Richard the Lion Heart

Richard the LionheartRichard the Lion Heart, the son of Henry II Plantagenet and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was born on September 8, 1157. At first, Richard was not seen as the heir apparent to the throne, to a certain extent influenced the formation of his character. In 1172, Richard was proclaimed Duke of Aquitaine, which forced the king coming fully taste all the beauty of the feudal strife. Very soon, the traditional melkofeodalnym strife and confrontation he added with his dad and brother. In 1183, Richard was faced with a difficult choice: to swear allegiance to his elder brother and absolutely lose political independence or to choose the path of self-ruler. Richard chose the second. In response to the roughness of the elder brother of Richard Henry invaded his possession, but soon fell ill and died. Despite the incident between the children, the father of Richard Henry II ordered him to give Aquitaine to his own younger brother, John. Richard opposed the will of his father and went on to further conflict, during which between him and his younger brothers, Geoffrey and John burst into a real war. Having understood the essence of the ugly, threatening to grow into an awkward fratricide, Lord Henry II decided to end the fraternal dispute over land duchy, passing it into the possession of Richard's mother. Despite the relative reconciliation, similar good relations in the family of Richard back and failed. The reason for that were the rumors that Henry II in violation of customs intends to hand over power to the youngest scion John.

Dissensions in the British royal family rushed to use French lord. In 1187, he showed Richard kept secret text messages of his father, in which Henry II asked for permission to marry Philip for his John (Philip), her sister Alice (previously betrothed to Richard), then transferred to his ownership of the Duchy of Aquitaine and Anjou.

So the royal family has been brewing for a new conflict, eventually forced to act against his father, Richard. In 1189, in alliance with the French Bishop Richard began to open confrontation with his father, Henry II as a result lost all continental possessions, not including Normandy. In the summer of 1189 Henry II passed all of their positions, then died.

September 3, 1189, Richard was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Once in power, Richard began manufacturing the Third Crusade, organized with the blessing of Pope Clement III. Apart from Richard participated in this campaign, the German ruler Frederick I Barbarossa and the French master of Philip II Augustus.

Richard I assured the King of France in the benefits of the sea route to the Holy Land, which freed the Crusaders from many problems. Start of the hike had to spring 1190, at which time the Crusaders through France and Burgundy went to the shores of the Mediterranean. First of July there was a meeting of Richard Wesel British and the French King Philip Augustus. Monarchs and their warriors, greeting each other at some time continued along the road ahead. But of Lyon French crusaders marched towards Genoa, and Richard went to Marseille.

Sunk the ships, the British began to march to the east, and September 23 have already made a first stop at Messina in Sicily. But they had to stop because of the aggressive case of the local population. The inhabitants of Sicily, not just heaped derision Crusaders and rough abuse, and did not miss the ability to attack and relentless execution of the unarmed crusaders. October 3 negligible collision on the market was the reason for the real war. Hastily armed, citizens were ready for battle, sitting on the towers and walls of the town. Despite the fact that Richard tried to prevent the ruin of the Christian town, the British ventured into the assault. And then undertaken by urban residents for the next day lord of attacks led his army, and the British, drove the enemy back into the city and seized the gates and angrily treated the vanquished.

This delay forced to postpone the hike until next year, also poorly reflected on the relationship 2-monarchs. At times between them appear small collision, eventually they left Sicily, just quarreled. Philip moved directly to Syria, and Richard had to make one more stop in Cyprus.

Richard the LionheartThe fact that the storm of the British ships raging waves came to the Cretan coast. The governor of Cyprus ruler Isaac Comnenus took them, with an emphasis on coastal law, which formally was on his side. Obviously, this had to do not like the Crusaders who landed in Cyprus May 6, 1191. Battle began, but the Greeks retreated rapidly, unable to withstand the impact. The battle was renewed for the next day, Richard fought bravely in the front row, he even managed to capture the flag of Isaac, spears blow knocking stallion with the ruler himself. As in the previous battle, the Greeks were defeated.

Less than a week later, on May 12, in the captured town come true wedding of Richard and Berengaria of Navarre. Meanwhile, Isaac, who has realized his own mismanagement, began talks with Richard. Terms of Isaac peace treaty obliged not only to the payment of an indemnity, and the opening of all the castles in front of the Crusaders, as the Greeks had to put auxiliary troops for a crusade.

But Richard was not going to deprive Isaac imperial power until such time as Isaac did not run in Famagusta, accusing Richard encroachment on their lives. Furious treachery Comnenus, lord ordered the fleet to guard the coast, that Isaac did not run away again. After that Richard sent the army to Famagusta, capturing that he went to Nicosia. On the way, Tremifussii was another battle after the victory in which Richard I solemnly entered the capital, where he was detained for some time the disease.

At this time in the mountains of Cyprus Crusaders under the command of the king of Jerusalem captured by Guido stronger locks, and among the prisoners and was the only daughter of Isaac. Under the burden of all these failures May 31 the governor surrendered to the favorites. So, the least than a month of the war, Richard took peninsula of Crete, the strategic importance can not be overestimated, and our days are.

