Memories of the Future. Modernization of the nuclear eagles

As in Russia is a long time:
That did not attack gate of thieves and —
The heroes entrusted patrols …
…Today the "Kirov" atonement on patrol!

— newspaper "Guarding the Arctic", edition of April 19, 1981.

«You look nice» (zdorovskih look)
— semaphore with the British destroyer "Newcastle" to oversee the transition cruiser "Kirov" the Northern Fleet.

In the sea no longer come, no trained crew, and cook it for at least 5 years!
— forecast of Eugene Zdesenko, first commander of the heavy nuclear-powered cruiser "Frunze", 1993

"In the state defense order has 5 billion to modernize the" eagles ". To uncover this article, you must sign the relevant documents "
— Anatoly helmets, a spokesman for USC interview from September 1, 2012

"A source in the Russian Navy confirmed the" News "that the restoration of the" Admiral Nakhimov "- a closed issue.
According to him, "the work will be conducted next five years. Then the ship will join the Northern Fleet "
— "Izvestia", the news from October 2, 2012

"Do not sign any document that defines the order and the amount of repair work on the heavy nuclear missile cruiser" Admiral Nakhimov "
— news on October 9 of the same year.

Four nuclear giant Project 1144 — they like to "wipe your feet" liberal press, and British Defence whenever specially flew by helicopter to enjoy going to the ocean, "eagles".

Currently, the Internet is wandering a lot of shocking "news" in which the authors do not mince words, criticized the decision to upgrade and return to the system of domestic nuclear cruisers, arguing the phrases "rusty", "old", "unnecessary" and " a lot of money. "

I do not set ambitious goals for the refutation of the "yellow press". First, it is not too exciting — these "materials" is replete with many of the facts wrong, and, on closer examination, are collapsing like a house of cards. Second, everyone is entitled to their own opinion. Finally, in the flow of the "yellow press" sometimes there are really important and useful comments on the concept of using heavy nuclear cruisers under the flag of the Russian Navy.

Today we will try to find and explain the problem, "eagles" in the modern world, a simple method — we will study in detail the heavy nuclear-powered missile cruiser, Project 1144, consider its structure and composition of weapons, both before and after a possible upgrade. And, as a possible result, we define the terms of subordinated cruiser problems.

Despite the apparent absurdity of this approach, it is exactly the elemental concept of "eagles" — first built a huge ship, and then he "found a" problem. As a result, the fourth and most advanced cruiser of this project — "Peter the Great" (modification 11442) has on board a whole range of weapons, adopted by the Russian Navy!

Complex calculations — the inheritance of large design teams, but we do not claim to academic precision, especially for future modernization of the "eagles" is quite obvious and has repeatedly announced at the highest level.

Plans hulk

Admiral Gorshkov wanted to become the Lord of the five oceans. To do this he would have required nuclear fleet with unprecedented combat capability. At the head — nuclear aircraft carrier "Ulyanovsk" (in those days, only a draft 1143.7). Escort — heavy atom "eagles" and nuclear destroyers "Upas Tree." Super squadron will move through the oceans at a rate not available to normal warships and have unlimited autonomy, thanks to the integrated supply ships like "Berezina", capable of directly into the sea at full speed to pass on warships everything from jet fuel and provisions to missiles and ammunition.


Unfortunately, the implementation of an ambitious program faced with the obvious technical and financial difficulties as a result, the Navy received only four "heads" and a CIL "Berezina". "Ulyanovsk" did not have time to finish. At the time of his birth, TARKRy already turned into a horrible monster with a displacement of 26,000 tons each. Because of unclear purpose cruisers, designers have taken a simple solution — set on them, the most powerful and sophisticated weapons available at this moment available in the Navy — "Granite", S-300, a lethal artillery, air defense missile systems melee, mortars, helicopters, anti raketotorpedy …

Each of the projects under "eagles" sharply different from its predecessor, as a result of the first cruiser ("Kirov") and the last cruiser ("Peter the Great") have so many differences in weapons, engines, interior layout and appearance that we can confidently say two different projects — 1144 and 11442.

