Nadezhninsky mine. Morgue Lipaevskoy clinic could not contain the bodies of the executed. 1912 Photo VP Koreshkova. The meeting creator (of the fund Municipal History Museum)
The situation in the pre-revolutionary Russian Federation in 1912, of course, was quite tense, Nicholas II, and the current government is poorly controlled the situation in the country. If in the capital city staff will be able to work smoothly and quickly, then on the outskirts of the control system disintegrated. In the state of flourishing corruption, red tape and lawlessness. Especially difficult was the situation in Siberia and the Far East. The situation of workers, even in the presence of existing laws on labor criteria, obligations and limitations of the employer, it is scary. In practice, the law simply does not apply, and the numerous complaints, or not taken, or not considered. In addition, the level of wages in the whole country was very low, and farmers in regions devoid of lush land, eked out a miserable existence. The working class is constantly replenished, because in some cases the employment was the only means of survival in times of crisis. Begging and degradation officials on the ground were suitable ground for the development of left-wing radical views and propaganda.
Not enough people know that since 1840 in Russia started a real "gold rush." In areas of the river and its tributaries, Helen had discovered rich stores of gold dust and gold nuggets. People flocked to the goldfields at first very successfully enriched, capital could accumulate even ordinary workers. According to the stories of pioneers "Russian Klondike", the atmosphere in this region almost everything like a feral West. There were also swimming in the expensive champagne and scandalous cabaret, and all the attributes of the first steps of "gold fever". The characters are plummeting, flourished prostitution, theft, fraud, and there were other signs of social disintegration. But soon, the situation has changed.
People flocked to Helen from all over the country. Climatic conditions affected the performance and geological reconnaissance work was virtually absent. Soon the gold on the surface dried out, in order to obtain the desired amount had to work in the mines. Organize the process of gold could only companies which naturally did not intend to share profits with workers. Wages fell sharply. Rock layers needed to warm and melt water pump. People working in the water, and then went to the village in the cold and piercing wind. With the rapid impoverishment of the workers in the towns lost places of entertainment, and the spouses of employees openly engaged in prostitution. The administration often supported immoral behavior and take into account the presence of ladies at another sleeping lonely guys. Senior members of systematically used the wives and daughters of his own subordinates as concubines or free labor. In addition, the miners drank a lot of alcohol, which exchanged for gold. In society at the mine developed alcoholism and alcohol business flourished. For deliveries to villages deadly potions unsafe underground groups were formed, it appears to the 1860s open resistance orders of protection, and even the Cossacks.
Gold mining is becoming increasingly unprofitable small businesses failed, they have expressed a desire to buy Ginzburgs. Partly in shares naikrupneyshgo gold mining company formed as a result of buying and sequential capture of small mines, had Russian businessmen and the government. State Bank credited the main company in the mines "Lenzoloto."
After negotiations and trade-permanent part of the compelling gold mining company "Lenzoloto" belonged to British businessmen, because of the conditions dictated specifically with Albion. Naturally, with the well-known property of Britons to follow the rules of law and custom, it is not necessary to argue, but, apparently, the quality is apparent only to the business on the ground most of England. In Russia, things were done differently. Very soon the management of friendship "Lenzoloto" learned that the set was initially pay for the Russian people are very superior. Shortcomings in wanting to engage the mines were observed, in addition, in the recruitment of staff were involved and municipal structures. The Board launched a systematic decrease in salaries. Evenly friendship monopolized the transport, and then began to pay part of the salary vouchers, otovarit which was possible only in specialty stores. Products in local shops were of poor quality and expensive. From time to time workers receive for their own labor do not apply to-eat foods.
Under a lease men had no right to bring the mines of the family, because the situation is quite the ladies and babies depended on the administration. The family members were involved in work, but the pay is a great deal lower than the earnings of men. There are proven cases of complete failure of payment for work performed. Change the number of equal duration 11 hours, but could not at the discretion of the administration to shrink. Alignment of employees are not taken into account, even verbovanii them to work in the days of the solemn and weekends. At the theoretical level, people had one day off a week, but in practice it could and ruled out.
