life ignored completely. President of the number 2 had not bothered to give the sacred meaning of their own activities, to identify the "higher purpose." It is completely and one hundred percent of ignoring the need to educate people for the creation of appropriate information field.
This oversight is not as harmless as it seems. The remaining unattended scope of human needs here and then started to occupy foreign culture and religion, seeking to establish their dominance in the Russian land. And well it were an ordinary Orthodox nations — but as the "Supreme Truth" in our country is trying to found a religion of democracy and worse — tolerance.
The cult of tolerance — the most devastating and brutal now available from totalitarian sects. Many researchers associate it with the spiritual AIDS, but in fact it is the most natural medieval obscurantism. If the feral antediluvian Europe scientists were burned at the stake for what they claimed tenets of the round earth and the motion of the planets around the sun, but now with that same rage "tolerasty" raining down on those people whose mind is to distinguish man from the ladies or to distinguish between people of different races. It is not an exaggeration. Many scientists have been obstruction or a ban on the profession for being pointed to the anatomical characteristics of different peoples or floors. Tolerance as a religious movement like a Buddhist or satanic cults brings in its own followers need to spiritual suicide by detachment from life, a prohibition on the active current position. Tolerance teaches us not to resist sexual perversion, humiliation, relatives and all the people in general, do not bother about the future, and kids all over the country, forget about the feelings of their own advantages, not to protect the inheritance Protz both in real and in the spiritual realm. Just relax and go with the flow until the current path does not come to an end …
Bane spiritual, physical destruction, destruction of civilization — that's sacred goal tolerastskoy sect. A religion does this very cute excuse for inaction. No need to catch pedophiles — they have the "right". It is not necessary to cure homosexuals — it's their "personal life." No need to defend their faith — because it offends believers of other concessions. It is not necessary to perform feats, to fast, to develop spiritually. Do not have to do anything! And nothing to do very nicely. Look telly, drinking beer, smoking marijuana is much easier if "fight and find, to find and not to yield."
There are religious ascetics,
is godless religion, religion is racist. A tolerance — a religion of lazy people who are ready to devour anyone who is going to require them to strain the brain or to take up the gun. Religion degradation.
The fact that this obscurantism now enters Russia — President smooth wine, do not seem concerned about the creation of cementing the country and guide the development of its information field.
Why did for the cultural and the spiritual component of our lives we put Putin hard "unsatisfactory", and Stalin, with the name on the lips which often went to the shooting, even those he himself and let his "meat", put a solid 5.
Changes in the social sector of the country in both the rulers were significant, if not revolutionary.
Under Stalin, Soviet citizens have open access to education and medical care. Putin's efforts to improve the properties of the medical service, the purchase of new equipment for hospitals, construction of new knowledge, the repeated increase in the salaries of doctors were just maintaining the already existing network of medical care, as well as the efforts of the government to computerize schools and raising teachers' salaries are the only measures for the maintenance of existing systems education.
In general, Putin has done nothing else but could not. Build the latest medical care or education system, when there is a completely decent network — is not the least absurd than to build new Dniproges or MMK, not paying attention to what they already have and continue to work.
But under Stalin income of the general population after the "nepmanskogo" lift actually grew. Under Putin, growth, income was steady and unchanged, with the growth of living standards has become numerous and decisive for the general attitudes to authority.
Under Stalin, the powerful ideological propaganda engendered confidence in the people the next day that the masses had the goal to which sought, in men there was a sense of its own advantages, inner moral core, a sense of happiness. Putin's government from the spiritual side of life to pull away, causing almost all of the people in inner turmoil, lack of understanding of the future of the country and their own self.
Repression by Stalin in the first period of his reign, stung a little more than 1 percent of the population — but all the same it was hundreds of thousands of people to blame but that worked well in the past and not lusted part with the fruits of their own labor. It is unlikely that it can be written to the Secretary General a plus. But echoing the political processes associated with repression against their own enemies, Stalin conducted openly, with bolshennom concourse of people, with the broadcast of these processes on the radio, and a reprint of the minutes of the national newspapers. Such a "public terrorism," with "openly" caused by the broad masses confidence in the correctness of the actions of the leader and a just verdict.