For further consideration, we choose the third case — "Admiral Nakhimov" (formerly "Kalinin"), as the most "fresh" from the canned "eagles" and as the most likely contender for the planned upgrades. At present, he quietly rusting in Severodvinsk. What fate awaits the nuclear-powered cruiser in the future? What benefits will have a new version of … let's call it for short 11443.


Thus, the district bulkhead 10 (numbering from the bow) — are installed 10 charging reactive bombometnaya installation "boa", which is a complex of active protivotorpednoy protection. In the automatic charging cellar — jet ammunition for various purposes:
— decoys to distract himself enemy torpedoes;
— sea mines, torpedoes triggered when passing near them;
— the breakout of the first two levels of protection (zone traps and mine fields), is fire on conventional depth charges.

Theoretically RBU-12000 "BoA" can be used to combat the enemy submarines. Finally, in the format of the exotic, of RBU can "plant" bombs on the surface and shore targets that are in the affected area of the installation (? 3000 m). 230-pound bomb with a 100-kg explosive charge does not promise anything good opponent. 120 bombs, 10 volleys — more than enough to sink if necessary any modern destroyer NATO countries.

Future upgrades are unlikely to affect the nasal complex protivotorpednoy protection "Boa", maximum — limited to ordinary maintenance and loading of new types of ammunition.


Shooting from the RBU

60th District bulkhead — in this place under the upper deck "Nakhimov" are reserved space under anti-aircraft missile system "Dagger". Unfortunately, the new SAM melee came too late and was only fit for "Peter the Great". With future upgrades, there may fit installation of vertical launch "Dagger" or UVP latest maritime air defense system "polyment-Redoute."

The space under the u
pper deck from the 80 th to 120 th frame in a vertical launchers of anti-aircraft complex S-300F "Fort" — only 12 vosmizaryadnyh drum PU. In the early '80s, when the seas came to a head TARKR "Kirov", not a single warship in the world could not compare to the Soviet cruiser quality defense — 96 anti-aircraft missiles with a range of 75 km defeat enemy planes did not leave a chance to conduct a successful air attack. To date, despite the emergence of more effective 48N6 missiles with extended range of up to 150 km, the S-300F needs to be replaced with more modern weapons.

The first association that occurs at the mouth of replacing the C-300 — an even more formidable S-400. However, not everything is so simple — first, the Marine modification of S-400 does not exist. Second, the drum launcher was overly complicated. Now there was a more efficient domestic maritime air defense system — already mentioned a little earlier, "polyment-Redoute." It is this weapon is the basis of the new Russian air defense frigates of Project 22350.

Feature of the "Redoubt" — new anti-aircraft missiles and 9M96E 9M96E2 with active homing (GOS). Without a long and tedious explanation of the features of shooting anti-aircraft missiles, I note that the active seeker — is a huge step forward compared with previous developments. Now the enemy plane will not be able to escape, even if he gets out of line of sight radar cruiser.

Instead of 12 huge launchers complex "Fort" in the bow of the "Admiral Nakhimov" can accommodate 144 unit (cell) vertical launch air defense system "polyment-Redoute" (of course, this is purely amateur calculations based on data from open sources and common sense.) Part of CIP can be occupied by a melee 9M100 missiles (four in each cell), which at times increases the anti-aircraft ammunition modernized cruiser.

We go further — in the interior of the housing in the area from 120 th to 170 th frames is a "super weapon" — 20 launchers of anti-ship missiles P-700 "Granit". What can you tell us about the monstrous complex, received the NATO protocols cipher Shipwreck («shipwreck")?

