These SAMs were to act as a centralized and autonomous, searching and detection of targets radar division. The highest possibility that the act with the role of the Army huge number of armored vehicles to be lively and agile, sought to protect them by SAM with the deployment of 5 — 10 minutes. In doing so, army air defense system had to possess superior mobility and terrain, improving navigation equipment and topographic location, equipped with a proper telecode radio exchange between a command and technical information, automation of all combat operations to have an integrated power supply units. The required level of reliability and readiness for operation in the military were to support highly mobile repair stations and control.
For the first time the creation of the task of army air defense system was formed in the Council of Ministers on 27 March 1956, provides for the development of the complex, capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 20 km in height spectrum from 2 to 12 — 15 km and at speeds up to 600 m / s. However, this work not out of the stage of the project. Because the solution of problems of military defense next few years were to make the S-75 and S-125.
C-75 — mobile anti-aircraft missile system
At the end of the 1950s. tightly control the USSR was engaged neuvvyazkami facing the army-air defenses. In August 1958, was formed a separate branch of service — Army Air Defence. Shortly before that, the military-industrial complex (MIC) began the first full-scale work to establish military air defense system — a complex of "The Circle" and "Cube" in the tactical and technical requirements that were specified above characteristics for cross-country, time to bring in readiness, resistance connection between means complex.
Manage applets implementation of the first troop SAM 2Q11 "Circle" was entrusted to 31-year-old chief designer of the Moscow Institute-20 Benjamin P. Ephraim.
SAM 2Q11 "Circle"
Initially, the "Circle" was intended to hit targets, soaring at speeds up to 600 m / s at a height of 3 to 25 km, at a distance of 45 km. Its members were to enter the station detection and targeting 1S12 (the prime contractor — SRI-208), the station missile guidance 1S32 (NII-20). Caused a sudden the problem of selection of developer missiles. The adopted February 13, 1958, joint decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on the development of means of army air defense system "Circle" were not mentioned already recognized by the time authorities in the field of creation of anti-aircraft missiles OKB-301, SA. Lavochkin OKB-2-P . D. Trushina. Development of missiles for "Circle" from the very beginning has caught the competitive nature One of those who has received a proposal for its development, it became OKB-670 engine-MM Bondaryuk reason so unusual choice was the fact that already the first assessment showed that the base newest rocket design will be straight-through slider. But MM BondarjukT.O rightly reasoned that if a part of his motive KB cope, then with all the other elements of the missile — the development of various airframe and equipment — is unlikely.
Some time on his option, the C-134 missile, worked in the CRI-58, led by well-known designer of artillery VG Grabin. But in the summer of 1959, after joining CRI-58 to DB-1 Queen, the topic was closed, it does not coincide with the principal directions of the enterprise.
As a result, the "Circle" delivered Sverdlovsk artillery OKB-8 which cool worked on the subsequent fate of his business manager, Leo Veniaminovich Lyulev, reacted to the task for the development of modern missiles with a huge, though not all justified optimism. As it reads in the coming. "At the time I was a poor judge in missiles and did not represent all of the problems that we have to encounter in their working out." But as time has shown, Lyulevu managed to find the right ways and approaches to the implementation of this work, which was launched with the accelerated training of professionals. So as not to lose precious months in search of young professionals, finishes profile (mostly Moscow), universities, or to attempt to persuade management to let other CB "extra" missile specialists, Lyulev, with the support of the MIC, the condition of the direction of their own leading workers in DB-2 PD Grushin, to work as interns in the design and engineering departments. Thereby acquiring makarom so desired initial baggage of knowledge and experience, sverdlovchane started designing their own rocket. And the disciples they were more than capable. Made by them rocket and launcher different from similar innovative solutions.
At the beginning rocket for the "Circle" was created in 2-versions, with different guidance systems: ZM8 with radio command, and combined with ZM10 — radio command in the main section, and with the help of a semi-active homing radar head — but at the end in the coming braked at the option ZM8.
