The 45th anniversary of the death of Ernesto Che Guevara (Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna Lynch) — Latin American revolutionary Cuban statesman, a close associate of the leader of the Revolution Fidel Castro. Che Guevara has become a legend in his lifetime, bowed before him and loved him, millions of ordinary citizens. Powerful people hated him. Bowed before him as before Jesus Christ, and called the Don Quixote of the 20th century. The main idea and philosophy that Che Guevara throughout his life, and for which in the end was put to death — to do good.
On a short but colorful life of Che Guevara wrote dozens of books and memoirs, cinema, films and documentaries. However, its image around a lot of deliberate lies, speculation and fraud.
How Che Guevara was in life, who gave the order for his execution, as well as other facts of his life, in an exclusive interview
— Nicholas S., 45 years have passed since the death of Che Guevara. How, in your opinion, now valued his personality and deeds? How, in your opinion, perceive its image in the current generation of modern life, including young people, to which his name has become a symbol of popular culture?
— Do not rule out that the youth of today do not understand the meaning of the image of Che Guevara and the more unfamiliar with the specific facts of his biography. The youth of today, unfortunately, in the polls is becoming more ignorant. For the most part it does not impress young intellectuals who knows history. She catches on the hook for a variety of companies and populist extremely malleable flush and novelties, without analyzing what is happening.
Nowadays, young people are more serious and raises serious questions. At a time when Che Guevara made his revolutionary exploits and when he died, the youth of it too is not very many knew. Most popular Che Guevara was during the Paris events of 1968, when students acted as almost a real force in France. Now the popularity of Che Guevara is more flashy character. Even in Cuba when it happens, the abundance of symbolism associated with Che. Cubans are now themselves refer to this as a part of the political tourism, which is not deep eats into the skin. It also must be understood. Therefore, the perceived image of Che Guevara can not only from the perspective of young people. Che Guevara — a figure embracing, it belongs to the people of all generations. Ernesto died at age 39 is the age of a mature man and we are not talking about yuntse. His character is in itself a striking resemblance to our mythical and literary characters that have always been sympathetic to people. In such cases, I am reminded of Christ — Savior and Don Quixote.
— Che Guevara can be called Don Quixote of the 20th century?
— I always liken it, first with one, then the other. The goal they had one — how to help people how to save them. Another goal of his earthly existence was not. Hence, faith, love and the desire to do good. Che was just such a philosophy — a messianic desire to help the vast majority of people get rid of the abyss of vice and leprosy, which is strewn with the human body, from the injustices that our life is full. Clear the field for a real man — that's a dream life. That is why he deliberately sacrificed personal interests for the sake of their goals. We do not find a similar example in the world where a person who is at the helm, all reserves and is a time of crisis is to seek revolutionary adventure where almost no chance of winning it. We must remember that while he is still the father of four young children. He leaves in Cuba and goes on an expedition which promised nothing except martyrdom. Read his farewell letter to Fidel Castro, without touching feelings of respect for him is impossible. Another sample of service to the people it is difficult to find on Earth, well, maybe Mother Teresa, who gave himself the sick and orphans. He was in a special form. We are dealing with almost mythologized hero of our time, and it will stay that way forever, until another Don Quixote, who eclipsed his image. But this is a firefly that will remain forever.
— Many of the demonized image of Che Guevara and try to get the facts of his life, which, according to them, according to his brutality, unwilling to oppose the enemies, solve all problems by force. How do you perceive it when communicating with him?
— Him as a person with a desperate tenacity all the time trying to expose some erosion, writing fiction and nonsense. The image of Che Guevara prevents Americans, the enemy that he was from the beginning to the end. After all, his whole life was held under the slogan: "We need to create a U.S. $ 100 Vietnams on earth." They are taking revenge on him by all means available. Therefore, so far, efforts continue to be subjected to strain his image. I was the first Russian man who met him in 1956, even in Mexico. Long before the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. Met as a simple man. We then both boys were very simple. Never, none of the people who knew Che Guevara, who worked with him, did not mention a single case of violence on his part.
— Now a lot of different information about Che Guevara on the Internet, including the negative, asserting that he was an opponent of Fidel Castro?
— I hear this is not the first time. Ostensibly rivalry with Fidel Castro led to the fact that he was sent on an expedition force in Bolivia.
Of course, writing fiction in the cabinets is possible, but it was not. Take the papers and judge over them, because it is honest journalism is based on facts. Recently in Argentina, published the book "An unpublished correspondence between Fidel and Che Guevara", concerning the period when Che fought in Africa, in Congo, in 1965. There are the texts of telegrams, which states: "Che, come on there all these African things, there will not revolution — back to Cuba, you really need us here." He replied: "Fidel, I have not exhausted all the possibilities. I still have 2-3 months." It was a theme that has prevailed in their correspondence, and people invent stories about how they hated each other. And it is a question of their professional and human integrity.