"Granite" was developed a long time ago, but is still able to drown any purpose above water at a distance of 600 km. There is the possibility of attacking Radiocontrast facilities in the coastal zone. 2.5 the speed of sound, 750 kg warhead, special algorithms flight and breeding purposes. He's too smart and slozhnoobnaruzhim trudnosbivaem. And besides, even armored! Dignity and at the same time lack of "Granite" — his crazy dimensions: a length of 10 meters (with boosters), the missile lead 7 tons!

But enough to scare sailors from the U.S. aircraft carrier — in the 30 years since the introduction of P-700 in service with the domestic fleet, they have already managed to put in a lot of pants. It's time to change priorities and give way to a more modern and more versatile complexes. And the only adequate substitute for "Granite" — a universal set of shipboard firing UKSK family of multi-missiles "Movement". Now the nuclear cruiser 11443 project will cruise missile strikes deep into the land territory, destroying militant bases near Damascus and Aleppo. Shoot missiles ZM-54 with a separating warhead at surface targets and get subs in the back with special rocket-torpedoes.

Only instead of 20 PU complex "Granite" on the modernized cruiser can be set to 144 cells UKSK. Multipurpose Assault Ship!


In the area of 150th bulkhead on both sides of the cruisers were installed two anti-aircraft batteries of two automatic guns AK-630 (the rate of fire of each — 6000 rounds / min). In the last two cases — "Nakhimov" and "Peter the Great", they are replaced by missile and artillery complexes "Dirk". Each military unit is a combination of two twin 30mm automatic cannon + 8 anti-aircraft missile defense (common ammunition module 32 missiles). The main advantage of the "Dirk" — Guns and guidance systems are mounted on a single carriage that radically improves accuracy.
Probably the modernization of all SPAR "Dirk" will be replaced with modern SPAR "Broadsword" — even less reaction time, even higher accuracy.

Moving on: 180-th frame, in this place, in front of the add-on three cruisers were located retractable beam PU anti-aircraft missile systems "Osa-M", one on each side (on "Peter the Great" this is not). Total — two SAMs, two antenna posts, two launchers, ammunition total 40 missiles. With the modernization of all of this equipment is guaranteed to vanish — anti-aircraft system "Osa-M" is outdated and no longer meets modern requirements. The "Wasp" fully duplicate "Dagger" and, in the long term, "polyment-Redoute."

A little "walk" on the superstructure nuclear cruiser "Admiral Nakhimov". Of the "contrast" objects
front — sticking "tit" Radar LA-41 "The Wave" — a fire control radar system S-300F. The system is old and needs updating — maybe instead of it will soon be F1M powerful radar with a phased antenna array, or, in the case of installation on the cruiser SAM "polyment-Redoute", it will disappear without a trace.

At the top of the foremast (the first in a row from the bow mast ship) rotate the huge truss structures — tri-radar detection of air targets, "Sunrise" and "Cleaver" — this technique requires a speedy replacement with more modern radar. Purely for comparison, Americans are planning to install on their destroyers "Arleigh Burke" super-radar AMDR, with 300 times the radiation power than the old Soviet radar — such crushing characteristics required for the detection of point-like objects in near-Earth orbits.

Just below on the foremast mounted electronic warfare unit of the plant "cantante-M".

Mainmast (second mast towards the stern) on top — the total radar detection "Fregat-MA." The situation is similar to radar detection aircraft, requires urgent replacement. Here are aerial and satellite navigation — after the upgrade should appear here GLONASS receivers and communication systems with electronic reconnaissance satellites "Liana" — the problem of the-horizon targeting and guidance systems for missile cruiser can be reliably achieved only when retrieving data from orbit.

Behind the main mast sticking out one more "tit" to illuminate targets by firing anti-aircraft complex S-300F, just below — the radar "Lion" Fire control system.

On both sides of the mainmast are four combat module "Dirk" (two on each side), similar to the two that are installed in the front of the ship. Just below — six-barrel rocket bombometnye installation RBU-1000 (one on each side).

