From the creator: This article — though little attempt to understand the history of pre-war repression in the Soviet defense industry. Even now, as part of special services are open archives, this topic is huge, virtually untouched formation. The information is very uneventful and collect it hard because immediately warn — clear statistics on the extent of repression in the "defense industry" and their impact on the production of military equipment and weapons is not here. There are quite sketchy data and common but far from complete picture. Because every reader has the right to evaluate the collected data to measure their own intelligence.
Prehistory of mass repression in the USSR
In the late 20's. in the Soviet Union began the forced industrialization. The funds for its implementation there were requisitioned from the sale of church and museum, also of the grain that forcible manner requisitioned from farmers. To facilitate the removal of grain and agriculture were conducted 2 large share: dispossession and collectivization. Grain from farmers did not have to choose, as it has been the collective farm. Funds for industrialization, of course, it is still not enough — there was no well-developed banking system, private investment was not. The working class also had hard times: the minor real incentive funds began active intensification of the labor process. As a result, in the renegotiation of 1927-1929. collective agreements, tariff reform, revision of norms yavyrabotki enhanced equalization, to certain categories of workers is reduced earnings. As a consequence, many party organizations point "political tension among the masses." The growing discontent of the workers — the inevitable consequence of the "belt-tightening policies" — the party-state management directed towards the so-called "experts pests", usually from the "former". The role played by the first lightning rod widely propagandized "Shahtinskii process" in 1928. On it are brought to justice engineers and technicians Donets Basin accused of Tipo "deliberate sabotage" of the blasts at mines in criminal ties with the former owners of Donetsk mines, in the purchase of unnecessary imported equipment, safety violations of labor laws, etc . etc.
According to the indictment, sabotage organization funded Donbass "Western capitalists." Meetings of the Special Bench of the Supreme Court USSR on "Shakhty case" took place in the summer of 1928 in Moscow under the chairmanship of J. Wyszynski. The Tribunal acquitted four of the 53 defendants, four of conditioned punishment conditionally, nine people — to imprisonment for a term of 1 to 3 years. Most of the defendants were sentenced to long imprisonment — from 4 to 10 years, 11 people were sentenced to death (5 of them were shot and 6 of the USSR Central commuted sentence). "Shakhty case" open a discussion on the 2-plenary sessions of the Central Committee of the Party. "It is no accident so-called Shakhty affair — read Stalin's speech at the plenum of the Central Committee in April 1929," Shakhty "now sits in all sectors of our industry. Many of them were caught, but far not all caught. Wrecking bourgeois intelligentsia is one of the most insecure forms of resistance against developing socialism. Wrecking even more so insecure that it is associated with international capital. Bourgeois sabotage is an indisputable indication that the capitalist elements far have not laid down their guns, they accumulate strength for new protests against the Russian government. "
The concept of "Shakhty" has become a household name synonymous with "sabotage" in Russian society and gave rise to a prolonged propaganda campaign. The mass publication of the "sabotage" in the Donbass region in the country has caused a storm of sensual. In the teams sought immediate convening meetings, organizing rallies. At meetings of the workers were in favor of greater attention to the needs of the administration of production and for increased security companies. From the reports of the OGPU in Leningrad: "The workers painstakingly discussions are currently at work every neuladku, suspecting foul play, and often heard the expression," Do not second to "Donbass" we? "Finally there were" certain the perpetrators "outrages perpetrated: a weak organization , backward-level planning, low wages, delayed payment of wages, lower prices, mass accidents, safety violations and accidents, breakdown of the production plans.
In Moscow factory "Tryokhgornaya Manufacture" workers read:
"The party is very trusted," spice ", and they dictate to us. Pretend to help us in our work, and in fact carried out the counter-revolution. " But the corresponding expressions, recorded at the factory "Red October" in the Nizhny Novgorod region, "Spices have given vent, privileges, apartments, a huge salary, live in an old as time." In almost all the teams were calls to the terrible punishment of "criminals." Meeting of the workers in the Sokolniki district of Moscow sought: "All you need to shoot, and then the rest will not." On Perovskoy sudobaze: "packet to shoot that bastard."
