Intelligence and counter-intelligence in the Russian War of 1812

Intelligence and counter-intelligence in the war of 1812Historians are of the worldview that causes Russian war in 1812 became de facto abandonment of the Russian Federation to support the continental blockade of Britain, in which Napoleon beheld his main weapon against the island power, Alexander I's unwillingness to put up with the policy of France to the European countries, held without considering the interests of the Russian Federation . Napoleon, namely, the Polish government sought to return to the inclusion of land in Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, and refuses to withdraw its troops from Prussia, where they were placed in violation of the Treaty of Tilsit contract, insisted our homeland.

As you know, after the defeat of Russian troops in the Battle of Friedland in June 1807, Alexander I and Napoleon signed the Peace of Tilsit, by which pledged to join the continental blockade of Britain. Under an agreement with the French king Our homeland in 1808 stolen from Finland and Sweden made a number of other territorial acquisitions, and Napoleon gave a free hand to conquer all of Europe except the United Kingdom and Spain.

Despite this, Napoleon immediately after the Peace of Tilsit began to nurture the idea of war with Russia. The first to say this, Alexander I, was the minister of foreign affairs of France Talleyrand (soon shifted from his post), who wanted to get a good sum of the Russian autocrat, well and generally ready for funds to implement anyone.

After the unsuccessful attempt to marry a Russian princess majestic Napoleon In 1810 he married Marie-Louise of Austria, daughter of the ruler of the Austrian Franz and extended to himself as Makar rear and establishing a foothold in Europe. Directly behind this active preparation for war with Russia. At the direction of Napoleon's French military forms the ministry made a new troop, troops secretly concentrated on the approaches to the future of the theater of military operations, to organize a new set of logistical facilities were built and strengthened the fortress of the Oder, was conducted diplomatic overtures by knocking up anti-Russian bloc.

Immediately in the first months of 1810 was designated inflated activity of French intelligence services.

How they do it

Napoleon's intelligence had a great experience getting military-political disk imaging, on account of its operations have been successful in Italy, Germany and Austria. With all that intelligence activities remained in the shadows, because it was overshadowed by the military victories of the French guns, although the soil for them to some extent substantiated the achievements of the scouts. All of the cases were under investigation Napoleon's personal supervision, specifically flocked to him all the information. Specific assistant governor in guiding intelligence in the affairs of Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs spoke Mare and the commander of the body Elbe in northern Germany, Marshal Davoust. At the headquarters in Hamburg Marshal received information about the Russian army, acquired from the troops, and in Paris to the Minister — data from the French diplomats and covert agents.

By the first months of 1810 can be attributed, and start lurking war against Russia, when the French exploration began to operate on many fronts at once, focusing on intelligence work. Agents penetrated into Russia under the guise of pilgrims, merchants, artists, monks and Russian retired officers. Used intensively lived in the country French and other foreigners — tutors, doctors, teachers and servants of the local nobility.

Under the direction of Paris acted and exploration countries that were included in the orbit of the French influence. Of their biggest activity showed intelligence stateliness of the Duchy of Warsaw. Group of 3 Polish agents in 1811, visited Vologda, Arkhangelsk and other town of the Russian North. Motivate their fortifications, crossing water obstacles, as local farmers outlook on Napoleon.

Remarkable awareness of the then Russian affairs showed Austrian salting. Not kept up with him and the embassy of Prussia in St. Petersburg, who also had their own paid informants.

Center for controlling the conduct of the war lurking in Russia and one of the main suppliers of disk imaging on the country and its army was the French Embassy in St. Petersburg. Through the diplomats crossed into France and information obtained Napoleonic agents inside the country. For these needs, including bribing foreigners, the French Foreign Ministry once a year received from the Treasury from 3 to 5 million francs — an astronomical sum in those days. Until April 1812 the lion fraction of this amount was directed by French diplomats accredited in Russia because Napoleon sought, that the embassy in St. Petersburg each month sends "Review" of the Russian armed forces.

First salting Napoleon in Russia, General Savary was then the Minister of Police, succeeding the famous Joseph Fouche. Two of these — Caulaincourt and Lauriston — were also not only diplomats, and generals, and each in its time was the main resident of French intelligence in the Russian capital.

Caulaincourt not cope with their obligations diplomat-spy and was soon withdrawn from the RF. During the audience, Napoleon aggressively chided him, specifying that the French generals, even in Paris, on the situation in Russia introduced a lot better than diplomats watching nearby country, almost from the windows of the embassy in St. Petersburg.

Indeed, the Marquis Caulaincourt, the French aristocrat in the tenth knee at heart despised espionage, which he called "the meanest craft", could not brag successes of lurking in the field of war.

The Russian response Frenchman

So a flurry of activity the French and others like them could not go unpunished. In the period of 1810-1812 years on the local Russian Empire Russian special services detained 39 foreign spies. But overall security escort Committee and the Ministry of the police becoming more difficult to detect enemy spies. Because in this situation it was decided to make a special organ in Russia military intelligence and counterintelligence. The new institution has been called by the Office of Special Minister of War. It was the first military intelligence agency in Russia. Then, in 1810, the Institute was established military agents, it was composed of experienced police officers, officers with experience in fighting, customs officers and other law enforcement agencies.

