In the postwar years ATGM appeared in almost all countries of the world. To increase their mobility began to set in cars and armored wheeled vehicles. Of course, there was the question of arming anti-tank guided missiles (currently accepted abbreviation ATGM).
First time abroad guided missiles (in the forthcoming we will call them TOURS — tank guided missile) to be set on the French light tank AMX-13 in 1959-60. These tanks were armed Tours SS-11 in the 2-ways; by two launchers on the roof of the tower or to 4 launchers on the front wall of the tower.
In the years 1959-60. USA bought in France a few thousand anti-tank guided missiles SS-11 and SS-10. Was the attempt to install these tanks shells at M-48 and M-60, but more experienced models did not get, though SS-10 and SS-11 penetrated all the armor at least some Russian tanks (at least until the last in 1965).
The first anti-tank missiles. generation (including SS-10 and SS-11) had a manual control on the wire. Operator had with a special pen to direct them to the target. Low pointing accuracy and a huge flight time excluded from shooting stroke. Manual removal system shell on the line of sight led to the formation of meaningful unaffected zone (500-600 m). Public offering of beam-type launchers on the armor of the tank did not feasible reloading launcher under enemy fire. Themselves shells were exposed to bullets and shrapnel, not to mention the nuclear explosions.
First, the 70-ies in the United States were adopted HB arms Tours last generation "Shilleyla." New Tours tide began to semi-automatically by the infrared beam. Start "Shilleyly" carried out of the 152-mm tank gun, which apart from rockets fired and the ordinary high-explosive shells and cumulative. "Shilleylami" Americans have equipped about 1,500 light tanks, M551 "Sheridan" and 540 M60A2 medium tanks. In the M551 ammunition included 10 Tours and 20 ordinary shells, and in the M60A2 — 13 TOURS and 33 ordinary projectile.
But in the middle of the 70s with the creation of tanks Tours "Shilleyla" was discontinued as a result of the highest rates and poor performance Tours, acts as a weak little rounds of 152-mm guns rather short in comparison with the 105 — and 120-mm tank guns.
Samples Western designers do Tours, which could be fired from the 105 — and 120-mm full-tank guns were bad. Seasoned standards similar TOURS had rather weak kummulyativnoe action and a number of other shortcomings.
So makarom in NATO countries only instrument on the tank is still a tank gun, although still in the early 80-ies of the Western experts at recognized that at distances of 2-2.5 km above the action of conventional shells of tank guns less well than the effect of guided missiles.
Completely different was the development of a tank missile in the Soviet Union.
In 1957, in connection with the development of anti-tank guided missiles and configuration management views on the role of missiles were launched work on the use of instruments managed in the tanks. The works were carried out on three fronts:
a) the introduction of infantry anti-tank weapons as additional tanks;
b) the creation of guided weapons tanks;
c) the creation of special tank destroyers.
As a result of work in the first direction in 1963, a certain number of tanks T-54, T-55, T-62, T-10 and PT-76B additionally equipped with anti-tank "Baby" 9K14. In addition, the structure of PU "Baby" was installed on an experimental tank. 167, made in 1961, based on the T-62. The structure of the launcher (on the TS-76B — twin) was on the outside of the turret in special enclosures. Homing missiles at the target was performed using full-tank run.
In 1957, started designing the first set of Tours 2K4 "Dragon." The lead developer of the complex has been assigned the KB-1 SERC (Municipal Committee of Electronics Engineers). Projectile engaged KB-1 and CDB-14 chassis — the plant number 183 (UralVagonZavod), and sighting devices — CDB-393 (CCB CMH).
Experienced tank facility with 167 ATGM "Baby"
Container for vocational PC "Baby" on the turret of a tank ob.167
Accommodation ATGM "Baby" in a container
The complex has an automatic guidance system with command transmission by radio beam. "Dragon" was designed for a specific IT-1 tank (IT — Tank Destroyer) (to 150), which was developed by Uralvagonzavod in 1958 under the control of L. Kartseva. The tank did not have a gun and was armed only launcher "Dragon." Ammunition of 15 missiles ZM7 placed under the armor of the tank. 12 of them were placed in the automatic installation, and the moving of the projectile to the CP.