Playing on the worst instincts of the masses, the regime has inspired a number of repressive processes against the "experts", accused of "sabotage" and other deadly sins. One thing led to another: the process of farm labor Party (TKP), arrested prominent economists ND Kondratiev, AV Chayanov, L. N.Yurovsky, naikrupneyshy agronomist Doyarenko AG and others. In autumn 1930 it was announced that the disclosure of the OGPU sabotage and espionage organization in the field of supplying the population with essential food, especially meat, fish and vegetables. According to the Troops, an organization headed by the former landowner — Dr. A. Ryazantsev and former landlord ES Karatygin also other former nobles and industrialists, the Cadets and the Mensheviks, "snuck" in responsible positions in the Supreme Economic Council, in the People's Commissariat in Soyuzmyaso, in Soyuzrybu in Soyuzplodovosch, etc. According to press reports, these "pests" could upset the system of food supply in many cities and towns working to organize a famine in some parts of the country, they are blamed for an increase in the prices of meat and meat products, etc. No. Unlike other similar processes verdict in this case was very cruel lure all 46 people were shot by order of the court closed. Now the Russian people should be clear why the stores do not even have simple products — they have not delivered "pests". November 25 — December 7, 1930. Moscow hosted the trial of a group of outstanding technical professionals accused of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activity: the process of the Industrial Party. Go to court on charges of sabotage and espionage activities were involved eight people: LK Ramzin — Director of Thermal Engineering Institute, naikrupneyshy special world level in the field of heat and boiler construction, and prominent spices in the field of Engineering and Planning: V.A.Larichev, I.A.Kalinnikov, I.F.Charnovsky, A.A.Fedotov, S.V.Kupriyanov, V.I.Ochkin, K.V.Sitnin and others.
Repression in the defense industry
In the process of mass
repressions 20-30's suffered a lot of designers weapons and military equipment, management and employees of the defense industry. The situation in the Russian production in the 30s, make out the example naikrupneyshgo plant defense "New Sormovo" (plant number 112) manufactured cannons. Magazines accounting for mechanical testing 1934 1935gg. demonstrate chronically low level of product properties. On tests of different parts of the gun F-22 (casing, tubing, etc.), on average 42% of heats were found not relevant characteristics of the property. According to statistics from the machine shop number 1 for 1935., In January, there were 13 severe accidents machines, in February — 7 March — 13 April — 16 May — 12 June — 21. In 1938. in the machine shop number 1 downtime due to various accidents accounted for 25% of the time. June 20 failed Hammer number 6334, June 27 — Hammer number 6338. Often destroyed motors, failure of the oven. In May, 1938. In the thermal workshop took 4 fire, with one of them led to the explosion of a furnace. The new plant manager of the factory Mirzakhanov order dated May 19, 1938. this is explained in the spirit of the times:
"The enemies of the people, tools at our enterprise, practice by fires and explosions incapacitate plant and the plant as a whole. Unravelled pests at the factory and is now trying to do the ugly business. May 9 — a fire in the shop number 6, the same day kalilschik tinkering blew oven, 17 May — 2 fire. "
When I say "now", Mirzakhanov meant that the campaign to arrest "pests" and "enemies of the people" was extensively since the summer of 1937. (And there were more "fit" and up to 1937.), But now, he says, it is clear that not all have to have caught and arrests continue. In fact the tragedy was a direct result of overloading of equipment purchased rush work, low production standards and a lack of trained personnel. In another own order of November 3, 1938. Director raised the problem of marriage:
"… This item comes with a great marriage: the whole of 1937. — 88%, June 1938 — 68% in July — 70%, in August — 82% … "
Decree of the Supreme Soviet on February 5, 1939. Plant bestowed the Order of Lenin, the management of the plant has received personal congratulations from the People's Commissar of arms Misha Kaganovich and the chief of the Red Army GAU Grigory Kulik. But in reality, the merits of the plant were very clear: since 1935. the company starts manufacturing gun F-22 and the beginning of 1939. able to supply the troops only 1,429 units. In this case, the quality was at a low level, and many guns had to redo the guarantee. Previous Mirzahanovu Director Radchenko and the Danube were arrested and sentenced to long prison terms, but Mirzahanovu, despite the lack of real progress, apparently, failed to make the necessary business with the highest authorities. In general, promoters Mirzahanova life is not ended well: M.Kaganovich soon shot and G.Kulika executed after the war.
A fascinating document era — an excerpt from the minutes of party meetings in a turbine factory shop Kirov in Leningrad:
general party meeting of members and candidates of the CPSU (b) the turbine plant of the Kirov factory October 8, 1937.
Attended by 143 people.
Chairman: Zvinger. Secretary: Kolishkin.
