After the end of war, civilian clothes in Russia Russian authorities have remained harsh enemies inside the country. At the same time, there were a lot of overseas immigrant organizations whose own to overthrow the Bolshevik regime. Favorites defeated in the civilian war snow-white movement, being abroad as a result of emigration, tried to continue the fight against the Soviets by all sorts of methods and means. In this they were supported by the bourgeois governments of a number of foreign countries.
In the 20 years of the last century the number of immigrants — immigrants from Russia was in Europe and China, more than 1 million people. Certainly, snow-white emigration was not uniform. Some people who have fled abroad because of the horror of the Russian government, was not going to fight with this power. Other immigrants, intensely fought against the Bolsheviks in the fields of war, civilian clothes, were united in overseas organizations whose primary purpose was to overthrow the Russian government in Russia. In the middle of the last to be, namely, noted the People's Labor Alliance (NTS), a company of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the unification of the Georgian Mensheviks, led by Noah Jordania. But the most active and brutal organization beloemigrantov since he was the Russian General Military Alliance (SECA), made by General Pyotr Wrangel officer of the Volunteer of the defeated army.
Background to the creation of the EMRO is this: after the evacuation of the troops of General Wrangel residues from the Crimea and their arrangement in Serbia and Bulgaria, the Russian army as an independent force did not exist. In this regard, Wrangell, who lived in the Serbian town of Sremska Karlovci, September 1, 1924 issued an order number 35, according to which the army was transformed into a Russian General Military Alliance under its control. April 25, 1928 Petro died in Brussels from galloping consumption. His successor as chairman of the EMRO has become one of his deputies, Lieutenant-General Alexander Kutepov who has transferred the headquarters of the organization, uniting in its ranks about 100 thousand former officers of white in Paris. In the middle managers of the organization, he was an active supporter of terrorism. And not surprisingly, that under his terror and sabotage have become a major tool in the fight against EMRO Russian country.
In Paris, also in Prague, Sofia, Berlin and Warsaw, where there were branches of the Russian Military Union, preparing for battle groups to be infiltrated by the Soviet countryside in order to carry out terrorist attacks and organizing armed uprisings of the population. Members of the EMRO forged ties with counter-revolutionary underground in Russia to be able to overthrow the Bolsheviks. In a hidden annotations for militants designed Kutepov, stated: "The plan of the overall work is represented in the following form — terror against … Russian officials, as those who are working to the collapse of emigration. "
Recognizable publicist and historian Sergei Vychuzhanin about this, namely, writes: "In late 1929, General Kutepov agreed to promote subversive and terrorist activities against the Soviet Union. Began to prepare a group of officers-militants, whose plans included verbovanie to work fully tested bacteriologist to own lab equipment for cultivation of crops infectious diseases (plague, cholera, typhoid, anthrax). Bacilli in the area of culture of the USSR was supposed to deliver in packages of perfume cologne, essences, liqueurs, etc.
The objectives of the attacks were to serve all the regional committee of the CPSU (b) provincial committees of the CPSU (b), the party of the school, the troops and organs of the OGPU (the militants were in a similar list of 75 institutions in Moscow and Leningrad, with a clear indication of addresses). "
MOSCOW take positive measures
Naturally, Moscow could not take into account the possible threat posed by terrorist organizations snow-white emigration and over again — by EMRO, the strategic goal of which was to control an armed uprising against the Russian government. In this context, the focus of Russian external intelligence and her residency was given to work on EMRO: investigation of its activities, the identification of plans, establish branches and agents in the Russian countryside, decay from the inside and the likely impact on the decision-making control with embedded agents, sabotage and disruption of preparing terrorist activities.