ZM8 rocket was made of aerodynamic-to-face with rotary wings, and stabilizers — on a "+".
The design was a two-stage rocket — with a solid rocket booster and sustainer ramjet engine running on kerosene. Such a propulsion system in a couple of times superior to other types of energy rocket engines. At hypersonic speeds, it was more economical than the turbojet engine, was of the ordinary design and was relatively cheap. But these advantages hid a lot of problems, on how to address many of which rocket men at that time had only the most tentative judgment.
In the final design stage of the rocket body march was a direct flow of supersonic engine ZTS4 with a deep central body, which housed the warhead weighing 150 kg, radio controlled fuses and ball-cylinder air pressure Accum. Further along the p
ath motor housed straightening grid, power injectors and combustion stabilizers. Fuel supply ensured turbopump unit, which was used for monopropellant izopropilnitrat. In the central portion of the annular motor housing placed tanks kerosene control clipper fasteners wings and tail — Repair block management system.
Start and acceleration to supersonic speed rocket was provided with 4 lateral solid boosters ZTS5 with launcher 2P24. For separation from sustainer stage on each of them secured by the pair of small airfoils.
Launcher made in the OKB-8 chassis 100 mm self-propelled gun SU-100P. Artillery unit launcher included a bearing beam with hinged at its tail boom lifted with 2 hydraulic cylinders. On each side of the boom were attached to the mounting legs to accommodate the 2-missiles. The launching of rockets could be made at an angle of 10 to 55 degrees to the horizontal. At the start of the rocket forward support to swing sharply down, clearing the way for passage of the lower console stabilizer. Rocket during acceleration supported by additional supports, also attached to the boom. One support truss was fed forward and locked both missiles. Another one pole leans to the side opposite the boom.
First start throwing items ZM8, Curb starting full-scale engines, held on 26 November 1959 Launch vigorously descended from the launch pad, but the separation of boosters collapsed. In general, for a young team up the first run was more than decent. And soon began test flights with the engine running marching, during which sverdlovchanam had a chance encounter with an abundance of previously unknown problems. Thus, the first test launch in-flight propulsion engine accompanied by the appearance of the surge, during which the rocket was losing maneuverability As noted in the upcoming one of the participants in these works: "Every ramjet is unique in its own specific implementation. It was necessary to anneal about 10 thousand nozzles, before it was found the best form of each step when mining was given with difficulty and was made from scratch. "
SAM exhibit 3M8 National Museum of the US Air Force (State Museum of the U.S. Air Force)
Claimed additional research questions and provide vibration-board equipment and missile shielding the antenna from the defendant's products of combustion propulsion engine. Since the last was linked manifested in the first starts ZM8 the problem "31-seconds-" after which in 1S32 radar signal was lost a couple of times on-board transponder. The decision of the puzzles found VP Efremov, who offered to move the antenna transceiver with the missile body to the regulator. In general, carried out before the end of 1960 26 rocket launches, only 12 were successful.
But by this time "on the heels" ZM8 began to attack another member of the competitive development. OKB-2, suggested the 19D missile. The proposal for the development of the "Circle" of the rocket came in early 1959, after the release of preliminary design for a missile 17D are intended for use as part of the upgraded S-75, as well as the ship's air defense system in the M-31 issued July 4, 1959 ruling control of the country, this initiative has been supported.
Work on the 19D transferred to the capital branch of OKB-2, because by the time the main challenges in the development 17D number is close to the solution, and the 19D was to differ from it only in the elements of the control equipment that comply with the guidance systems of the "Circle". By April 1960 a branch prepared a preliminary design and produced the bulk of the technical documentation required for the production of prototypes missiles But soon, due to a series of failures in the tests 17D work stalled, and the full documentation on the 19D delivered to the plant only in February 1961 As a result, the planned date of the earlier trials of the "Circle" as the missile ZM8 and were frustrated with the 19D.
In early February 1961 management companies, working on the "Circle", was summoned to the meeting of the Commission on Military-Industrial Affairs at the Council of Ministers of the USSR, where they were sharply criticized the President of the Commission, DF Ustinov.