In the same place, there is another "surprise" — hidden in the sides of the cruiser latsporty (simply — sealed hatches) to fire torpedoes and anti-submarine missile complex "waterfall-NK". Magical weapon! First heard the clang otryvshegosya hatch and jumped out momentarily glimpsed an elongated "cigar", softly falling into the water with a savory "plop!". Then comes the ringing silence … and nothing happens … SUDDENLY astern of the ship (cruiser already gone through half a hundred meters) of water with a terrible hiss off og
nehvostaya "comet" and a second hidden in the clouds! Astern on the surface of the water is left burning spot of residual fuel …. After flying two dozen miles, raketotorpeda "Waterfall-NK" fall back into the water, turning this time homing torpedo.

Such munitions on board the cruiser 10 pieces. Alas, with the advent of multi-purpose complex "Movement", anti-complex "waterfall-NK" loses its meaning.

Come on …

The aft superstructure visible transparent "blister" — helm runway operations helicopters. In front of him, still far aft — twin gun mount AK-130 caliber 130 mm. Rate of up to 80 rds. / Minute. Firepower, like a 12-gun light cruiser of WWII. Although the price for this pleasure was huge — lots of AK-130 and its automated cellar is 102 tons — 4 times higher than that of the U.S. 127 mm naval gun Mk.45 (16 … 20 rds. / Min).

Frankly speaking, the presence of the cruiser AK-130 raises many questions: where you want to apply the artillery (fire coastal targets, fire support) — for this AK-130 is too weak (not the caliber). And in other cases it is not needed.
It sees two ways: the first — in the course of modernization to replace the AK-130 is a more powerful caliber artillery systems from 152 mm (for example, the "Coalition-F"). The second sound a bit shocking, however, more on that below …


At the stern, "Admiral Nakhimov" — a large helipad, the edges of which are spaces reserved for self-defense SAM launchers "Dagger" (who, as you remember, too late, because has not been installed). After the upgrade can appear here, 96 units of vertical launch air defense system "polyment-Redoute."

Helicopter operations on the cruiser "Orlan" is like hard sex: You're standing on the deck, the helicopter is under your feet. First you need to open the sash hangar, then go down under the deck and throw a platform with a 10-ton helicopter to lift, secure, and more a matter of technique — when the helicopter is on the upper deck is to roll it out on take-off site. Remove the helicopter under the deck — all in reverse order. All on board the "Eagle" three rotorcraft. Now try to do it in a storm, with strong pitching!

The people with whom I had a chance to chat, offer a simple and, to some extent, an ingenious solution — to dismantle the gun AK-130, and now has a place to equip the helicopter hangar, on a par with a helipad. And to forget about hell lift.


Well, our virtual tour came to an end. "Orlan" truly great: a quarter of a kilometer long, 20 km inland corridors, 1600 space required, no … one day to thoroughly inspect it inside and out. I tried to describe it in one article. Too bad there is not enough time to talk about his stunning sonar "polynomial" weighing 700 tons, or about such useful attributes as the pinnace and derricks on his deck. There was no time to talk about your booking. Maybe next time …

Doves of Peace

Former title of "eagles" — "aircraft carrier killer" itself has become obsolete. Huge nuclear cruisers are no longer fighting units and become a means to provide legal political pressure. Constantly being on the cutting edge and "showing the flag", they will maintain a positive image of Russia, to create the basis for the formation of coalitions favorable to us, the moral support of our allies and serve as a stern warning to our potential adversaries.

For example, throw a squadron of three "eagles" anchors in Cuba with a hint of permanent stationing of — and we can hardly expect to change the U.S. rhetoric on missile defense in Europe. Powerful ships with such a monumental and ferocious appearance — an indispensable tool for the peaceful resolution of crises.

Mostly photos:


In this illustration feels good gigantism "Orlan"


Unaccounted weapons. A Marine with the ANC-M


In the long voyage


The status "Kirov" (now — TARKR "Admiral Ushakov") inspires some fears.



Wasteland? Football field? No, helipad, "the Eagle".

Author Oleg Kaptsov

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