Rupture area of the ozone layer reaches hundreds of thousands of square kilometers.
In one of the latest issues of the prestigious scientific journal Nature, American scientists from the Laboratory of NASA JPL posted stunning results of satellite observations — lost about 80% of the ozone layer above the North Pole. Preliminary results of a marked destruction of the ozone layer in the region were announced in April, but at that time it was not about the ozone hole.
Head of NASA observations Dr. Michel Santi said that local ozone depletion over the Arctic have been noted before, but they are not a major concern, and no one called to the ozone hole — a term with respect to the Arctic for the first time used. He named two possible reasons for this phenomenon.
First, over the past 20 years in this region has a long winter cold season, which increases the "efficiency" of the destruction of the ozone layer under the influence of chlorofluorocarbon compounds. Secondly, this year, closed circulation polar vortex was unusually strong and durable, which is certainly impede access large amounts of ozone in the southern latitudes. However, for details of this phenomenon will take many years of research and scientific observation, said the scientist.
According to observations of American Scientists, described in Nature, the gap area of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere in the Arctic in recent years has increased dramatically, reaching hundreds of thousands of square kilometers. This is comparable to the size of Western Europe. However, we note that, according to the Russian observations, the loss of the ozone layer over the Arctic does not exceed 40%.
By the way, in the journal Nature a quarter of a century ago was first published scientific article about the appearance of British scientists over the South Pole ozone hole size of about 1000 square meters. km. From then on this subject have been published thousands of articles, including a fantastic and mystical nature.
The fact that the gap ozone layer (the ozone hole) is harmful to living organisms, as the stratospheric ozone layer protects the Earth's surface from extreme doses of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. It absorbs solar radiation, dangerous to humans.
"A number of monitoring stations of Russia and European countries have recently recorded some increase in the penetration of ultraviolet rays on the earth, but we can not yet say that this process represents a threat to human health," — said Dr. Michel Santi.
Among the scientific community there is no consensus about the causes of the destruction of the natural ozone layer. Prevailing theory of human nature. It is believed that industrial emissions of chlorine-and bromine-containing compounds — CFCs — destroy ozone molecules, especially in the cold winter. Until recently — until the Arctic anomaly — doubt is the fact that the main emissions of CFCs are in the industrialized northern hemisphere, and the ozone hole over the South Pole appear.
According to another hypothesis, the formation of the ozone hole is largely a natural process. The causes of the formation of ozone holes — volcanoes and oceans, which comes in a natural atmosphere halogens and sulphate aerosols. In Russia, an advocate and creator of this concept was a corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Andrey Kapitsa.
In this regard, a prominent specialist in Arctic Geology, deputy director of the Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Leopold Lobkovsky noted that soon ends expedition of scientists of the two institutions — Pacific Institute of Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Oceanology, specially dedicated to the study of methane emissions from the bottom of the sea waters of the eastern Arctic. These will be extremely useful for addressing the complex challenges of climate and environmental change in the Arctic.
It is interesting to note that the said publication in Nature appeared immediately after the conclusion of the Second International Conference on the Arctic environment in Arkhangelsk with the heads of the Russian government. There, according to media reports, the ozone anomaly was the subject of debate and concern. But in recent days, Russian web portals are filled with photographs of NASA, alarming reports that the ozone hole covered the Taimyr Peninsula and Norilsk region and "its tail" almost touches and Moscow.