AGENDA of days:
1. Report of the Party Committee (Secretary s / t.SMIRNOV)
Report of the Secretary of the Party Committee so that Smirnova said that elections depend on the party members and candidate members of the CPSU (b). The party committee started its work since June of this year. During this time the work done to change the composition of the organization.
Dropped out of the organization, except for the excluded: 5 people. Took 3 people. Transferred from the candidates: 5 people. Expelled: 18 people.
Individual members of the party were excluded by a decision of the Party Committee.
BOURNE expelled for what he has been linked with the enemy of the people KOLETSKIM, who was associated with the enemy Markov for the loss of class care. MYSLITSKY expelled from the party and at the moment is taken bodies N.K.V.D. Nekrasov carried polit.nedoverie. Prey expelled for what he contributed to the transition of polit.nedoverie expelled him from the party. Funikova wife, working in CSC, was engaged in counter-revolutionary debates, strolling and visiting Polish church. Funikov it was not aware of insincerity to the party he was expelled. IOSELEVA expelled from the party for what he was tightly interwoven with KOZDROEM. DUKMASOVA expelled for what he pulled away from the party life (did not attend the meeting). KAPUSTINA expelled from the party for being on the cool rolling it's not quite went well. The blades are not persistent, reduces by 20%. Prohlopali to expose the enemies with party cards: Truskovsky, KAMASHIN attracted by Article 58., As spies. KAZAKEVICH expelled during the exchange of party membership card for the fact that he's being abroad, had a relationship with a teacher and had a conversation with her. In making a decision to exclude the party committee did the right thing … "
Quoted from the book "RUSSIA, Twentieth Century. DOCUMENTS. Lubyanka. STALIN AND HEAD OFFICE STATE SECURITY NKVD in 1937-1938. "Compilers:
VN Khaustov VP Naumov, NS Plotnikov
Problems was a huge amount, because almost industry after the devastating effects of war and civilians revolution was necessary to create anew. There was a shortage of everything, but especially-literate professionals. But where to get the money for mass purchase of modern equipment, training, research and development, decent pay for the right professionals? Whose head for the first time had the idea to organize free labor tehspetsialistov in prison — for the moment hard to say, just clear the decision was made at the top. The first to fall under the roller of a repressive system, those who had "non-proletarian" suspicious origin and fad in the biography. One of the first victims was a founder of the seaplane Dmitry Grigorovich.
He was arrested in his office for September 1, 1928 on charges of sabotage and sent to Butyrskaya jail. Soon there were members of the design department Grigorovich seaplanes VL Corwin Kerber, E. Majorana, A. Sedelnikov, aviation experts at other institutions — P. Kreyson, BF Goncharov, I. M . Kostkina, AV Nadashkevich, NG Michelson. October 25, 1929 he was arrested aircraft NN Polikarpov (son of a priest.)
He was accused of counter-revolutionary role of the organization and sabotage, as well as other fellow sufferers, planted in Butyrka. On the basis of Grigorovich-Polikarpov Troops in December 1929. made in the bullpen Butyrskoj first in the USSR referred to as "sharashka" — a prison design bureau, which is officially known as: Design Bureau — internal bullpen (KB-VT). Worked in it condemned engineers and designers under the protection and management employees of the
OGPU. Since the prison conditions were unsuitable for productive development work, this "sharashka" was transferred to the area Khodynsky airfield and renamed the CDB-39 GPU. The main designer was appointed Grigorovich, and Polikarpov became his deputy.
From the history of the organization "sharashechnogo" work of the NKVD:
In 1930, it cooperated Technical Department of the OGPU ECU controls the operation of the special design bureau, which used prison labor professionals. ECU Head of the OGPU (1930-1936) — LG Mironov (Kagan) — Commissioner of State Security 2 rank. In the 1931-1936 years for conspiracy technical department alternately assigned numbers, 5th, 8th, 11th and 7th divisions ECU OGPU USSR. In September 1938, on the orders of Beria was organized by the department of special design bureau of the NKVD of the USSR (NKVD Order No 00641 of 29 September 1938) .21 October 1938 in accordance with the order of the NKVD No 00698, the division received a name — "4th Special Branch." January 10, 1939 order of the NKVD No 0021 transformed into the Special Technical Bureau (OTB), the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs for the use of prisoners with special technical knowledge. 4th special department of the NKVD-organized by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in July 1941 on the basis of features Technical Bureau (OTB) NKVD and the 4th division of the former KGB, the Soviet Union. Head of Department — VA Kravchenko. Since 1945, a special department also used German POWs professionals. In 1949 there was a new order of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR No 001020 of 9 November 1949, the 4th special department Internal Affairs was tasked with organizing "special engineering, design and project offices to conduct scientific research, development, experimental and design work on the basic management Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. " After the death of Stalin (1953), "sharashka" have been eliminated.
