Rocket for the Storm

In accordance with the construction plan to available Russian Navy in the late 1950s included the construction of a series of special ships and air defense pr 1126 pr.62 radar picket ship, the main instrument of which was to become a universal anti-aircraft missile system M-11, designed to effectively combat not only the air, and with the enemy surface ships such as destroyers, torpedo boats and missile-carrying boats.

anti-aircraft missile system M-11

The main technical solutions adopted in the development missile for this complex were predetermined in that the initial steps of development, M one of claims 11 to it to ensure that it has the highest continuity with the complex M-1, and by the ability and harmonization with its elements. It is assumed unification, together with the natural eagerness to fit into a limited amount of ammunition ships cellars, and led to the length of the new missile complex, in fact equal to the missile complex M-1 On the other hand, the new complex range of acts did not have to yield to the ship's version of SAM-range S-75 — M-2 "Volkhov-M" with the launch of B-753, whose experience in installing the cruiser "Dzerzhinsky" was held at the end of 1950.

The launch 4K60 ship's anti-aircraft missile system M-11 "Storm

Quite specifications of the M-11 were identified in the ruling government of 25 July 1959, and a year later, July 22, 1960, the need for expansion of this work has been proved yet another resolution, which was also expanded the list of carriers of the new complex, which included anti-submarine cruiser pr 1123 .

The complex M-11 was due to hit air targets, hovering at speeds up to 800 m / s, at altitudes from 250 m to 20 km and a maximum range of 3 to 25 km from the ship. At the same distances M-11 had to strike and surface targets. Once this had been brought against the most stringent requirements on the size and mass of the rocket — its length should not exceed 6 — 6.5 meters, wingspan should be less than 1.7 meters, weight — the least one and a half tons.

Leading developer of M-11, received the code name "Storm" was defined NII-10 (hereinafter, the NGO "Altair"), the main designer — GN Volgin. Development of the launcher was assigned design team led by TD.Vylkostom.

Creating a rocket for an M-11, which received the designation B-611, assigned to take charge P.D Grushin OKB-2 (in the upcoming — ICB "Torch"). First analysis of claims submitted to the newest rocket, showed that the properties of the B-753 to another in the middle of the 1950s were considered within reach, ought to bring in a rocket with almost twice the size of the smallest. More aggressive customers of the Navy insisted on the fact, that in the modern solid rocket engines were used only .. On different watery fuel islands on the basis of high hydrocarbon compounds and acids was not the question. The only thing that could work to facilitate solving the problem, it was the time of supplies in a couple of years, the number more than real time, much less that the first same estimates showed that the use of hard fuels, the creation of which has been mastered by the end of 1950, to reach required features single-stage rocket with its implementation will be very difficult. In general, and the two-stage version of the B-611 is also significant benefits not provided — to obtain the desired range, the developers immediately grew discrepancy search warrants protection of ships from falling accelerators.

Cut tight slipknot problems had to through the implementation of a range of measures, including the development of an optimal method of radio-command guided missile at the target, select the aerodynamic configuration of the rocket and, of course, the creation of highly efficient propulsion system.

The final version rocket In 1833, a mass of 611 kg, of which 125 kg were on a combat unit, was carried out in the usual way with an X-shaped arrangement of the aerodynamic surfaces. More optimal for the rocket was recognized dual-mode engine, which provided her with a rather short Solid start directing and maintaining the highest average speed of flight.

The missile body consisted of five compartments. In the first compartment housed radio and pin fuses and fuse antenna, 2nd — the main elements of the management system, and in the 3rd — warhead. Fourth compartment was a shell of a solid rocket motor. The tail section of the missile has been formed as a truncated cone, in which the control elements located a drive motor disposed around the nozzle with an elongated gazovodom.

A similar assembly is allowed to receive a number of benefits. Thus, the solid charge could locate closer to the center of mass of the rocket and its burning was less impact on the change in alignment of the rocket in flight. In all this time, the motor must be commensurate with the passage of time the missile to the highest range, and means rocket could do without the use of the passive portion of the flight line of traffic and its attendant effects decrease maneuverability and agility. More fundamental was the preservation of efficiency and motor housing when the missile maneuvers saturated in the target area.

