November 13, 2011 9:05
Morning, August 5, 1977 employees of the Kremlin museums came to work as usual, long before their discovery. At the beginning of the ninth over the center of Moscow, the storm broke. Suddenly, over the Kremlin appeared fiery yellow ball that went down to the Cathedral of the Archangel.
The door of the cathedral was opened, researcher at the museum NS Antonov ready to receive visitors. "I sat at a table near the entrance to the museum, and SA Savkin standing a meter away from me, — she said. — Outside the rain fell in torrents, thunder, suddenly the door between us at about a meter flying glowing ball five centimeters in diameter. Color it was like a burning light bulb, just so bright that we stopped seeing each other. He then almost silently flew across the room and exploded on the altar, hitting the royal gates. "
But the damage was limited: burned curl on a wooden carving the king's gate. Interviewing witnesses who saw the lightning outside, theodolite measurements, a thorough examination of the territory of the Kremlin and the cathedral's possible to restore the whole image. It turned out that lightning was not the only one!
The first fireball diameter of about one meter suddenly appeared about two hundred meters above the Great Kremlin Palace. After standing in place for two or three seconds, the fireball moved to Konstantinovo and Helen Tower, but soon split into three new lightning. One of them flew between Uspensky Cathedral and Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, and then sank to the Ivanovo area. The second also fell and disappeared into Taynitskom garden. On the third we've been told. So in the morning August 5, 1977 over the Kremlin and have ceased to exist four, counting and ancestress, fireballs.
When you see a fireball in the Archangel Cathedral came the smell of ozone, which indicates that its active interaction with the environment and low power dissipation. None, however, did not feel any heat coming from the lightning, but its light is literally blinded everyone.
Calculations showed that the light ball lightning in the cathedral was 5-10 times stronger than the sun! This suggests a high concentration of energy in a small volume.
The architectural complex of the Kremlin is equipped with the most advanced lightning protection systems. A lightning behave as if no remedies were not there. Thanks to the work of the historian HH Sizov found that about four years ago, the Kremlin was almost the same as in 1977.
It is commonly thought that ball lightning — a rarity. Indeed, it occurs much less frequently than linear. But now the world of science collected data suggest that, paradoxically, it is in molniezaschischennyh areas is not the case: there fireballs occur more often than linear! The reason is not clear, and here primarily because we still do not really know how to do encounter these bundles of energy and what they represent. Ball lightning is still a mysterious phenomenon.
Penetrating everywhere, fireballs, even the most insignificant size make terrible devastation, but they are often limited to a simple "visit." According to observers, they move in zigzags or at random, then in a straight line, or by selecting a specific way, for example, roll between puddles. Before he disappeared, fireball or explodes with an incredible bang, or disappear without the noise and smoke. There are other options.
Behavior of ball lightning at all diverse. And in this also lies the mystery. In 1904, a German engineer, was walking with his wife. Suddenly swooped storm with rain, hail and snow. About 30 meters from the road and at 6 feet above the surface of the ice, they saw a big bright ball of about 4 meters in diameter. The ball dropped through the telegraph wires, which began to glow, and then wrapped a couple. They stood in a dense mass of white light, not feeling no smell, no heat. Then, the ball rolled across the road and disappeared after 10 minutes.
During World War II Allied pilots have repeatedly reported on meetings in the sky with fireballs. Sometimes it seemed that the balls want to attack aircraft, so some pilots decided that the balls — the secret weapon of the Germans, and called them "ghost fighter".
When the war ended, it was revealed that German and Japanese pilots also saw balls of fire, but also take them for the secret weapon of the enemy.
Thunderball — ungrateful subject of research, it is known to scientists and people far removed from science, for many centuries. She devoted thousands of scientific articles, dozens of books. Nevertheless, the physical nature of the "act of creation" ball lightning is still a mystery. Most likely, according to most researchers, it occurs in the so-called non-equilibrium electrical discharge in the atmosphere in a thundercloud. In other words, the ball lightning is a long-lived plasma produced yet obscure way during a thunderstorm.
"There was a severe thunderstorm with rain. Lightning flashed one after another. Almost simultaneously with the flash of a strong discharge from the outlet was "blown out" (like a bubble of straws) orange ball of light. Its shape is constantly changing. When the ball has reached the size of a soccer ball, he pulled away from the wall outlet and floated around the room. Flying up to the window, the ball without slowing their movement and changing forms, went through the glass, as if it did not exist (no hole in the glass and then I did not find). In the yard, flying away from the window for a few meters, the ball exploded with a bang "- told I.Orehova from Moscow.
Most often, a fireball — but lightning right? — Was observed in the form of pellets with a diameter of 10-20 cm, but once there have been cases where the size of a fireball up to 27 meters! Moving ball can "stick" to any metallic object, and boiling and throwing sparks, gradually fade. It is striking that the ball can still hang in the air in the presence of wind and even to move against the wind.
To date, there are many scientific hypotheses about the nature of ball lightning. They can be divided into two broad groups. Supporters of one of them believe that the energy source that supports the glow ball is out of it. Ball lightning is formed in the form of a plasmoid in the antinodes (crests) of standing electromagnetic waves, lightning and "eats" through continuous resonant absorption of energy.
However, from this point of view it is impossible to explain the relatively long lifetime of ball lightning, sometimes reaching several minutes. Meanwhile, the total duration of the continuous electromagnetic radiation lightning never exceed a few seconds!
Another group of hypotheses argues that the source of energy that supports the glow ball lightning has an internal origin. Ball lightning has enough of a "combustible" desired power, which explains why there is sometimes a fireball minutes.
The full moon shone from on high. For a moment, I stopped in front of him and saw a strange light. Someone was coming towards me with a lantern. Lantern was round and dull.
-Here weirdo! — I thought. — In a light night someone is going to fire.
Strange light approaching. The terrain was rough, and the light is closer to the ground, then rose up … The silence was complete, no voice, no sound of steps was heard. Then I called out and asked who was going. There was no answer. And suddenly I saw that the light does not move along the path, and away from me over the bush.
I was scared because I could not explain who or what I am dealing with. It was a ball of light the size of two fists, matte white. He came up to me, and I could well consider it. Twice its outer shell as it burst. And then inside it was seen a bright white-blue. The ball stretched thin as a thread, a fiery tail … "This record left in one of his books, the famous Russian traveler to the Far Eastern taiga VK Arsenyev.