In 1810, at the direction of Defense Minister of the Russian Federation Barclay de Tolly abroad in Russian embassies were targeted constant military officials (military agents). Their main task was to conduct reconnaissance and intelligence work. For the conduct of strategic intelligence in France and in Europe, Napoleon's subordinates were selected seven military agents from reputable noble families: Alexander Chernyshev, Grigory Orlov, Paul Brozin (oriented to France), Paul Grabbe (oriented in the Bavarian capital Munich), Victor Prendel (left to Dresden — the capital of Saxony), Fedor von Seraskerken Theil (departed for Vienna), Roman Rennie (acted in Berlin). Any of this "magnificent seven" was instructed to get information about the plans of Napoleon and his troops and their concentration on the borders with Russia, also make analytical reports on military and economic potential of France and its satellites.

By the beginning of 1812 all seven were detailed map of the dislocation of the French troops, to specify the exact number of them — 450 thousand
people with whom Napoleon enters the Russian border. On the basis of the reports of the Special Office of the memorandum was drawn up hidden, which was later reported to Barclay de Tolly. In it, namely, stated: "Avoidance of general labor, guerrilla detachments volatile, especially in the rear of the enemy's operating band, to prevent foraging and determination to continue the war — the essence of the new measures for Napoleon, the French agonizing and their allies unacceptable" .

Information of the Russian military intelligence agents formed the base of the strategy and the strategy of war, which initially stuck to Barclay de Tolly, and then Kutuzov.

CASE captain Sawai

One of the most dramatic episodes of confrontation French intelligence and the Russian counter-intelligence is a "deal captain Shroud."

The retired captain of the Russian army David Savane since 1810 was in the Duchy of Warsaw Lofty — vassal state of Napoleon. Being very poor and cash-strapped, he decided to get a teacher, but everywhere, wherever treated, received a categorical refusal. These difficulties have been artificially made by the military intelligence of the Duchy, which considered the candidacy of the Shroud more applicable for the recruitment and the next job in Russia as a secret agent.

After keeping some time on the Shroud "starvation diet", it came out himself Chief of the General Staff and the general manager of exploration of the Duchy of Fisher. In the process of recruiting conversation, he promised prosperity captain his family, subject to the orders of their intelligence.

First 1811 Sawan received a secret mission and the means to carry it out, arrived in Vilna. Being a Russian patriot, he immediately turned to the command of the Russian troops, and said of his mission. Was at a loss to miss such a chance, and on the orders of Barclay de Tolly counterintelligence officers of the Special Office of the French started a rapid game.

In Warsaw, the Shroud has gone as a Russian agent and delivered to Fischer information of interest to him. They have been professionally trained in the headquarters of the 1st Russian army in their disinformation skillfully interwoven with the actual data.

I must say that the information coming from the French agents, acting in Russia were not rich and very inconsistent and often were retelling of rumors and tall tales. French generals did not trust the source. Against this background information delivered a captain looked very valuable and reliable. As a result, the newly-born French 'spy' was increasing and was transferred to the Office of Baron Binion, managing a hidden life of Napoleon's forward-deployed forces. Here Sawan with one hand typeset hidden curricula of French agents prepared to sending of a Russian, and the other was coded messages, in which they reported on the counterintelligence office of the Special. It is easy to guess, which was issued by the end of the infiltrators.

Through the Shroud, who enjoyed the confidence of the undisputed Binion, Russian counterintelligence managed to drive a large amount of dezy on the number of high quality and part of the Russian army, the plans of her command. But the main prize of the channel was that with his help managed to deceive even the very genius of the war — Napoleon. And it was so.

In March 1812 "Magnificent Seven" agents of the Special Office had reported that the main goal is the defeat of Napoleon's superior forces of the Russian army at the beginning of the campaign. Right behind it stepped in Sawan, more precisely, the channel of misinformation that he personified. Captain urgently called on the relationship of its own operator — Binion — and in the process gave him the appearance of a "particularly valuable" information that Barclay de Tolly wants to give a general scramble back in the frontier zone. What was the astonishment of Napoleon, transformed later into trouble when all the way from the Niemen to the Dvina, he met no Russian military unit! French government realized that brilliantly zagadanoe they start, which was to be reincarnated as a momentary defeat of, postponed indefinitely. Indeed, Napoleon with every step majestically army on Russian soil due to stretching of communication had to leave numerous garrisons in the occupied towns, because he could not raise a fist in one place enough for a general melee fighter.

As for the fate of the upcoming David Shroud, with the advent of the danger of his life by the hirelings of Binion, who has not wavered in his belonging to the Russian secret service, Barclay de Tolly ordered 3 July 1812 to send the Shroud in the deepest rear — to Kazan. He has been allocated a yearly maintenance 1000 rubles. banknotes, and his sons are taken by students at a local college.

Obviously, the "business of Captain Shroud" is not limited to the activities of the Russian counter-intelligence in 1812. Even before the war was defused spy group in Brest, a few French spies and their connected are brought to the tribunal and executed in the Ukraine. With the outbreak of hostilities was eliminated a number of Napoleonic agents in Riga, St. Petersburg, Smolensk and in the headquarters of the Russian army — the Don.

Extensively carried out counter-intelligence work and during foreign campaigns of the Russian army of 1813-1814. The Russian counter-intelligence officers have brought a significant contribution to the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was considered invincible.

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