In March, 1930. Chief of Air Force Alksnis (shot in 1938). put CDB-39 task: to make light of world-class fighter in the month. The prisoners worked, to paraphrase a famous saying, not for conscience, and for the horror, as many were sentenced not only to long prison terms, and some have delayed the death penalty. Task was completed April 27, 1930. I-5 aircraft rolled out of the shop.
The fighter went bad, it was decided to mass production and in the coming built about 800 cars.
"Those at the top," Encouraged by her success, CDB-39 significantly enlarged and renamed the Central Clinical Hospital, which was part of the organization of the Technical Department of Economic OGPU. This control is supervised facilities erected by prison labor. In order CDB well-made aircraft factory 39. CDB now asked to make a series of aircraft: fighter, bomber, and others, but now hopes were dashed — machine, built in the year, took poor quality. CDB work stalled, some professionals pardoned and set free, while others continued to serve the old terms or purchased new. Ended in failure, and attempt to make a massive aircraft engines in the bureau — especially the design office of the OGPU, who worked on Nikolskaya in Moscow. There are works of eminent special on the engine — the prisoners A.A.Bessonov, N.R.Brilling, BS Stechkin.
But the idea of slave labor tehspetsialistov died. When the country in 1937-1938gg. rode shaft mass convictions "enemies of the people", in the suburban village Bolshevo NKVD did a "scientific screening" camp for prisoners of designers and engineers. They were looking for the camps and lock-up, and the survivors expelled at the camp, out of the inmates (z / k) over time were transported in separate KB NKVD. Bolshevo passed through almost all the elite Russian aircraft: aircraft designers R.L.Bartini, V.M.Myasischev, N.I.Bazenkov, D.P.Grigorovich, I.G.Neman, N.N.Polikarpov, VM Petlyakov, A.I.Putilov, Tupolev, V.A.Chizhevsky, AM Cheriomukhin, D.S.Makarov. There's also "were sitting," and designers worked rocketry S.P.Tsarits, Yu.V.Kondratyuk, VPGlushko; special on submarines — a group Kassatsnera and Demetrius, special on torpedo boats — a group Brzezinski, in armament, Munitions — Berkalova group. Later there will take great representatives of world-class basic science: mathematics K. Szilard, Doctor Rumer, special on the mechanics of Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR AI Nekrasov. Miraculously, no dead for a year stay in the Kolyma camps Sergei Pavlovich Bolshevo taken to the Queen in 1940.
AN Tupolev was brought to "sharashka" of Butyrskoj bullpen in April 1939 with the "chic" bunch of charges: the role of anti-Soviet, Trotskyist subversive organization, the work of the French and South American exploration, etc., etc.
Andrei, like the vast majority of prisoners were obliged to sign anything that wanted him to the jailers, but when he was offered to work in the camp instead of "sharashka", put forward the only condition that he agrees to work in a prison KB only in this case will a note from his wife, in what will be said that it is not arrested, and the kids at home with her. Tupolev worried in vain, his wife really by the time she was arrested, but it was too important for the designer was proud of the country and understood it all. "Sassy" requirement Tupolev satisfied: his wife was released and the note he had received from her. Later Tupolev daughter recalled:
Under the control of a prisoner of the NKVD made Tupolev massive KB entitled CDB-29 NKVD, there were specifically made Stuka dive bombers Pe-2 (in 1940) and Tu-2 (in 1941). This institution is located at: Moscow, ul.Radio, 24 — there was previously Tupolev and its production base (factory 156).