In April 1964 two experienced IT-1 have been transferred to the joint tests. Until the end of 1964 produced 94 controlled launch "Dragon."
Resolution of the Council of Ministers of 03.09.1968 № 703-261 g complex "Dragon" was adopted at the armament and produced in small batches from 1968 to 1970. For example, in 1970, 2000 Izhevsk factory made rockets ZM7 and UralVagonZavod — 20 cars IT 1.
In the process of testing and operation of the complex showed the highest reliability (up 96.7%), but its design flaws (huge dimensions, weight control equipment in the tank was 520 kg, outdated element base, a large dead zone, etc.), and no gun on the tank served as a prerequisite for removing the IT-1 production.
It is curious that in the said Decree № 703-261 stated:
"Work out in 1968, the need for translation of missile weapons," Dragon "to the base of the T-64A, while improving the traits of arms." But the "study" showed that the work can be done not earlier than in 1972, when he was no longer able to compete with promising Tours.
Thurso was followed by a complex "Lotus", the development of which began in the CDB-14 (PMA) in 1959, he had an automatic guidance system and transfer commands from the infrared beam. The control system was developed CDB CMH. The developers felt that the guidance system "Lotus" will be more noise immunity than the system with the radio. Launcher "Lotus" was a guiding beam type.
Tours "Lotus" is to put on the new languid tank, designed the CTZ. But the CM Resolution № 141-58 of 17.02.1961, the developmen
t of this languid tank was discontinued. It was only a languid layout of the tank, which in 1962 passed factory tests missiles "Lotus". In the spring of 1964 at the test site was tested Gorokhovetsky complex "Lotus", mounted on a BTR-60P. Running missiles carried in motionless and moving in the infrared beam. In addition, the project was developed settings "Lotus" on the T-64 (to 432). Yet the complex was not adopted. Total costs relating to $ 17.5 million (those) rubles.
In 1961 he began to develop Tours "Typhoon" (factory index 301P). Leading developer of "Typhoon" was OKB-16. Management system in the "Typhoon" done manually, the transmission of commands executed by radio beam. The missile was equipped with 9M15 cumulative-fragmentation warhead. In this fragmentation effect 9M15 was equivalent to that of a 100-mm grenades from the gun D-10, which were armed with T-54 and T-55. Beam-type launcher.
KB Kirov plant running J. Kotin was created rollicking ob.287 rocket tank, which had a double booking. Housing tank welded armor combined and consists of 90-mm armor, then there is a 130 mm sheet of fiberglass, and later again 30 mm and 15 mm armor of a special anti-radiation-red lining. Armor tank did not break any subcaliber or cumulative shells of tank guns, consisting then in service, a crew of 2 persons located in the department of management in a special armored capsule was sealed and isolated from the crew compartment.
Armament consisted of a launcher Tours "Typhoon", 2-73-mm cannon 2A25 "Lightning" and 2-twin machine guns with guns.
Instead of the tower on the roof of the body has been set spinning platform in the center of which was a sliding panel for a launcher. PU stabilized in the vertical plane, allowing the firing of rockets "Typhoon" on the move at the speed of 20-30 km / h.
Left and right of the hatch to the platform were welded two bronekolpaka, each of which were placed the 73-mm cannon and machine gun. In the guns "Lightning" used ammunition from the gun 2A28 "Grom" installed on the BMP-1.
Gun "Lightning" as the loading mechanism had two drum revolver 8 shots each. Management of all weapons carried by remote control.
Two tanks ob.287 in April 1964, came to the factory tests Gorokhovetsky ground. Of the 45 control up 16 hits in a marked target, 18 failures, 8 and 3 misses off-record run. Each tank was more than 700 km. By the end of 1964 tests were halted to address the identified shortcomings (unreliability of missile control systems, inadequate action shooting guns 2A25, etc.). Later work on the "Typhoon" and just finished.
Rocket tank ob.287
Resolution of the Council of Ministers on 30.03.1963, the work began on the creation of the tank and ob.775 2-missile systems "Astra" and "Ruby." At the preliminary design stage would be elected the best of them.
Rockets both complexes were required to have supersonic flight speeds, twice the superior speed "baby", "Dragon", "Lotus", etc. These are the first TOURS is shot from a tank gun (PU).