The Statute of the zakordonnom department of the Foreign Department of the GPU, approved June 28, 1922, to be kept following priority tasks outside of Russian intelligence in order of priority:
— Identification of areas for foreign counter-revolutionary organizations, subversive activities against our country;
— The establishment of foreign governmental and private organizations engaged in military, political and economic espionage;
— Coverage of every political stripe of the country and its government on the main issues of international policy, identifying their goals for the Russian Federation, to obtain information about their economic status;
— Obtaining of documentary materials on all fronts of work, including materials that could be used to compromise as favorites counterrevolutionary groups and entire organizations;
— Counterintelligence Support to Russian institutions and individuals abroad.
As can be seen from the above document, the work to penetrate the zabugornye counterrevolutionary organizations that conducted subversive activities against the Russian state, was given at the time the main place.
In addition, in Moscow knew that in the case of the latest war in Europe under the banner of the USSR may make enemies and shelves of the former Volunteer Army, the structure of which continued in exile. Snow-white officers believed themselves to be in the military, were retrained, and studied fighting ability of the Red Army.
Prevailing incidents involving the activation of anti-Soviet activities EMRO, put before the OGPU question of an operation to neutralize Kutepov.
On the basis of collected data through a reliable agents of the general's life-style, its habits, its measures of personal security in Moscow has been developed for operation in his kidnapping, the incarnation of which was entrusted to the Special Group to the Chairman of the OGPU and the number of illegal immigrants in force at that time in France. The operation was scheduled for Sunday January 26, 1930, because the acquired exploration reliable data Kutepov this day was due in 11 hours and 30 minutes in the morning to be at the funeral of Baron Kaulbars Gallipoli in Church Street Mademoiselle a 20 minute time away from his home.
The other day, January 25, Kutepov of the officers assigned to combat units was a note in which he administered the principal short-term meeting on its route to the church. With all this taken into account that Kutepov to the principal of the meeting related to intelligence and military operations EMRO, always walking one. After waiting some time, "courier" at a tram stop in the street Sevres Kutepov went their own way to the church. On the street he was intercepted Uda operations group, presented the staff of the French police and taken out of town by car. But take him to Moscow and, as planned, to try failed, beca
use the road Kutepov died of a heart attack.
Implemented GPU operation to kidnap Kutepov dealt a heavy blow to the EMRO. Depression, panic, distrust of leaders, mutual suspicion of collaboration with the security organs of the USSR was characterized not only for the members of the Russian Military Union, and to maintain it part of a snow-white immigration to several years after the disappearance of Kutepov.
The successor as chairman Kutepov EMRO became Lieutenant-General Yevgeny Karlovich Miller, a professional soldier, who graduated in 1892, Academy of the General Staff. From 1898 to 1907 he was on a military-diplomatic work in Belgium, Holland and Italy. Member of the First World War. From the first days of the war led by the headquarters of the 5th Army. In 1915 he was promoted to Gen.-Lieutenants. In January 1917 he was appointed commander of the 26th Army Corps.
In August 1917, Miller was directed to Italy representative of Supreme Commander in the Italian Command. Here he was, and found the October Revolution. An active participant in plainclothes war in Russia. In January 1919, arrived in Arkhangelsk captured by the British and was appointed commander of the troops of the counter-revolutionary "government of the Northern Region» SR Tchaikovsky. In February 1920 he was part of were defeated, and their remains went into exile.
After the evacuation of British troops from Archangel Miller went to Finland, from where he moved to Paris, where he initially was at the headquarters of the Wrangel Island, and then was used by the majestic Duke Nicholas. In 1929 he was appointed deputy chairman of the EMRO.
As deputy Kutepov, Miller was not allowed to combat work EMRO and was not informed of this hidden side of the organization. Since joining the office of its chairman, the general immediately went on an inspection tour in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, that in place to deal with the practical activity of EMRO and resurrect intelligence work. It was caused by the fact that many generals and senior officers believed EMRO Miller armchair employee incapable of decisive struggle against the Russian government. But as in the case of entering the organization Miller, calling the little pinpricks of various "unsystematic attempt, attack on the Russian establishment and burning warehouses," set for EMRO strategic puzzle — the company and the preparation of large protests against the USSR all subordinate forces. Without denying the significance of the terrorist attacks, he directed attention to the training of personnel for deployment of guerrilla warfare in the rear of the Red Army in the event of war with the Soviet Union. To this end he made in Paris and Belgrade retraining courses of EMRO officers and training of military and sabotage the case of new members from among immigrant youth.