All work was carried out under the personal control of Beria, who headed the NKVD after Yezhov, with the first Beria even tried to put the heads of CB technical tasks for the development of aircraft. Tupolev story about one such stories reproduced in his memoirs, "Tupolev sharaga" L.L.Kerber (one of the leading authorities in the field of radio communications, working in the OKB-29 under the control of the Tupolev)
Referring to Davidov (NKVD officer)
— Take action in a month they are — should be a nod to convict Tupolev — prepared proposals. That's it! "
Kerber further outlines that the Tupolev returned evil, the idea of Beria was clearly untenable, at the technical level is quite amateurish. How can dive at point target on the languid awkward four-engine plane!? He told of the acquired task of Beria its not far assistants, and said that making such a machine — complete madness. And if you turn away — the shooting of the new term? A month later Tupolev again taken to the Beria to the Lubyanka. When he returned to the CB, said the subsequent:
— My report has caused irritation in Beria. When I finished, he looked at me frankly maliciously. Apparently, about the PB-4, he uttered Stalin quite a lot, and can be, and assured him. It was amazing to me, from the past practices of Stalin I made a remembrance of that aircraft and if he did not understand as a designer, it still had the common sense point of view. Beria said that they will understand and Stalin. The day I was worried in "solitary confinement" and then was summoned again. Beria: "So here we again with Stalin over the files. Solution is this: at the moment and it is urgent to make a twin-engine. How to end, proceed to the PB-4, it is very necessary to us.
Then between us took such a dialogue:
Beria: — What is the speed?
I am a: — 600.
Beria: — It is not enough, you need seven! What is the range?
I am a: — 2000.
Beria: — It will not do, you need 3000! What a load?
I am — 3 tons.
Beria: — It is not enough, you need 4. That's it!
Turning to the officer of the NKVD:
— Order the military to make the requirements for a twin-engined dive-bombers, check with the characteristics of the spirit of my instructions.
A total of CDB-29 worked about 2 hundredths of designers, "vermin" and about 1,000 "free" constructors. Perhaps it was the largest aviakonstruktorsky team in the world. As it paradoxically, all departments were headed specifically "pests", among whom were many academicians, corresponding members and medical sciences. And it does not sound stupid, but all of them voglavlyal Kutepov NKVD colonel, who was a couple of years Nazal mechanic electrician at an aircraft factory, 39. He was required to permit any work. L.Kerber in his own memoir describes a case where the designers have come to Kutepov for permission to make a 4-stroke engine. Kutepov asked — what engine was in the past? They replied that, say, 2-stroke. Then Kutepov recommended that they "do not rush" and to experience at first do a "3-stroke." After that option to Kutepov tightly Paste the nickname "three-step".
Kerber writes about the system in snitching "sharashka":
Once in the CDB-29 to work on multiple types of aircraft. Department under the number 100, which was headed by the technical project V.M.Petlyakov simulated 2-engine high-altitude fighter.
His project is completed in April 1940., And after consultation with the military, gave the order to process a dive bomber. To strengthen and accelerate Petlyakova identified about 300 "free" professionals from KB Yakovlev, V.M.Ilyushina and former Tupolev, which is now headed A.A.Arhangelsky. Autumn-known PE-2 went into a series — all were released about 11,000 cars.
Division 102, headed Myasishchev, worked on the creation of high-altitude bomber remote code-named "102" (DVB-102). In the spring of 1942 the plane rose into the air and on many technical solutions could make a decent konkurentnst known South American "flying fortresses". But engines with the necessary features to it to do so and failed, and the plane in the series did not go.
Department of Tupolev 103 (the unnumbered) after canceling the job to "4-engined dive bomber 'worked on the creation of easy dive-bombers, in other words, creating a car similar to the PE-2. The plane went bad, the first flight took place first of 1941., And was launched in a series under the name of the TU-2. He was in the Air Force until 1950.
Division 110 Tomashevich made fighter. He eventually went bad because of the very great weight, and the series did not go.
A large prison bureau for development of aircraft engines had cooperated NKVD in Tushino, near Moscow-based engine plant 82. In the middle of the pris
— naikrupneyshy special industry, one of the founders of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), the creator of a number of massive aircraft and tank engines Alex D. Charomsky;
— eminent expert on the theory and practice Motors Dr. Boris S. Stechkin, worked on another plane, "Ilya Muromets" in the Russian Empire ("was sitting" with the Russian authorities two times — in 1930 1931gg., and in 1937 1943gg.)
— naikrupneyshy special in jet engines Valentin P. Glushko, the future chief designer of "Energia" and twice Hero of Socialist Labor;
— eminent metallurgist, creator of the Russian duralumin Dr. I.I.Sidorin;
also the chief designers engine plant A.M.Dobrovolsky, M.A.Kolosov, A.S.Nazarov. When the war began, this "sharaga" moved to Kazan aircraft plant to the area 16. Later transferred there S.P.Tsaritsa, which, coupled with Glushko worked on the creation of aviation jet accelerator. In general, the activities of the "sharagi" has been successful, as evidenced by archival document — a letter from Beria to Stalin 16.07.1944g.:
1. According to the project VP Glushko constructed experienced reactive liquid engines RD-1, designed for installation on the aircraft as accelerators. Seasoned standards engines RD-1 were factory flight tests and joint stand with satisfactory fruits. At present, the plant number 16 is the most experienced series of jet engines RD-1 to work out all the issues related to the use and future development of these engines.