The road ahead Richard was in Syria. First arrived in July, Richard accommodation camp under siege walls of the town of Acre. With the arrival of the Knights of the siege of the town by Richard activated. In the walls of the town were breached, and on July 11 the besieged agreed to negotiate the surrender of the town. Already on the day following the knights entered the city, who was holding a siege for 2-years.

The victory has generated controversy in the ranks of the crusaders. There was the question of who should be the king of Jerusalem. Any of the allies offered his candidacy and not lusted concede. Overshadowed the universal triumph of the scandalous episode with the Austrian flag. Most of the historians depict him so. After the capture of Acre, on the orders of the Austrian Baron Leopold above his house was raised Austrian standard. Litsezrev it, Richard became angry and ordered the break flag and throw it in gryazyuka. The fact that Leopold is located in a house in the British sector of the occupation. The result of the fierce scandal was a significant departure of the Crusaders in the working path. With their departure, Richard became the sole commander of the
army of the Crusaders.

Now about what Richard I got my British loud and romantic nickname. At first glance the nickname "Lion Heart" shows to the royal courage of his vehicle and was given for a daring feat. But this is not the case. Richard had the reputation of a very bitter and angry man naked before, and even delirium manager. With the surrender of Acre Saladin were put forward conditions: release all the prisoners of the Crusaders and to pay a contribution of 200 thousand gold marks. Saladin did not turn away from these requirements, but not ripe to advance discussion deadline. On hearing this, Richard was furious and ordered the execution of the gates of Acre about 2000 Muslim hostages. For this is truly an animal ruthlessness, which in addition to other things, condemned to a similar fate of many Christian captives, Richard British and I got his famous nickname "Lionheart". In addition, in the hands of the Muslims and remained one of the main Christian shrines — the True Cross.

Richard the Lionheart

Soon Richard takes the decision to start coming to Jerusalem. After collecting 50-strong army of the Crusaders, he marched. Specifically, in the Jerusalem march was fully revealed the genius of Richard's military leadership, combining the talent within themselves the greatest military strategist and organizer, smogshego link under the banners mingled mass of the Knights, who are used to a feudal strife.

The campaign has been organized in a serious way. Richard categorically forbade his men to engage in small skirmishes and, to be led by the enemy, who tried to disrupt the marching order of the Crusaders. To reflect the dangers posed by Muslim horse archers, Richard gave the order to arrange safe guarding of the crossbow.

The most remarkable episode in the process of fighting the army of Richard march to Jerusalem took place Sept. 7, 1191 near the village Arzufa Fri. Saladin was ambushed and assaulted the rear of the column, Richard. First, Richard ordered the rearguard did not respond and continue to march. After a while, followed by a counterattack Crusaders, which determined the final battle in a few minutes. The loss of the crusaders were 700 people, while the Mamelukes Saladin lost in killed 10 times more — 7,000 fighters. After that Saladin was no longer engaged in open battle with the Knights of Richard.

But small skirmishes with the Mamelukes crusaders last. Go with low-intensity fighting Saladin and Richard led the negotiations which, in general, came to nothing, and in winter 1192, Richard resumed campaign Jerusalem. But in this time the campaign has not been completed, the Crusaders returned to Askelon, restoring the destroyed city and made him a strong fortress.

Richard the LionheartIn May 1192, Richard took Daruma — a massive strengthening of sub-Askelon, then spoke again to Jerusalem. But at this time campaign ended at Beytnuba. A prerequisite for this was undoubtedly the leaders of the Crusaders on the need for the coming storm of Jerusalem. Suggestions were made to turn to Egypt or to Damascus. It seems however, the Crusaders began to evenly leave Palestine.

According to the agreement signed in September adversaries, Jerusalem and the Holy Cross remained for Muslims, the fate of the prisoners of the Crusaders was also in the hands of Saladin and the Crusader fortress Askelon dismantled. All military successes Richard had actually reduced to zero.

After signing the contract, Richard sailed to Britain. And here he was reminded of an old grievance. Richard started the hunt for his sworn enemy — Austrian Baron Leopold. In addition, due to the fact that Richard had close business with Welf and the Normans, Hohenstaufen davneshnimi enemies, enemy, Richard became more and the German ruler Henry VI.

In the Italian coast ship Richard ran aground, and was obliged to go to the saved. This was soon vyznat Baron Leopold, and December 21, 1192, Richard was arrested.

On the capture of Richard vyznat German ruler Henry VI, and Baron Leopold gave him a prisoner. Richard was bound to bring Henry VI lennuyu oath, and only after he was released. In March 1194 he finally headed for the UK. London met the King celebrations. But, after having been in the UK even before the summer, Richard, initially preferred to make war, not the municipal administration, served in Normandy.

In the years of wandering Richard King Philip II of France managed to put significant pressure on the British mainland. Richard could not wait to mix up the cards French. During the expedition of Richard Norman managed to win a few big wins and take a series of fortresses. Philip had to sign a peace treaty, under which the French were deprived of eastern Normandy. But behind them there was still some fundamental strategic fortresses on the Seine. March 26, 1199 during the siege of the castle naughty-Chabrol Richard was seriously wounded by crossbow arrow. Although the boom has not touched any of the 1st principal organ injury and upcoming surgery resulted in the blood of infection, which became a prerequisite for its destruction. British lord Richard I the Lion-Heart killed 813 years ago — April 6, 1199.

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