Leading developer of "Asters" was OKB-16, and radio equipment control system engineered by OKB-668. NTS solution section of the Municipal Committee for Defense Technology from 01.03.1964, of the 2-complexes elected "Ruby" and work on "Aster" finished. By that time, "aster" spent 601 thousand rubles.
The lead developer of the complex, "Ruby" was appointed CSC (then in the town of Kolomna KBM).
"Ruby" was the automatic guidance system with command transmission by radio beam. The complex was designed by a special rocket tank "ob.775."
In 1962-64. in SKB-75 (Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant) under the control of P. Isakov was created ob.775 rocket tank. In OKB-9 for him created rifled barreled (32 rifling) launcher D-126 125 mm caliber, shoot Tours "Typhoon" and unmanageable active-reactive high-explosive shells "Boer". Most firing range "Boers" — 9 km. The launcher was autoloader and remotely control the commander-operator. D-126 was stabilized in the 2-planes stabilizer 2E16.
The diesel powerplant and transmission ob.775 were taken from the T-64, but experienced tank (Object 775T) had gazozabornuyu installation with 2 engines GTD-350.
Hydropneumatic suspension allowed to make a step change in clearance cars.
Both crew members were located in an isolated cabin inside the tower. The driver was located to the right of the launcher on a movable seat. He was watching his own vision devices through a rotating turret, which was held in place by rotating the turret special mechanisms. With all of this a driver and his observation unit were constantly directed along the longitudinal axis of the body, which ensures continuous monitoring of the road.
Tank ob.775 was not adopted for use due to the fact that the crew bad beheld the battlefield, the difficulty of the device and the low reliability of the guidance system Tours.
On the base of the tank was designed ob.775 ob.780 well as crew accommodation of 3 people in the tower, with a driver housed in a cabin along the axis of rotation of the tower. When you rotate the turret it rotates around this cabin. 125-mm rifled gun like a setup could Tours and artillery shells of ordinary type.
Since the beginning of 1964 carried ballistic missile launches, "Ruby", and at the end of the year and managed launches.
Due to the fact that tank ob.775 was not adopted for, have been working on the installation of "Ruby" in the T-64 (ob.432). But with all this, it turned out that the placement of the control equipment, "Rubin", occupies a volume of 200 dm3 with a weight of 180 kg, in the case of the tank can be exclusively in the office of the driver on the spot 7 cannon shells and fuel tank of 150 liters. In addition, a half meter shot "Rubin" did not fit into the T-64 modernization and sought to separate performance: propulsion and 820 mm warhead with the equipment compartment 680 mm. In the end, the installation of "Ruby" in the T-64 did not consider it, and work on the subject was closed.
Rocket tank on. 775
"Ruby" was the last of the first generation of Thurso, but before the cross to modern Thurso, say a few words about the unusual and something no tank missile system.
In 1968, the PCU started designing tactical missile complexes "The Ram" and "wild rose". Both complexes were required to have a single rocket, but reside on different chassis — "The Ram" was intended for tank regiments and mounted on a tank, and the "wild rose" — for in
fantry regiments and, accordingly, mounted on the base of the BMP-1.
Rocket worked over a 2-ways: as Nursi and lightweight scheme adjustments. Rocket engine was solid, and the warhead was designed only special.
Initially, "The Ram" to be erected in a tank type ob.287.
Then, as the chassis was elected the T-64A. Its main advantage was pounding groove and the ability to conduct fire Tursi of universal launcher. The T-64A was designed Tours "Taran-1", similar in mass and size to the rocket features "The Ram". "The Ram-1" is required to have a cumulative fragmentation warhead and seeker, the launch was carried out using an optical sight, ie implemented the principle of "fire and forgotten."
So Makar, the T-64A with a set of "The Ram" could inflict massive blows spetszaryadami on the tank and mechanized infantry units of the enemy. And then — to create dostrel surviving armored vehicles Tours "Taran-1" from outside the affected area of tank and anti-tank guns of the enemy.
Yet, by 1972, work on the "Taran" and "wild rose" were terminated, perhaps, conditional on political reasons. On a technical level, the project is fully able to implement.