2. According to the project Dobrotvor AM on the basis of mating 2-series M-105 engines built massive aircraft engines MB-100 with take-off capacity of 2,200 liters. s. and MB-102 with capacity of 2450 liters takeoff. s.
At the current time, the MB-100 engines undergoing flight tests on the aircraft EF-2 and MB-102 engines ready to install on a plane "102".
In addition to these works, Special 4 Special department of the NKVD was given a big techno help the plant number 16 in the construction and installation of the plant, namely, on the project and professionally run 4 Special department NKVD USSR at the factory number 16 was built experimental mechanical base aircraft engine.
A group of trained professionals 4 Special department of the NKVD of the USSR, working at the plant in senior technical positions in almost all the plant contributed to the successful release of products.
Review Narkomaviaproma tov.Shahurina, works executed prisoners spices 4 Special department of the NKVD, the technical innovation and the successful solution of a number of complex technical and design problems are very valuable.
Taking into account the importance of this work, the NKVD of the USSR considers it appropriate to release to the removal of criminal records of prisoners particularly distinguished professionals, with their next destination to work in the aviation industry. "
(Municipal Archives Russian Federation — SARF. A special folder Stalin. D.65).
'Sharashkas' in Leningrad NKVD:
— Separate design bureau OKB-12 (1931-1932gg.), Was placed in the House of preparatory detention, specialized in architectural and design work: the project of the Great House, the reconstruction of the garage OGPU on Manezh Square, and others, the creators of the projects — the prisoners NE Lanceray B. Roerich and others;
— Bureau of the NKVD in Leningrad region (with 1942. OKB-172) in the building bullpen 'Crosses', specialized in the development in the field artillery: 130-2-mm cannon tower plant B-2-LM, 45-mm antitank gun M-42 and others, prisoners worked: design engineer SI Lodkin, Dr. Bursian, Dr. AM Zhuravskii, Dr. I. Currents, etc.;
— DB-5 Shipyard Morpogranohrany NKVD (1933-1940gg., Ural Street, 19, and now the Sea plant 'Diamond'), worked: Doctor of Engineering EE Papmel, design engineer V. L. Brodsky, and others;
— Special technical bureau of the Leningrad branch of the Institute 'Giproniislyuda' Soviet Interior Ministry (1953-1955, pos. Metallostroy), prisoners worked Engineers: VK Akulov, R. J. Kolberg, etc. — OKB-196 (construction of submarines now CDB 'Ruby'); worked design engineers PG Goynkis, Horace P. Yu and others;
— EDO at the Kirov Plant (coastal artillery) worked candidate of technical sciences VN Jaworski, M. et al Morduhovich
Not many are arrested Scientific and technical staff of the defense industry's lucky to get in "sharashka." Since 1937. were shot: Nicholas M. Kharlamov, head TsAGI, Vasily Chekalov, head of the 8th Division of TsAGI, Eugene M. Fourmanov, deputy chief of training TSAGI; Kirill Inyushin, Deputy Head of Planning and Engineering Department of the plant number 156; Israel Emmanuilovich Maryamov, Director of the plant number 24; Jora Nikitivich Queens, Plant number 26, and Andrei Kravchuk broom, head of the 2nd Division of the 1st Head ICPC management, and many others …
By May 1926, in KB Kalinin was drafted health "K-2". More than perfect "K-3" was built in 1927. In July 1928 soared sanitary passenger "K-4". At the Berlin International show in October 1928, the "K-4" was awarded a gold medal and the team smelter starts serial production of the aircraft. Soon shoots "K-5", which absorbed all the best of its predecessors. In August 1930, built the "K-6" (postal or bombing), "K-8", a sports and coherent K-10, 'bezhvostovoy' bomber K-12. The heavy bomber K-7 was a real "flying fortress", which appeared nine years earlier South American "Boeing" B-17. Defensive armament: 8 mm 20 caliber guns, eight machine guns of 7.62 mm) bomb load of 16 tons of bombs instead of the plane could take on board 112 marines. Konstantin Kalinin was shot in October 1938, seven months after his arrest.