The phenomenon of déjà vu

05.07.2008

Probably not a man who would never faced with the phenomenon of déjà vu — a mysterious phenomenon that we have the confidence of nowhere: somewhere I've seen, but that's where and when — can not remember. While the science of building a variety of assumptions, Eastern religions are directly linked with the reincarnation of deja vu: they say, is fleeting memories of our past lives. And psychiatrists believe that deja vu — it is a mental disorder that manifests itself if too intrusive to be treated. Who is right?

Once I was on a business trip in a remote Siberian village, which is not something that had ever come before — not even heard of it. From Omsk bus was traveling north for five hours, and the July sun scorched steppe gradually gave way to spectacular boreal landscape.

Arrived at the scene at dusk. I had to find the hotel. I got off the bus and immediately plunged into the black sky teeming with stars. Lights were not lit, but I confidently walked up the hill, as if knowing: a hotel there. I knew how it would look like: two-story brick house with a porch and a high cupboard, where there is a huge samovar and sell muffins with cranberries.

The farther I went, the stronger grew stronger in me confidence: now will turn, and after him — a small grocery store, then I see the river with some sort of tiny beach — two collapsed "mushrooms" and a rusty locker room … Absolutely everything in this town, from the the building of local authorities in the central square and the statue of Lenin with ridiculous apart, as if at a loss, hands, and finishing the selected inscription on the wall of a private club for a long time — it was all up to me to know the details. Where from?

I understand this has not happened. At home I figured out I could not be a stopover in early childhood? Not in any way. Not only I, but none of my relatives have never been here … Maybe the town was like any other, where I often visited? I stubbornly went over in memory all the cities and villages, in which ever travel. Of course, some similarities can be found in many former Soviet cities, but that's so tiny strokes to learning …

No, it's an adventure left for me something from the category of incredible. This to me would not happen, but from time to time, somewhere on the edge of consciousness flashed sparks unexpected recognition. Then a new acquaintance at a party, at the sight of the landscape from the window of the train, then the sound of someone's voice I winced as from a light burns: it was, it was! It seems that the thread is about to grab hold memories … But no, it slips away as suddenly and vaguely like it.
It was, it was, but it was

— — A phenomenon little studied by modern science, despite the fact that for the first time this term was used in the late XIX century French psychologist Emile Buarakom — says Doctor of Biological Sciences, Senior Research Fellow, Center for traditional treatments of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation Alexander Dubrov. — «Deja vu» comes from the French phrase "déjà vu". Until recently, this phenomenon artificially, as an experiment, did not even try to play, because scientists did not know, so that it occurs. Recent research by American scientists established that the occurrence of the effect of deja vu meets a certain area of the brain — the hippocampus.

Today, the phenomenon of déjà vu is most often referred to as manifestations of so-called false memory. In certain parts of the brain fails, and he begins to take the unknown to the known. For false memory secrete their age peaks when the activity of the process is most pronounced — from 16 to 18 and from 35 to 40. The first burst due to the severity of emotional adolescence, the ability to acutely and dramatically react to events, the lack of life experience. Man appeals for support to the fictitious experiences, fishing it out of the false memory.

A second peak is also accounted for the crucial age — this is the so-called mid-life crisis. But in this period, moments of deja vu — it's moments of nostalgia, regret about the past, the desire to even think back to 20 years ago. This effect can be called a hoax memory: recollection may not be true, as alleged, the past seems like the perfect time when everything was perfect and romantic. However, to accept such an explanation, you will agree, it's hard.
Deja Vu and epilepsy — twins

But psychiatrists deja vu classified as a mental disorder, if it appears too often and has the nature of hallucinations.

— In some diseases of the brain, such as epilepsy, the phenomenon of déjà vu occurs several times more frequently than in healthy people — says MD, a leading researcher at the Centre for Mental Health, RAMS Vladimir Vorobiev. — Doctors say: This disorder is often seen in people suffering from various defects of memory. If deja vu is a problem, has the rights and prevents him from living, better to seek help from doctors.