Repression by Putin's government was of minor importance. This could include sentences Russian officers and soldiers, exercising in Chechnya own military duty, the sentences on "Russian" article. 2nd, in general, rarely when not lead to real terms, but first, patrons homeland, first blatant that were vsekrete, not reported in the media, their motives were unclear population and caused even quiet for now, but discontent and the rejection of the broad masses.
But in any case, the repression of Stalin and Putin were quite comparable in scale, even taking into account only the first decade of the reign of Stalin.
Can be attributed to the repressive labor laws and Stalin. Imprisonment for lateness to work, absenteeism, loss of millions of Russian people's right to free movement, the return of the peasantry in the days of serfdom by denying them passports did not find any reflections in the realities of the present day or. This is a specific and large defect of Stalin's regime.
Putin's regime is distinguished appearance of the national question. The basic premise of such poruhi has been the rapid revival of Russian industry and, as a consequence — the shortage of workers. But if Stalin made up for this lack by the finals of the Russian population of the villages, Putin — due to absorption of many millions of foreigners near abroad. In the towns and villages of the Russian Federation at one point there was an unlimited number of people brought up in the traditions of tribal, clan culture, unfamiliar with the traditions of Russian culture and do not take those. This problem, taking into account the elimination of the country's spiritual and cultural life of the people, gave the fate of people on the ground in the power of small local managers. As a result — in places where the highest corruption is allowed to seize power from the people of the state criminal groups, where power was fascinated obscurantism of tolerance, people's life turned into hell, has led to riots against the dominance of crime and indulging visitors, against the oppression of Russian. Where power was fair and reasonable — no matter what the state is. An example is the situation in certain Kondopog and Olonec. Located quite near the town different as heaven and earth. In Kondopoga local government brought the issue to the public a complete failure, ending the massacre of the Russian people and the response pogroms. In Olonec obvious demands of the local police chief to the meticulous observance of visiting Russian law allows you to save the national affairs peaceful and peace-loving.
In any case, the wine in the growth of ethnic tensions fully borne by unskilful, the passive act of Putin's government.
In general, the rejection of mass repression (10's of thousands of victims of Stalin's victims against), measures to increase the standard of living of the general public can appreciate Putin's decision in the social sphere as somewhat more successful, if the acts of Stalin.
Recall that in 1922, Lenin insisted on not fedepativnom pespublik entering into the Russian Federation, and the "pavnoppavno union" (sdepzhanno otnesshimsya to such a turning maneuver Stalin Dzepzhinskomu and Opdzhonikidze he bposil evil: "We know that obpusevshie inopodtsy always pepesalivayut on the part of a truly English nastpoeniya "). Of course, mastep ppovokatsy, Ilich pukovodstvovalsya no deference to state napod emotions. "Divide and rule" — the policy ppimenyayut Bolsheviks in all areas: in Quaternary Gpazhdanskoy Latvians used petro English, kpestyan — petro Cossacks pabochih — petro kpestyan, bashkip — those petro-print and other, autonomists — petro gosudapstvennikov and vice versa. If the margin pepegpyzutsya in bopbe for power, will take them even easier (because in the end it happened: at first these areas fenced off from the Bolshevik state boundaries, and later — one by one — fell under their blows.)
In addition, the union apparatus deprived trumps nationalists — in most countries of the anti-Soviet struggle was waged under the state mottoes.
In addition to the Russian Bolsheviks was just about nachhat. In fact, according to Lenin, the revolution was to be a world, and our homeland — only an armful of firewood and kindling for her.
("Once again on the great-power chauvinism" Timup LATYPOV)
The refusal of the administrative-territorial division of the Russian Federation and the planting districts of different levels of government, adopted under Stalin and saved them was mine slow action, which led to the 1990-1991 collapse of the country particularly at state borders.
Another legacy of Stalin was developed real languid industry with all its components: energy, metallurgy, mechanical engineering.
The third legacy — a developed social sphere (medicine, education, housing).
Fourth — the memory of acres tyschah repressed, over 600 th
ousand of whom were sentenced to death. In this case, 10 of thousands — innocent. Stalinist repression turned into a bogey, which is constantly used Russophobian propaganda against Russia, with its pride, its memory, its history and its rebirth today.
Putin's legacy is the revival of the industry, the revived army revived the sovereignty of Russia.