It was soon released the Commission's decision "On the unsatisfactory state of works on creation of army air defense systems" Circle ". It noted that most of the companies, "… this is not done in time to develop and disrupted the established government document submission deadline set for joint tests., Made a significant lag in the development of a pilot benchmark guidance station, slowly … unacceptable conduct testing of missiles, rockets are not making … provides the usual course of testing. "
But the first real results from this "shake-up" only got to the end of 1961, although all participants work made every effort to achieve them. On 25 August, after another series of failures at start ZM8, was created a special commission to develop proposals for improvements next rocket — ways to eliminate burnouts combustion propulsion engine, onboard equipment failures, insufficient strength of the structure.
In autumn 1961 to replace the standard experimental complexes were used for comprehensive industrial test, the landfill profits elements of the first prototype reference. At the end of the first year ZM8 prepared for testing in a closed loop guidance and got a proof of the correctness of decisions taken by the developers of the complex, then started the final design of its equipment, including the control system. Then, having received information about the first successful launch ZM8 in a closed loop, DF Ustinov claimed from the developers of the "circle" to start joint tests in March 1962
But 1961 can not be called a good one for its developers. Now the pace achieved developers' Circle "has not kept pace with the developers 19D. Also in 1961 made and sent to the landfill only 5 of these missiles, including a launcher 2P28, made especially for her one-off based on the SU-1 PLO managed to run only one. Unsuccessfully developed work on the rocket and 17D. Another step in making a decision about her fate was the period from February to May 1961, when the scheduled end of the mining 17D in the loop S-75M. But even in this period failed to meet. After April 20, 1961 has been adopted with a missile air defense system S75M 20D, stress in work on the 17D start to subside. The process has become more fine-tuning its recall work on the flying laboratory tests, which included the promising solutions are tested. And, finally, in the summer of 1963 working on 17D and 19D done.
The upgraded aircr
aft missile complex C-75M-2 "Volga-2A
Meanwhile, in the winter 1963 experienced standard "Circle" with missiles ZM8 was first demonstrated at the site in Kubinka management of the country. And on the Emba landfill had already walked his intense tests that by terminating step is essentially passed successfully. After a 10-s starts Municipal Commission chaired by AG Burykina recommended to set the adoption. October 26, 1964 came a corresponding decree control of the country, and a year later, November 7, 1965 launchers "Circle" with missiles ZM8 have shown for the first time during a military parade on the Red Square in Moscow.
In general, developers "Circle" was able to perform most of the data in 1958, so the requirements, the range of the complex acts ranged from 11 to 45 km altitude engage targets from 3 to 23.5 km at a speed of their flight up to 800 m / s. The reaction time was set to 60, the mass of the rocket — 2450 kg. At the same time, the results of the municipal trial has compiled a list of more than hundreds of comments and suggestions, which are offered to bring in subsequent works on the "Circle".
Chief among them were:
— Expansion of the affected areas, "the Circle";
— Increase the effectiveness of fire in some spots affected areas, especially at low altitudes;
— The definition of accuracy in the presence of radar features of "mirror" surfaces.
These works are expected to perform in a few steps. As a result, in 1967, was adopted by the air defense system "Circle-A", which managed to reduce the lower limit of the affected area to a height of 250 m and a closer distance to the nearest boundary of 9 km.
In the subsequent step of work, in 1971, was adopted by the SAM "Circle-M", a remote border area of defeat which was increased to 50 km, and the top — up to 24.5 km.
The next version of SAM "Krug-M1", put into service in 1974, could hit targets at low altitudes of 150 m and a short-range 6 — 7 km.
For several decades, SAM "Circle" was armed with air defense units of the Land Forces of the Warsaw CCCR contract and a number of Near East. Although for many years of his own life this complex never perceived role in the fighting, its creation and operation were the principal event in the history of the Russian military air defense.
In 1990., At the end of combat step, complex career, "The Circle" on the basis of a family of rockets were developed ZM8 target 9M319 "Bend".