Secrets of horny men

November 8, 2011 12:56

Portray the Vikings with horns was a great historical mistake.

Portray the Vikings with horns was a great historical mistake.

In Scotland, discovered a Viking boat in, buried for a thousand years.

Last journey

Viking grave found on the Scottish peninsula Ardnamurhan. Archaeologists have determined its age at about a thousand years.

Viking in life, it seems, was a nobleman. Perhaps even some chief. Certainly sailor and soldier. This is indicated by found objects.

The body is placed in a wooden boat, which served as a coffin. In boats, according to Dr. Hannah Cobb of the University of Manchester, buried VIPs.

Next to the body were fighting sword, ax and spear. On the chest — a round shield. In addition, the archaeologists found a bronze hairpin produced in Ireland and Norway grindstone. What gives the right to assume that the Vikings have been to those places.

Unfortunately, from the Viking there are not many — most of the bones were broken down at the time. And rotted wooden boat. But she kept the outline and bronze rivets. Burial was in the mound, covered with stones.

Archaeologist Hannah Cobb examines Viking sword found in the undisturbed tomb.

Archaeologist Hannah Cobb examines Viking sword found in the undisturbed tomb.

And where is the helmet with horns?

Hornless Vikings and difficult to imagine. Thanks to the many films about them. Scientists agree: the horns were. But there were separate from the helmet. And hats, horns and put in grave Vikings. And when the graves were opened first severe Scandinavians, some archaeologists have speculated that the horns fell off.

In fact, helmets were just helmets — without horns. And the horns were just horns. And put them to Vikings could drink wine in the afterlife.

The current Scottish burial helmet did not exist. But Horn — Bronze — lying. And only one.

The warrior was buried richly - in a boat, and in full armor.  Unfortunately, the body was just a tooth.

The warrior was buried richly — in a boat, and in full armor. Unfortunately, the body was just a tooth.

Vikings sailed not only in Scotland, but also in America. For Indian

No, Columbus discovered America. Opened at least 500 years before him. And they brought the living trophies.

Study of DNA from the natives of Iceland showed that about 80 of them were found Indian genes, that is passed on from generation to generation hereditary characteristics of indigenous inhabitants of North America. Redskins, as we sometimes call them.

One of the authors of the study — Carles Lalueza-Fox of the University of Pompeu Farba (Spain) said in an article in the prestigious journal American Journal of Physical Anthropology, that the primary source of non-Nordic genes was Indian, came to the island about a thousand years ago. And left there offspring. Just at the time when he lived most notable Viking, whose tomb was discovered in Scotland. It is possible that it was he who brought Indian girl in Iceland. 500 years before the Columbian era. Specifically taken out of the places which are now called Canada.

Genetics proved that Christopher Columbus arrived in the open for a long time Europeans America.

Genetics proved that Christopher Columbus arrived in the open for a long time Europeans America.

Since then changed the order of 40 generations. And every girl is born. They were carriers of Indian genes that were passed through the maternal line.

Interestingly, the data obtained Spaniard — tribesman legendary explorer who is credited with the laurels of the championship in the opening of the New World. They, of course, challenges. But reliable documentary evidence of the competitors do not. And about Columbus at least know that he made it to four times America.

According to Carles, it is true are many legends about the ancient Vikings visited America. And not only the North, but South. Been there long before Christopher Columbus arrived in the land only in 1492. Indian genes are admixed to the Scandinavian, proof.

Scottish Viking was buried in a boat length of about 5 meters. For ocean travel, it was not suitable. And maybe, it generally produced specifically for ritual purposes. Which once again points to the nobility of a person lying in it.

Its voyage Vikings went on a much more impressive vessels.

MEANWHILE

Calcite crystal, the scientists appointed to the role of guiding the "solar stone".

Calcite crystal, the scientists appointed to the role of guiding the "solar stone".

Scientists have discovered the secret of the magic of the "solar stone", which indicates the ancient mariners recipe

Of legends and other ancient sources that make long sea crossings until traveling to America before Columbus Vikings helped "sun stones." Like, they allowed to navigate by the sun when the sky was covered with thick clouds and the position of the light can not be identified by eye. And even if it is, the sun was below the horizon. Miracles …

Solve the puzzle began over forty years ago. But managed only now. And it seems to have found the very same magic stones. This was announced by researchers from an international team led by Guy Roparsa, a professor at Rennes (France).

Scientists appointed to the role of "Sunstone" polarizing calcite crystals. They say that the Vikings used by them. And, perhaps, did find this mineral magic. After all, he has a wonderful property — the so-called double refraction. That is, under certain conditions, splits the light beam into two. One beam is distributed directly and called ordinary. Another deflected to the side and called extraordinary. The effect is especially noticeable when the light is perpendicular to the surface of the crystal.

In practice, the property of calcite can be used as follows.

On one side of the crystal coated label. And look at her on the other hand, changing the position of the crystal. Caught when the label will double and the second equal in intensity to the first. This is consistent with the direction of the sun. But the main effect was observed, even if the light was hidden by clouds. Or is below the horizon.

With some dexterity could do without labels. And direction of the hidden sun, staring at him through the Iceland spar and aligning the intensity of the ordinary and extraordinary rays.

Modern experimenters have seen that reference to "solar stone" gives an error of only a few degrees. And concluded: the Vikings were able to go to America. And then the next.

By the way, it is possible that the mystery of the "solar stone" Vikings did not protect. Calcite crystal was found on board the British ship that sank off the island of Alderney in 1592. It looks like a mineral used for navigation. Which indirectly confirms the assumption of scientists.

Vladimir Lagowski, Photo AP and Reuters

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