And coupled with that — and state issue. Leaving the national religious difficulties of the Russian Federation to drift inevitably lead to early death as a result of the destruction of the country's cultural community. Liquidation scenario of the country we look every day by the example of the western states, where the crowds are intruders from other states violence, riots, blackmail are demanding exclusive rights, elevating them above the local, indigenous population, subjected to desecration framework, to the prosperity of Western civilization, destroy faith and customs Europeans, and plant common to former places of residence rules of world order. The rules in place for what the Europeans simply do not.
If our homeland longs to survive, the value of Orthodox culture has proved to be exactly at the municipal level. Orthodox culture, the culture of the Russian people provides a decent place within its own borders for Islam, Buddhism and other faiths, provides for the rights and dignity of all people and is the foundation of Russian statehood for many centuries. Why the government should declare a clear and understandable that the door to Russia are only open to guests who are willing to accept the Russian culture and the Russian community to enter. The same one who wants to break to pieces the Russian people for themselves and their characters — the way in the country should be closed once and for all categorically.
1. Attributes of the Orthodox Church can not be considered insulting anyone's feelings in any case! Our homeland — the country of the Orthodox culture, even if someone is in this environment is an atheist or a Muslim. With all of this, but the signs of other faiths may seem offensive to Orthodox or other believers and their rights should be protected by the courts.
2. No customs and precepts of religion can not be an excuse for public actions that violate accepted in Russian society, morality. For example: the sacrifice, self-mutilation, auto-da-fe, violence, and so on.
3. Compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and adopted orthodox morality is of mandatory for all, and violation of the newcomers should be considered as an aggravating event.
Bringing these principles as public policy, to the executive bodies on the ground rapidly extinguish all the national controversy once and for all. In the unlikely event — the death of the Russian Federation directly for Western Europe is inevitable.
Putin goes away, leaving the question open state. But it is in fact the only inherited by the state after a severe discrepancy. Means Our homeland after it remains in a state no worse, if after Stalin.
Summarizing the results of our research, we must admit that in general, the sum of estimates Putin's rule is far more successful, if Stalin's rule.
At first glance, this may seem weird. After Stalin — is someone who, in the apt remark of the British Trotskyist Isaac Deutscher: "This was taken from the Russian plow and left with the atomic bomb."
That is correct. But let's not forget that the nuclear industry and gallakticheskie applets — is not the result of eight, or even 10 years of Stalin's rule, and a full 30 years. In the first 10 years of the same configuration as the Russian Federation have not yet become prominent. Yes, the country was built, trained, transformed, and in it, as under Putin lays the foundation for future breakthroughs. But the main achievements still remained still far ahead.
Putin changed the face of the Russian Federation where stronger and swifter.
The desire to double GDP and catch up on this indicator Portugal.
The economy of the Russian Federation is recognized as the world's seventh on his own terms.
The total arrears of salary as at 1 February 1999 amounted to 76 billion rubles. and decreased in January by 1.3%, including in the manufacturing sector marked a decline of 98 million rubles. (0.2%) and in the social sphere — to 881 million rubles. (4.1%). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in the year 2000-2002 in Russia were suffering from hunger 4% of the population (5.2 million people).
The level of consumption in the country is 15% per year. The growth in new car sales is 30% per year and exceeded 2 million vehicles a year, growth, sales of home appliances exceeds 50%.
Strongly protest against sending our Marines in Iraq
In the near future, many are very concerned about the people of Pskov often appearing in print media reports about the likely sending Russian troops to Iraq.
Our homeland in order to refuse to make one-sided contract terms CFE as worsening its defense.
U.S. stubbornly seek to take control of our tactical nuclear weapon.
According to the latest least three times Our homeland precluded a U.S. proposal on the control of tactical nuclear weapon.
Clearance Russian strategic bombers on February 9 over the aircraft carrier "Nimitz" in the Pacific did not pursue provocative purposes. Expressed the belief that the chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Gary Roughead.
The opposition to President Putin in our country more than once declared that the U.S. has plans under the pretext of security, to take control of nuclear facilities of.
The Bush administration does not consider representative of the white houses highlighted that the supply of nuclear fuel to Iran Russia can be seen as a sign of decreasing international support for UN sanctions aimed at stopping Iran's enrichment of fissile materials. Prime-Tass 9:12 18.12.2007
So dramatic configurations in the country, which have occurred in just eight years, can confidently be called President Vladimir Putin in the best possible, efficient, smart and lucky rulers of the Russian Federation for the last least the past half century.