Another novelty proposed by OKB-2, was onboard electrical power source to power the equipment rocket variables and constant current. Unlike predecessors, the new source of electricity worked hard fuel.

cruiser "Moskva"

December 15, 1962, almost simultaneously with the release of preliminary design for the B-611 on the stocks of Nicholas plant number 444 (in the upcoming "Black Factory") was founded first antisubmarine cruiser Project 1123, the future cruiser "Moskva", designed to CDB- 17 under the control of AS Savicheva, then A V.Marinicha. By his own destiny, architecture, weapons, tools and tactical and technical characteristics it is fundamentally different from all the ships ever built for the Russian Navy, and so enticed to discover the most careful attention to the control of the country. The initial work schedule its construction planned for completion in two and a half years, by the middle of 1965. This required a significantly accelerate the pace of work on the creation of the B-611 missiles.

By the summer of 1964, the first B-611 missiles were prepared for throwing tests with a ground launcher, because by that time had not yet been completed elements of the complex equipment selected for the tests "Storm" towing vessel OS-24 throwing the first rocket launch took place on July 30. After that, it took a number of necessary improvements and research, which took almost half a year. In general, from the schedules behind not only the missile troops, and shipbuilders. By the summer of 1964 it became clear t
hat the completion of the construction of "Moscow" is transferred on terms by about 18 months. Ultimately, the descent ship on the water took only 14 January 1965, and the end of its construction planned for 1967 year. Right behind him, almost for the next day after the descent of "Moscow" on the water, was laid 2nd Ave cruiser 1123, received in the name of the upcoming "Leningrad".

Antisubmarine cruiser "Leningrad", Fall 1981

First start throwing the modified B-611 towing vessel complied with the OS-24 January 14, 1966. This series of tests lasted until the end of January. Their results were also not flawless, since the beginning of 1966 have not yet managed to finish a bench scale testing of rocket propulsion system — it happened burnouts, adjust the size and strengthened thermal protection.

Then the solutions to the identified problems, the next screening of propagation of radio signals from the station pointing a torch hot gases — was performed four additional start-up, during which clarified the impact of jet engine on the functioning of the radio control at a different location on-board antennas. As a result, there was a decision to install on the pylons in the tail of the rocket double antenna channels and channel response teams now in any mutual position of the missile and spacecraft torch no longer impedes missile desired commands.

February 27, 1966 completed the first launch of the B-611 closed-loop control, and soon the first time a missile shot down a target flying at a distance of 26 km and a height of 10.3 km. Produced by rerunning move with the highest rate of boat-target located at a distance of 20 km.

In the future, tests M-11 continued not only on the OC-24, and on anti-submarine cruiser "Moskva". In contrast to the towing vessel on it installed two double girder launchers B-189 storage devices and supply capable of taking on 48 missiles. "Moscow" was armed and 2 stations targeting "Thunder". But since both anti-aircraft missile complexes are located alternately in the bow, with the excess of launchers and antenna posts second complex on the first, then a tremendous superstructure with mast-feed pipe shut angles ranging from approximately + / -130 degrees from the nose. As a result, the ship was created significant "dead zone" in which the "Moscow" was defenseless against enemy air attacks. In a certain extent, this shortcoming could make up the possibility of making the ship maneuver in the timely detection of targets.

Municipal tests M-11 missile-B-611 were to begin immediately with the trials of the other systems of the future flagship of the Russian Navy and the ship itself. In preparing them for the waste at the time for service of past naval air defense systems technology firing anti-aircraft missiles carried by ground-launched target drone, which under the security accompanied with 2 interceptors. They had to finish off the target drone in this case, if it strayed also a miss firing rockets or cancellation. To ensure these tests have identified a squadron of fighter aircraft were based at the airfield near Feodosia.

But first shooting with the "Moscow" anti-aircraft missiles, even cooked in all ways, not out. Fighters had to kill the target in the air a couple of times. Coming soon ship Director arrived Shipyard AV Gankevich who appointed a special award to participants for each firing effective launch. After all, without the successful completion of the test missile system could be no question about the end of the municipal test ship. And it was equally improve.
By mid-August 1967, just before the municipal trial, had to perform the last shooting. And again it was necessary to connect the plant manager. Sudden obstacle was the day approaching aircraft, to whom in order to avoid accidents or disasters have been banned on all flights of military aircraft Gankevichu managed to get an appointment with the army commander AI Pokryshkin, which entered the position of shipbuilders and rocket and gave permission to perform fighters flying.

