March 16, 2012 20:53
One of the most mysterious tribes of the earth is lost high in the mountains of India Toda tribe. Unlike other Indian tribes or customs, or appearance, speak the ancient language, which has no parallel in modern Indian languages and in general, the Todas are a solid puzzle for anthropologists and ethnographers, and for historians and linguists.
To begin with, the appearance Tod closer to Europe: conspicuous relatively light skin, reddish hair color, straight "Roman" nose and green or hazel-green eyes. Against the background of dark chocolate other Indians Toda just "glow."
This is a very small tribe — about one thousand people. First discovered in the XVII century by Portuguese sailors, and then forgotten for two centuries and then "open" is the British in the XIX century, Toda retain this number virtually unchanged since the Portuguese.
This striking demographic immutability and amazing and also the continued relationship between the sexes (20 women — 100 males) puts scientists in a deadlock. They believe that such a fact can only point to one thing — the ritual murder of "extra" children, especially girls.
But Todd denied the allegations and claim that they do not need to kill babies because women give birth they have so many of those as you want and who should be, according to the ancient laws of their distant homeland. How they do it — this newcomer every secret they do not intend to disclose.
As for the distant homeland Toda — then absolutely everything is covered with impenetrable gloom. Hemogram tribe does not meet modern biological environment. Consequently, they are the people came. But that's from? Todas themselves say their pervorodina — in Sri Lanka, and on it they came from … the mysterious constellation of the Bull.
Scientists, of course, this "star" option is not considered, and are trying to find home Toda on the ground. And one of the key assumptions, is not devoid of sensation and logic at the same time — is that the ancestors of the Todas are the ancient Sumerians. Say, Sumerian seamen sailed in ancient times to the coast of India and founded a colony. After some time the connection with the colonists 'mother country' was broken, and they had to be "Indians" captive forever.
Well, part of this assumption is supported by the facts. Thus, a tribe called Todas main light sky, the sun and the moon, the same name that the ancient Sumerians — Uttu and Sin. Their clothing is very similar to the Sumerian garments on a style somewhat similar to Roman togam. Tod are mysterious stories of seven great kingdom ", located at the big sea, which had dominion over the mighty" Lord of the ships. " As for the ships — it is a very interesting, because the Todas live in the mountains, the sea around them not, boats and the more they do not build ships, and stories that are passed on through the centuries, as the ships are.
Other researchers hypothesize Dravidian origin of the Todas. But their opponents immediately indicate significant differences between the Dravidians and Toda: first, Toda language has no analogues among dialects, which were used in Southern India. And secondly, the Dravidians — is farmers, and Toda — exclusively cattle-breeding culture.
There is also a version that Toda — descendants of the Scythians. Proponents say this version of the similarity of the nomadic Scythians tents and huts Toda, find similarities in the Scythian religion and religious beliefs and customs of the two nations, and see similarities clay figurines from the Scythians and Toda.
And there are scholars who argue that the Todas — are the direct descendants of the Lemurian, whose mainland in prehistoric times sank to the bottom of the ocean. And the stories of the seven kingdoms overseas — is not nothing but miraculously survived through the centuries and passed the data on long extinct Lemurian civilization.
Perhaps much of the history and origin of the Toda would open their ancient language called "kvorzha." No wonder some of the scientists trying to unravel the mystery of the Todas, operating exactly linguistic data. But the trouble — kvorzha unique and comprehend it is not possible.
Like all old (very old) languages kvorzha extremely simple. There are only two seasons: the mysterious — the present-future and the past. Cases of the same form, and plural names not indicated.
Kvorzhu tried to "swoop" to study in the XIX century, trying to "fix" to the Dravidian family of languages. But no such luck. So, one of the enthusiasts, the missionary, the Rev. Schmidt, in principle, well versed in the Dravidian linguistics, worn out with hard language, eventually admitted: "Nearly a third of the words in the dialect Toda I can not be attributed to any of the languages with which the sign" .
Another enthusiast, amounting geographical description Nilgiri mountains inhabited by the Todas, also admitted: "The language of Todas have a unique accent and a strange original style. Apparently, he has no analogy with any of the colloquial language used by natives of South India. " A famous British anthropologist Rivers generally stressed that the Todas speak "secret language" incomprehensible Dravid.
In the XX century, put forward other hypotheses that "withdrawal, or" in the direction of the Sumerians. In particular, Prince Peter Greek and Dutch, who had a diploma anthropologist and twice visited the Todas, suggested that the words of kvorzha similar to the Sumerian words. It was he who pointed out the same sounding names of the sun and moon in Sumerian and Toda.
This bold hypothesis later defeated American anthropologist and linguist M. Emeno which have also proved that such a similarity of names can be easily explained if we start from the laws of the Dravidian languages. His evidence, however, could not entirely refute the arguments of the roots nedravidiyskih kvorzha, including the Sumerians, and the question remains open. So far, none of the representatives of the scientific world can not coherently explain the origin of the ancient language of Todas and clearly relate it to a language group or family.
Kvorzha — the language and the archaic ritual. It is spoken by only priests. All other residents of the tribe to communicate with each other "dialect" spoken, and that's it, then we can easily be attributed to the South Dravidian subgroup of the Dravidian family. Closest to the language (spoken language) to the Tamil and Malayalam. But the language — the result is the later history.
Todd — the tribe as interesting in the statutes, and the beliefs. They are pastoralists, but … vegetarians are bred exclusively for buffalo milk. Buffalo for Toda — that's it. Each one has their own personal Toda buffalo, which he worships. Toda said that at birth the soul dwells in the body, but his spirit — in Buffalo.
There exists a special tribe buyvolyatnik — "tiriri." It features a special pen for personal buffalo and secret temple, to which you can not approach women and single men.
Only priests Terran may approach untouchable temple doors. On it, in addition to buffalo horns, parallel horns of the moon, there are images of stars and mysterious ancestral Toda — the constellation of the Bull. From time to time, one of the priests of the temple goes to the secret to make it Secret Service. It lasts hopelessly 3 months, and no one knows what is going on at this time in the church.
The main goddess for Tod include Giryu-maiden. Its symbol — the bell around the neck of a buffalo. Toda also worship the sun, believe in evil spirits and reincarnation.
Despite the fact that the Todas do not eat buffalo meat, the practice of ritual killing of these animals exist. This usually happens when the owner dies buffalo. His head was cut off personal ox and the carcass buried in the ground. Over her dead body burned: Todas believe that the smoke of the sacred spirit of the animal buffalo brings the soul of the deceased in the constellation of the Bull. Then collect the ashes of relatives his cousin in a pot and carry home, and his head placed on a buffalo cremation site. This place is in the forest, each of the deceased is his own, and then no one ever visited.
The neighbors to Todas particularly relevant, respectful, almost reverent. Neighboring people honestly believe that the Todas have mystical and supernatural powers. For example, can heal with his hands or with a charm of milk. And each of the Todas is a "magic bullet" — bamboo, which they do not let his right hand. Also all the surrounding neighbors believe that the Todas have power over the elephants and tigers, and can transform themselves into them.
Well, that may be all it is. After noticed that Toda no fear, they have no weapons for war or defense, they do not keep guard dogs and live in complete fusion with nature, without disturbing its harmony and its tranquility.