Parapsychologists and people passionate about spirituality, link this mysterious effect with reincarnation — the relocation of the soul after death into another body. Interestingly, more and more vivid memories of this kind of thing was not observed in India, where the belief in reincarnation — an integral part of the Hindu religion.

Described thousands of such episodes: six year old girl "remembers" the city that was once lived, "their" parents, shows "his" house … And then it turns out that once there is really these people lived and there was a house. Or a woman suddenly starts talking to nobody plain language, it invited expert linguists, and suddenly it becomes clear that it is an ancient Persian dialect or Swahili, Indian and illiterate, not having even secondary education, detailed account of his "past" of life in the ancient State …
Locksmith conjures snakes

In countries where Islam or Christianity, these cases are much smaller. But they are there, and this does not allow us to attribute it to quirks of faith. A few years ago I had the opportunity to meet with Victor Alexeyev, a mechanic from Chelyabinsk, who along with his family went on a tourist trip to India and to the last detail "remembered" as he lived here in a poor family, both from the bite of a poisonous snake killed his younger sister, and He was in retaliation snake charmer.

With the demonstration of this dangerous art he performed at the local market. Victor remembered many of the words and phrases the language in which he expressed himself in "that" lives. The experts confirmed that this is one of the dialects that prevailed in India about 50 years ago. I must say, neither the Victor, simple hard worker, had not even heard of reincarnation, nor his wife were happy to change thrust upon them. In fact, after a trip to an exotic country family lost sleep and rest. "I do not know where to contact me — sitting in the editorial office, shrug his bewildered mechanic. — Maybe I'm crazy? What do you think? "But he was not crazy like …
Mysteries of the brain

— Recently, scientists from Bristol University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) reported that they were able to identify the neural mechanism that allows the brain to quickly recognize similar, but slightly different place — continues Professor Dubrov. — In their view, this similarity may not even be fixed consciousness, but the brain is necessary for the most efficient and economical operation. Perhaps this discovery, finally, will explain the phenomenon of déjà vu.

The laboratory of Nobel laureate, professor of biology and neurology Suzume Tonegawa investigated the contribution of each zone of the hippocampus contributes to various aspects of memory and recognition. As a result, a team of scientists has proven that the so-called the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus plays a crucial role in the identification of the smallest differences that allow to recognize similar images.

One of the participants in the study, Dr. Matthew Jones, commented: "We are constantly in a split second decides how best to behave in a given place at a given time. To do this, our nervous system is to use highly effective methods for rapid recognition." In a network of brain neurons of the hippocampus there is a specific signaling protein (NMDA-receptor), which plays a key role in the rapid recognition. Further study of this protein will help to find new treatments for memory disorders and behavioral disorders.

Professor Tonegawa, often traveling the world, describes his own experience of memory disorders. One day, he found himself at the airport, where'd never seen before. However, the airport seemed strangely familiar to him: he seems to have seen before, these rooms, doors, pillars, seats. He could not find the unique differences that would have identified this as an unfamiliar airport. Researchers believe that a set of neurons, called them "place cells" contains a sort of "snapshot" of the project of any new space in which we find ourselves. When we see the same place repeatedly, trying to find its unique features. But if the connection between neurons impaired as it occurs during aging, the brain can not find them.

In this study, the researchers conducted experiments with a group of genetically modified mice to determine exactly what contribution is made in the dentate gyrus of the distinction of comparative images of old and new locations. The behavior of the mice in the majority of cases did not differ from the ordinary, but they became helpless and disoriented when they were placed in a new place, very similar to the original. Similarly, rodents, and we conduct ourselves: get lost, frightened, surprised, unable to understand what kind of unknown surprises presents the most mysterious at times our body — the brain.

Natalia Leskov

On the face of impossible 4.2008
 

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