All this has raised tension in the middle of so sailors, workers and test that before the last shooting on the flight deck and superstructure cruisers gathered all who could, with all my heart worrying about running up so fundamental. And when the first pair of starters from the ship "611's" missile target was hit, the jubilation of the crowd was not predela1 Municipal tests M-11 began in this period.

In the process of the municipal trial of "Moscow" was held 20 rockets, including nine telemetry. Approximately one third of them was unsuccessful. At one point affected by deficiencies in the documentation, in 3 cases, summed up the ship's control system and 3 — onboard rocket. Spent four starts on simulated targets, the same — by parachute targets PM-6, descends from a height of 8 km at a range of about 30 km. In addition, the two met on the volley on target dvuhraketnyh La-17 flying at the same altitude, but at a distance of a little more than 20 km, and two more — on a barge set at the same distance. In general, the tests proved the ability of the complex of striking targets at ranges from 6 km to 33.5 km in the range of altitudes from 100 m to 25 km.

It must be stressed that the launch of anti-aircraft missiles to the "Moscow" put its own primary purpose test specific reference arms ship instead of a complex M-11, which went on as before practiced on the OC-24, and after the date of the first fleet of anti-submarine cruisers December 25, 1967. In just a waste of M-11 missiles, naval obtaining the designation 4K60, was adopted by the September 6, 1969.

In fact, right from the adoption of the "Storm" on weapons entered service with the Navy and the same type of "Moscow" antisubmarine cruiser "Leningrad", the tests which was launched eight rockets B-611, including two — at a simulated target, the pair — on the boat etc 199, and others — with 2 dvuhraketnymi salvos at targets La 17. Despite the fact that one of the missiles after launch was not controlled, both targets were hit and tests found totally successful.

Heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "Kiev"

In the upcoming M-11 launchers B-187 installed and languid aircraft carrier "Kiev" pr 1143, which became the basis for the air group is not helicopters, as the "Moscow" and "Leningrad", and aircraft vertical takeoff and landing Yak-38 increase almost three times the displacement in relation to the helicopter allowed more correctly positioned anti-aircraft missile systems — one in the bow, the second — in the rear, avoiding the presence of a "dead zone." In testing the ship in the Black Sea, which lasted from May 6 to October 24, 1975, which spent seven rockets B-611 to target parachute-6 and M-purpose boat.

Heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "Minsk"

After almost two years, 15 October 1977 began testing the consistency of "Kiev" ship "Minsk" then ended February 18, 1978. With all of this was conducted eight successful launches of the B-611 on the ship's shield, targets La-17M and M-6. The last of the languid complex aircraft carriers of the "Storm" equipped "Novorossiysk", built on an enhanced project 11433, who had a number of noticeable differences from its predecessors. At his trial, held from 20 to 27 May 1982, was carried out 11 launches on the ship's shield, targets La-17M and M-6.

Shooting UZRK "Storm-M" TAVKR "Novorossiysk" pr.11433

Complex M-11 has been upgraded twice in 1969 introduced the "Storm-M", kitted improved functional stations "Thunder-M", and in 1986 — "Storm-N", the properties of which ensure the defeat of aerodynamic targets at low altitudes .. In addition, another first 1970 samples were taken deep modernization of the "Storm" and increasing its maximum range of 50 km deeds. But by this time his main developers were loaded on to create jobs for its replacement C-zoophyte and so as not to distract from the work of designers, from structural modernization of the "Storm" refused.

In general, for years of service "Storm" has proved the positive side, becoming, in the characteristic Russian Navy Commander SG Gorshkov, the backbone of the air defense fleet. Moreover, as the "Storm" was installed in the main ships, deprived of the impact of missiles, and it has become an important tool of antiship large fleet of surface ships built in the late 1960s and 1970s, but the languid aircraft carriers.

In general, the complex was 44 "Storm" installed on the OS 24 and 22 warships. But by the beginning of the XXI century in the ranks of them there are only two ships of the carrier M-1134B 11 Ave — "Kerch" and "Ochakov".

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