It should be emphasized that the plans and practical steps for the implementation of General Miller and his associates in time become the property of Russian intelligence. Thanks to the data acquired by the agents in the years 1931-1934 17 terrorists managed to defuse EMRO, abandoned on the terrain of the USSR, and to reveal their secret addresses 11 pt. A large contribution to this work brought reconnaissance illegal Leonid Linitsky, and the staff of the Paris and Berlin residency INO OGPU. They are, namely, failed to warn EMRO were preparing terrorist attacks against the USSR People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinov in Europe and Deputy Leo Karahan in Iran.
First 30s Russian reconnaissance established technique auditory control headquarters EMRO in Paris, which in May 1930 was located on the ground floor of the house number 29 on the street Colosseum, which belonged to the family of a reliable agent in Paris residency Sergei Tretyakov.
Tretyakov's family occupied the second and third floors of the house, and his private office was located just above the ground floor premises, paid headquartered EMRO. This allowed the Parisian residency install microphones in the offices of listening to Miller, chief of the 1st Division of the Office of the Manager and Schatiloff EMRO Kusonskogo. Reception disk imaging equipment was located in the office of Tretyakov. Beginning in January 1934 earned a technical channel for receiving disk imaging, turning to the Tretyakov years of hard work. Almost every day, while Miller and Shatila Kusonsky were at work, he is wearing headphones, kept a record of the discussions that took place in their offices. Information comes from the Tretyakov, bearing the code name "The information of our days" by allowing intelligence and counterintelligence OGPU, NKVD and then a lot more to control and suppress subversive activities against the Soviet Union EMRO.
Only basic information on the SECA came in Paris residency and the coming of teammate Miller, who was responsible for intelligence work, General Nikolai Skoblina, collaborated, along with his wife — the famous Russian singer Nadezhda Plevitskaya — with the Russian intelligence service since 1930. According to the INO OGPU Skoblin was one of the best sources that "quite correctly informed the Centre about the relationship in the top leadership of EMRO, reported details of Miller's trips to other countries." Tours of his wife Plevitskaya allowed to make inspections Skoblin peripheral units EMRO and Soviet intelligence operative to provide important information. Ultimately Skoblin became one of the closest aides Miller's band and his intelligence Charge d'Affaires of the central organization EMRO. This event was used when there was a question on acute operations Miller after receiving evidence that he through their own representative in Berlin, Gen. Lampe has established close contact with the Nazi regime in Germany. "EMRO should direct all their attention to Germany, — said the general. — This is the only country which has declared the fight against communism is a life-and-death. "
22 September 1937 at the invitation of Skoblina Miller went with him to the villa at Saint-Cloud, near Paris, where she was held a meeting organized Skoblin control SECA German representatives. The villa Miller waited for a task force of security officers who captured him through Le Havre and ferried by boat to the USSR.
The action of security officers over, seemingly safely. But before you go to a meeting organized by Skoblin, General Miller, General Kusonskomu left an envelope with a note and asked him to open it, if he's that-nibudt happen. As Miller's environment, it became clear that he was gone, Kusonsky opened the envelope with the note following content:
"I now have a 12-hour. 30 minutes. day or meeting with General Skoblin on a street corner Zhasmen and Raffi, and he should take me out on a date with a German officer, a military agent in the Baltic countries — Colonel Shtromanom and sovereign Werner composed here at the embassy. Both are excellent they say in Russian. Date arranged on the initiative of Skoblina. Maybe it's a trap, just in case I leave this note. General E.Miller. September 22, 1937. "
Kusonsky immediately undertook its own investigation. Fearing exposure and arrest, Skoblin had to hide. Measures taken by the police find him to no avail. The general was illegally ferried in Paris residency on a specially chartered plane to Spain. According to reports, he died in Barcelona in the bombing of Franco's aviation. Plevitskaya was arrested and convicted as an accessory to the Paris Tribunal to 20 years hard labor. October 5, 1940, she died in Central bullpen town of Rennes.