Money on upgrading living conditions of workers were not allocated. The barracks will soon have aged and did not answer the requirements of even the smallest to the accommodation, medical staff actually missing. Systems of safety and sanitation in the mines was not the statistics that have been injured 7 people out of 10. The victims in the process and lost the ability to work simply dismissed without any benefits. The laws of the empire in the world of work absolutely ignored work in the mines increasingly resembled slavery. But it all seemed insignificant in comparison with the ability to make a tremendous fortune. The main condition of the contract of employment had extra work, the result of which are allowed to sell at local benches on buying precious nuggets and sand. At the theoretical level for the year healthy man could earn about 1,000 rubles, because all the inconveniences and workers suffered a pay cut.
Read that management deliberately aggravated the living condition
s of workers is incorrect, because the impact of labor dropped significantly as a result of disease, alcoholism, injuries, and the rest. Moving production from surface mines, also the most difficult climatic conditions have made gold production is not profitable. The British tried all ways to lower the cost of production. It must be emphasized that, to some extent they succeeded. Thus, in the "English" promotion period "Lenzoloto" for the first time exceeded own denomination for stock prices more than doubled. But the precarious situation of friendship triggered unpredictable swings in stock prices, which led to the ruin of the huge number of participants in the exchange.
Yet, direct violations of imperial laws against workers manifested in all aspects of the company, and they found a municipal committee, who arrived at the spot soon after the accident. Local authorities, including the governor, referees and other representatives of the country, designed to protect the legitimate interests of the employees did not respond to the statements, because it is at the "feeding" the monopolist. The discontent kopivsheesya years, in the end, erupted into a major strike. As an excuse now seen three versions associated with providing workers with food. More than a popular destination is the one that knows about the issue as a payment for people spoiled meat.
The freshest graves in the cemetery where the victims are buried Lena Massacre. 1912 Photo VP Koreshkova. The meeting creator (from the collection of Yu Andrulaytisa)
February 29 strike was declared on Andrew mine, and then captured and all the other working groups, engaged in gold mining. More than six thousand people sought by the administration in its own letter dated March 3:
• abandon the payout of earnings in the form of cash vouchers;
• settle idle and family workers;
• eliminate harassment of sexy ladies sexy and practice of slavery;
• impose security officials have resigned free ticket to Zhigalovo;
• organizing regular housing criteria and supply of food, and establishing an 8-hour working day or verbovaniya and limitations to work on weekends and prazdnichkom.
The requirements of strikers was eighteen Fri, in addition, there were additional issues that need to be resolved.
The strike resulted in the already loss-making company to a multi-million dollar harm. The behavior of employees has caused fury management, because the requirements have been virtually saturated with the revolutionary spirit, which confirmed the hypothesis about the activity among gold miners left-wing radical parties. April 3, the organizers of the strike were arrested.
But among the strikers were still a lot of determined advocates. As a result, by April 17, a massive rally was taken to a symbol of protest. The order to shoot was given a captain Tereshenkova gendarmerie, which was a surprise for the demonstrators. The number of victims of the disaster is not precisely determined, in the newspaper "The Star" were given the following number: 196 injured demonstrators, killing 170.
In the Duma, the news of the shooting of peaceful demonstrators were met in different ways, right deputies supported the actions of local authorities, representatives of the left have expressed outrage. Commission of Inquiry into the incident still was created. More precisely formed two committees: a government headed by Manukhina and Public running yet unknown Kerensky. As a result, their work identified outrageous violations and atrocities on the part of the administration "Lenzoloto", as local authorities. Tereshenkova demoted, but from the real culprits of the disaster was not punished or anyone. Work Company lasted even in Russian times.
In koshovke sits executioner Treschenkov, waged a bloody flogging of the Lena workers. 1912 Meeting of the creator (from the collection of Yu Andrulayisa)
Maybe if the blame for the tragedy lay down only by the tsarist government? Though what event in the political life in Russia in the first quarter of the twentieth century has been proved by several criteria at once, and an abundance of circumstances. Lena shooting is no exception. Overconfidence control demonstration, the neglect of basic needs of the people by the administration "Lenzoloto" and reckless pursuit of profit and desire at any cost to avoid losses, and indifference, even criminal negligence of local officials — all this happened only a few prerequisites. The tragic confluence of a number of reasons, not the solution fabulous abstract entity called in Russian textbooks, "the tsarist government" has caused so bloody denouement.