Cosmic rays crashing into the Earth over the South Pole appear to come from any specific places, rather than being evenly distributed over the entire sky. Similar to the "hot spots" of cosmic rays also were seen in the sky of the northern hemisphere, but we do not know the source, close enough to be able to generate this pattern.
"We do not know what it is, and where," says Stefan Westerhoff of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
To create the most impressive card receipts directions of cosmic rays in the sky south Westerhoff and his colleagues use the one at the South Pole observatory of the neutrino, called IceCube. It detects ice bombarding muons produced by neutrinos, but also captures and muons created by cosmic rays impacting Earth's atmosphere. Muons of cosmic rays can be used to determine the direction of the original cosmic ray particles.
In the period from May 2009 to May 2010, IceCube detected 32 billion cosmic ray muons with an average energy of about 20 TeV (TeV). These muons with statistically likely appear in the northern sky from the regions of excess cosmic radiation (so-called "hot spots"), as well as other places to a lack of space radiation (so-called "cold spots").
Over the past two years a similar pattern was seen in the northern sky laboratory Milagro, in Los Alamos and the object of the Tibetan Tibet Air Shower, that Yanbatszine. "Interestingly, the patterns (these experiments), at least qualitatively, can be compared with each other. They have a very different technology approaches and systemic effects, "says physicist who studies cosmic rays Paul Sommers. "I believe that these hot spots are a big mystery."
They are a mystery because the hotspots must be within 0.03 light years from Earth. When you are beyond these limits, the magnetic field of the galaxy distort the particle so that they would be washed away in the sky. But about these sources is not known.
One of the hot spots defined in the laboratory IceCube, points in the direction of the supernova Vela, is a possible source of cosmic radiation, but at a distance of 1000 light years. Cosmic rays passing such vast distances are constantly exposed to the distorting pressures on track magnetic fields, and thus lose all their focus to the time they finally reached the Earth. In other words, those undergoing long-distance cosmic rays should manifest itself as emerging from all directions — blurry. But this is not what the researchers observed.
Milagro also detects hot spots that seem to come from an incredibly distant sources. As an explanation of Felix Agoranyan Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies in Ireland and his colleagues suggested that there may be a "tube" of magnetic force fields that pass between the source and the solar system in which cosmic radiation flows to us. But he admits that the theory is purely speculative.
Among other assumptions, there are those like the so-called "Magnetic reconnection" — according to which the solar magnetic force fields overlap and alternate, converting magnetic energy into kinetic energy can accelerate the local cosmic rays to energies in the TeV range, and send them back to Earth, creating the observed hotspots. "This means that the Tevatron is in our solar system," says Agoronyan, referring to a particle accelerator at Fermilab in Batavia. "It is certainly too crazy, but less crazy than other explanations."