Sergei Tretyakov continued to cooperate with the Russian intelligence service to Nazi Germany occupation of France. In August 1942, the Nazi newspaper "locale-Anzeiger" and emigre newspaper "The New Word" issued a report tha
t Tretyakov was arrested by the Gestapo. In 1944, he was executed as a resident of Russian intelligence in Paris.
Now Russian press can meet all sorts of judgments about KGB operations to neutralize Miller. Someone is trying to present the general, who became famous bloody crimes on the territory of, an "innocent victim" of the NKVD.
Here's what he wrote in the French newspaper "Informason" for April 24, 1920 on the activities of General Miller in the north of its correspondent in Arkhangelsk, a close friend of Kerensky SR Boris Sokolov:
"I was an eyewitness to the last period of the government of the Northern Region, and his fall and flight of General Miller and his staff. I was able to follow various Russian government, but had never beheld such Straseni and unprecedented acts. Since the government was based only on Miller's right-wing elements, it is constantly resorted to brutal and Periodic struggle to hold onto the top. The death penalty carried weaving, often without any legal proceedings.
Miller founded the convict jail on Iokangskom (Kola) peninsula on the white sea. I visited the jail, and I can attest that such horrors could be seen even in the imperial time. In the barracks for several hundred thousand prisoners housed above. By order of the Chief Miller bullpen Sudakov mercilessly flogged prisoners who refused to go to hard labor. Once a day, died 10's people were thrown into a common grave and covered with earth somehow.
In the middle of February 1920, for a number of days before the actual flight, General Miller visited the front and told officers that he would not leave them. He gave the word of an officer to take care of their families. But this did not prevent him to finish making to escape. February 18, he ordered the evacuation of Arkhangelsk on February 19 to day or two hours. He himself and his staff on the night of February 19, secretly housed on the yacht "Jaroslavna" and the icebreaker "Kozma Minin". General Miller brought with him all the municipal treasury, about 400,000 pounds (10 million gold rubles), which belonged to the Northern Region.
Day of February 19 people found out about the change and the flight of General Miller. A lot of people had gathered near the site of anchorage "Kozma Minin", including soldiers and officers who were fooled Miller. Shooting began. With the ships fired guns. There were many dead.
Soon, "Kozma Minin" went from Archangel … "
That's such a portrait of General Miller drew SR Boris Sokolov, far from being sympathetic to the Bolsheviks. It may be added that under the laws of the Russian Empire appropriation of public funds among the gravest crime.
Abduction Miller and furtive convey of him to Moscow contacted first with the organization of large-scale trial. This process was intended to expose the Whites connection with the Nazis. Miller was brought into the inner NKVD jail at the Lubyanka, where he was held as prisoner number 110 under the name of Peter Vasilievich Ivanov, to May 1939. But by that time had clearly felt the approach of the modern world war. By May 1939, Germany has not only made the Anschluss of Austria, the Sudetenland, and fully occupied Czechoslovakia, despite the guarantees of its security from the UK and France. NKVD intelligence has information that the next target would be Hitler's Poland.
May 11, 1939 People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Beria signed an order for the execution of ex-President of EMRO, convicted of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR to death. At 23 hours 05 minutes the same day or sentence was executed.
After the kidnapping Miller manage EMRO was General Abrams, who through year was replaced by Shatila. None of them could not keep EMRO as a capable and proactive company, its credibility in the snow-white environment. The last Russian intelligence operation involving the abduction of Miller contributed to the total collapse of EMRO. Although quite EMRO as the organization ceased to exist with the start of the second World War, the Russian intelligence service, disorganized and spread out EMRO, stripped Nazi Germany and its allies, the ability to use intensively in the war against the Soviet Union about 20 thousand members of the organization.