Malocclusion: etiology, types, treatments

Constant thumb sucking, the desire to chew a pen or pencil, prolonged use of pacifiers and improper use of cutlery, all this leads to the fact that in 5-6 years child needs correction of bite. However, if in childhood and adolescence can solve this problem quickly with the help of removable orthodontic plates and trainers, after 15 years, when the formation of the permanent teeth have been completed, the correction of malocclusion is possible only with long-term treatment with the use of different types of braces and clasp.

Modern orthodontics — the direction of dentistry that studies and diagnoses various oral and dental anomalies — There are several types of malocclusion. Thus, the distal occlusion is characterized by over-developed upper jaw jutting. Very often this type of anomaly is accompanied by an underdeveloped jaw mesial bite, on the contrary, is a consequence of abnormal development of the lower jaw, which is moved forward a few inches.

Deep bite is an anomaly when the teeth of the upper jaw with more than half of the teeth overlap the lower jaw and open bite is characterized by the inability to clamp the upper and lower teeth. In addition, between crossed bite — unilateral interdigitation and dystopia — misalignment of teeth.

The causes of anomalies in each case are different. Mesial and distal disease may be due to inherent structural features of the jaw, is inherited. But more often they occur because of improper artificial infant feeding, early loss of deciduous teeth, chronic diseases of nasopharynx. Deep and open bite are formed due to rickets and the availability of very large, or, conversely, small teeth, and a cross — because of the late change of milk teeth. Dystopia is a consequence of bad habits, but also may result from facial trauma, problematic eruption of wisdom teeth, which is not enough space in the jaw.

Today the most common treatment of malocclusion in both children and adults is the use of various types of removable and fixed plates, braces, clasp, facial arcs, masks, etc. However, in some cases, eliminate the cause can only be operational by surgery.

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