Thus, neither the "Typhoon" with ob.287 or "Ruby" with ob.775 adopted were not adopted. Here is similar to the Yankees' Shilleyloy "designers opted for a substantial reduction of ballistic properties of the tank gun, which dramatically reduced the fighting ability of the tank. It turned out that TOURS can not change the tank gun and bad only as a supplement to it, and then if it does not contribute to setting data cannon.
In truth, Tours unfit for firing at the infantry, field artillery, mortars, etc., at least what objects near the tank (the "dead zone"), and at a distance of 4-5 km above. Tours ineffective when firing on a tank in a trench or a pillbox withdrawal because of the ability of the projectile in the ground or in the parapet of the trench due to the fact that the ATGM flight oscillates in a vertical plane.
The scheme of the IT-1 tank (charted M.Pavlov)
Guided missile 9M112M
1 — fighting part 2 — sustainer engine, 3 — pusher, 4 — pan, 5-tail section 6 — instrumental section; 7 — head compartment
Shot with a guided missile 9M119. caliber 125 mm for T-72B, T-80
In general, the occurrence of Tours did not shake the winged design Grabina formula: "Tank — a cart for the gun."
Tours is the next generation became simply guided missiles tank guns, not differing size, the external appearance of the cumulative or high-explosive shells. As with ordinary shells, Thurso for 100-mm and 115-mm guns were unitary, and for the 125-mm guns — separate-case loading.
May 20, 1968 came the Council of Ministers of the USSR to start designing Tours last generation. The resolution provided a competitive design Tours "Gyurza" and "Cobra". Both missiles have weight and size properties of the 125-mm high-explosive projectile gun D-81 and a separate loading.
Develop a "blunt-nosed viper" was held in the MSC running head designer SP Invincible.
Semi-automatic control system with infrared communication link created subsidiary of Hydraulics and Automation Research Institute of the Ministry of Defence.
But Krasnogorsk mechanical factory is very delayed and Load "sight-dayanomera-tracking device", created on the basis of a sight-rangefinder "Scene 1". In the end, "Cobra" far ahead in time "GYURZA" and 14 January 1971 work on "GYURZA" were discontinued, with all this part of the plant used in the design of complex "Storm".
The complex "Storm" had an automatic guidance system-gunner only delayed the brand sight on the target, and the control system automatically led to her rocket. Control commands transmitted by radio beam single-minded focus. The system control 1AZZ entered rangefinder sight 1G42, 1V517 ballistic computer and other equipment.
Shell consists of a 2-compartments stacked in the tank, head and tail, connected among themselves in the trays and the loading mechanism in the motion of the projectile in the bolt gun.
To test Tours "Cobra" There were two of the T-64A, the first of which came on ground Gorokhovetsky 23.02. 1971 In the process of industrial tests Tours "Cobra" noted overstated vibration sight, do not allow firing from the move, there is no reliable mechanism for loading, etc. Then most of the shortcomings managed to clean.
In 1976 has been adopted the T-64B with Tours "Cobra".
In 1985, for service received T-72B, armed with a 125mm smoothbore tank gun 2A46M, shoot missiles 9M119 complex "Svir". Fundamentally a difference "Svir" from "Cobra" was a noise-protected automatic control system of a missile by a laser beam.
Almost immediately goes to the armament of the tank T-80 complex "reflex", which has the same as the "Svir" 9M119 missile. Complexes differ control system.
To increase the combat power of old times in 1983-1985, tanks. accepted into service complexes 9K116 "Bastion" and 9K116-1 "Shexna" made by the PCU. Both complexes have a unified missile 9M117 and almost similar automatic control system. To commands from the laser beam.
Complex "Shexna" was installed on the T-62M tanks armed with 115-mm smoothbore gun U5-TC, and the complex "Bastion" — on the T-55M and T-55AM, armed with 100-mm rifled gun D-10TS-2. In addition, the fall of 1986 set "Bastion-K" was the municipal naval artillery tests on a small ship, etc. 1208.1 and was recommended to the adoption.
So Makarov, it took almost a quarter of a century to instill tanks first alien design — anti-tank guided missiles. In the development of Russian Tours undeniable value structures, hitherto unparalleled in the world. The rapid development of computer and laser technology makes the prospect of a fundamentally new Tours, namely, the implementation of the principle — "fired and forgotten."