— Who knew Che Guevara sister of Fidel and Raul Castro, Juanita, who fled to the United States claimed that he was a man who at the slightest disagreement ordered to destroy their opponents.
-Is it possible to pay such claims even the slightest amount of attention? When I hear the word "traitor", "escape", I understand that it is necessary to justify his action. We have, for example, Oleg Kalugin, KGB general, fled. What did he nasochinyali to work out his betrayal. p>
Sister of Fidel also fled to the United States, where published a book, but who believes the traitors? Yes, no.
— That is, it was a man who always listened to his opponents and examples prove the correctness of his ideas?
— I do not know of any other examples. When I translated his conversations with Khrushchev and Kosygin, he quietly all evaluated, listened, argued, he was not a lackey, which is full of a white light. It was a completely independent, solid politician, always acting in the national interest of Cuba, in principle, all the Latin American nations.
— What is the role of the CIA in the persecution and death of Che Guevara?
— On this subject, the CIA, who took part in operations to capture and murder of Che Guevara, did not write and did not publish.
Americans are prohibited from making such memories. You never, for example, will not find those who hunted and killed bin Laden.
Recently, a U.S. Special Forces — Navy SEAL wrote a book about Bin Laden …
You know, if I was on the site of Bin Laden, I would simply undermine their home. He knew what it is hunting. As a result, he was killed along with their wives and children. I do not condone it, just saying that these things Americans hard prosecuted. And they will pursue this riot police, as well Assange.
— Tell me why Che Guevara was killed after capture, not prosecuted or brought alive by the CIA?
— If they kept it alive, it could not be sentenced to the death penalty, because it strongly resembled a story of Jesus Christ. They would not have been able to. Americans remember how behaved Fidel Castro in the process after the storming of the Moncada barracks. At trial, he gave a speech that, in fact, was the program for the Cuban revolution. A Che Guevara had no less eloquence, conviction, equal to several millions of its judges. It would be impossible to judge. Just be the judges did not have any arguments or reasons for the sentence.
CIA aid to the Bolivian government's advisory was first. It was recognized by all, including the Minister of Internal Affairs of Bolivia at the time Archaedas Jose, who later stole the diary of Che Guevara, made a copy and gave the Cubans. He also helped get the severed hands of Che Guevara, who then transported to his supporters. Pointed out the place where he was buried. While Archaedas acknowledged that Americans were advisers during the time the operation to capture Che.
— Tell me, it can be argued that the order to kill Che Guevara was given to the CIA?
— The order was formally given to the president of Bolivia, General Rene Barrentesom, but he gave this counsel urged the chief representative of the CIA in Bolivia, who was in charge of the entire operation. He said, "Stop it immediately, do not pull." So the whole story of the capture and execution took only a few hours.
— In fact, after the capture of Che Guevara story developed rapidly?
— Absolutely. It represented an enormous risk is greater than the nuclear bomb the enemy dropped in the United States. His image haunts the United States today.
— You met with Che Guevara in Moscow. What, then, was most impressed him in our country, or may be disappointed?
— It is very impressed by the way the Soviet people saw the Cuban Revolution, her victory. Mass meetings, rallies, at which he spoke, talking to people — all of this for him, it was a shock. Second, he was impressed by the willingness of our state in the face of Khrushchev and Kosygin to fully support the Cuban Revolution, since he came to Moscow not as a diplomat, but in order to sell 2 million tons of Cuban sugar, which is imported into the United States was closed. It was the number one mission of his visit to the USSR.
Let me remind you that the USSR was not easy to make this decision. I saw it on the reactions and comments of Khrushchev. Then we were completely covered with sugar. However, the government has gone out to cut the crops of sugar beet and purchase a million 200 thousand tons of sugar in order to help Cuba. USSR even suggested price for sugar is higher than the world, with the guarantee that these supplies will be interrupted ever. The remaining 600,000 tons of Che Guevara was able to place among the socialist countries in Eastern Europe. Another 200,000 tons were sent to China and North Korea. He accomplished in a short time to the task. How then do not admire this man?
In addition, he was very surprised that, as a country with more than 260 millionth population of people living without thinking about what we need to make a fortune at the expense of one's neighbor. It is struck to the core. He's asked me to Soviet book "How the Steel Was Tempered", "The Story of a Real Man", "Chapaev". He always dreamed about it, that man was free from the desire for money. Money — very scary, "velcro", in other words, he is not called.
This we now think in other categories. First of all people interested in the size of income, royalties, property. Che Guevara rejected these categories.
— Now many are calling the activities of Che Guevara in the Congo, Bolivia and other Latin American countries export the revolution. Can it be compared with the present situation, when the Americans engaged in the export of so-called color revolutions in various parts of the world?
— To draw an analogy with those who export color revolutions and Che Guevara would, of course, wrong. Che was very crisp and clear social purpose: to make life better for the people, for the people, for the majority. He sent letters to a lady with a question: "We are relatives? Because I have a family name Guevara, too." And he told her that if you are able to cry at the sight of someone else's grief, that we are related, and if not — then namesakes.
None of those who are now organizing color revolutions, do not cry at the sight of another's grief, and Che Guevara cried. So he went to the Congo, Bolivia, Cuba. Colored Revolution — a totally different category. There's just a minuscule social content.
Human rights! To me, these spaghetti on his ears many times hung. For example, I do not see that human freedom in Libya under Gaddafi was infringed upon more than it is now prejudiced.
I have been in Libya. Social protection of the Libyan people was very high. Over the welfare state in North Africa than Libya, probably not.
Was inconvenient for the Western political system, too independent. Yes, there was a time when he supported terrorism. It had to be removed, and that's removed, and in what way — care. Do you think the Assad regime in Syria now is inhuman, or was so awful? No, it was often in Syria, talking to the Syrians, was in the same Aleppo, Damascus. I saw and felt a high measure of social protection of the population of this country. With Russia and can not be compared, I always kept going with the Soviet Union. Still in Syria was higher. Inconvenient politician, well interfere.
— Do you think that now the Americans to eliminate al-Assad, in fact prepared to destroy Syria?
— Of course, because it is still under Assad's party, but underneath lies the body of officers, most of them educated in Russia. Of course, we are talking about the destruction of the state and its history.
— You met with Che Guevara long before the Cuban Revolution. It was a chance meeting, or not?
— It has been over 60 years, it was not a chance meeting. It happened in an apart
ment that was in Mexico, Raul Castro. With Raul we were familiar with in 1953. Here it was a casual acquaintance: we were on the ship passengers — neighbors. When Raul was in exile in Mexico, I came to see him as an old friend. Then I was an intern at the Soviet Embassy. Che Guevara was the bed Castro, Raul was then ill. So I met with Che Guevara, who was introduced to me as a doctor who treats emigrant. For my part, it was a chance encounter.
— What is the period of life of Che Guevara can be considered as the most striking?
— I would single out two periods. The first — a revolutionary war in the Sierra Maestra. The victory was achieved from a military point of view it was Che Guevara. His troops advanced from the mountains of the Sierra Maestra. They went to the center of the country in late December and took the city of Santa Clara is in the heart of the island. This meant the end of the Cuban war. A day Batista fled Cuba. It was Che Guevara, who captured the city with his troops, broke the back of Batista. Fidel Castro after a week getting to Havana. In Havana, it was the first to join Che Guevara.
The second period, the martyr, the period of the Bolivian tragedy, when he showed the greatness of the human spirit. There was a victory here was defeated. And in fact, and in another he was great.
Ernesto Guevara de la Serna was born in Creole family in 1928. There is a theory that he was born on May 14, not June 14. According to some sources, the date of birth was changed to avoid the rumors, because his mother married already pregnant.
His father, an architect who belonged to an old Argentine family. On the maternal side of Ernesto in his veins flowed the blood of Irish revolutionary Patrick Lynch, who emigrated to Latin America, and the last Spanish viceroy of Peru.
After graduating from university, Guevara became a doctor of skin diseases. But in the 26 years of fighting in the ranks of the Guatemalan patriots against the U.S. Marine Corps.
After moving to Mexico City, he met with Fidel and Raul Castro and adjacent to their armed squad. His nickname Che, he was proud of the rest of his life, Guevara got in this squad for the characteristic style of the Argentine use this exclamation in a friendly conversation. He was wounded twice, for their courage and bravery was awarded the title of "Commander."
After the victory of the Cuban Revolution, Che became the second man in the new government after Fidel, served as Minister of Industry, was elected president of the National Bank of Cuba. He had four children.
Che Guevara visited the Soviet Union participated in the establishment of bilateral ties. But eventually became disillusioned with the "Soviet socialism," and accused the Soviet Union in the "sale by People's Revolution."
He did not believe in the success of the economic policies of the Soviet Union, one of the first predicted theoretically substantiated and the collapse of "real socialism" and the return of the country to capitalism. By 1965, their differences with the Soviet leadership (especially with its policies towards developing countries) Che Guevara said publicly. He later abandoned the Cuban citizenship and disappeared from public life. He was seen in a number of African countries where it set the stage for revolutionary action.
In April 1967, Che and his party was in Bolivia, where the miners supported the armed uprising. The fire of the revolutionary struggle he intended to throw in Argentina and Peru. However, on October 8 Guevara was wounded and taken prisoner by the Bolivian army special forces.
The day after the interrogation he was shot in the village of Higuera. Only in June 1997 found his grave on the runway of the airfield. The remains of Che Guevara were reburied in a mausoleum in Santa Clara, Cuba.