Russian Far East has long been regarded by many as an abandoned Moscow and forever cut off from the rest of the country territory. Numerous statements by the federal government, that the Far East — it is also our home, as well as the visit of Dmitry Medvedev to the disputed island of Japan, do not change the overall situation. In September, Far East will become a place where the APEC summit will bring together heads of major Asia-Pacific countries. About that, change it somehow the situation on the eastern outskirts of the Russian, we talk to the deputy director of Institute of Philosophy of Development, member of the advisory board of the Agency for Strategic Initiatives Peter Shchedrovitskii.
"Utro": Peter G., the last six months the attention of politicians and economists focused on the Far East. Intensely open a discussion probable creation of state corporations to develop these areas, then it was created ministry. The upcoming APEC summit in the peninsula of Russia emphasizes the importance of this region for Russia. What, in your opinion, the prospects of Russian Far Eastern territories?
Peter Schedrovitsky: first, that it is necessary to realize true now: Russian Far East susceptible to macro-process — the process of industrialization and urbanization in Asia, which is central to the whole of the modern world and is located on its own peak.
The two main centers of economic activity — Europe and the U.S. — are currently in an economic downturn. Growth is exclusively in Asia. As can be seen, the Russian Federation it is time to give serious attention to its eastern territory to be used for their own development potential of the rapidly growing Asia-Pacific region.
Asia now — it's practically a new Mediterranean: a tremendous density of population, the highest rate of economic growth, immutable economic exchange. There is a primary and secondary industrialization, the development of modern infrastructure and a new quality of life, and in connection with this stupendous growth in the use of this macro-region, which begins almost at the coming abroad Primorsky Krai. This process sets a major challenge to what can and should be done by Russian Far East.
"Y": So what's all the same difficulty? It would seem that Russia's integration in the Asia-Pacific region is predetermined by the course of events?
P.SCH.: The main difficulty is that we are in the main included in the European system integration. And since so evolved over the centuries, to the Siberian and Far Eastern territories no people, no traffic, no regular role in the Asia-Pacific division of labor.
For a variety of events — a late development relative to other regions of the Russian Federation, the distance from the center, the small level of settlement and the absence of large cities — the pace of development of the Far East are lagging behind as the national average, and from want from the standpoint of compliance with the scale of the processes taking place in the Asia Pacific region.
"Y": Why is it such a promising area for centuries been ignored?
P.SCH.: I do not agree. The issue of development and re-orientation in Asian history of the Russian Federation is not the first time. The first time he got in 1798, when in Irkutsk was founded "The United American company" in 1799 to act "under the high patronage of his Majesty Pravitelskogo." But her story was unsuccessful, and from past acquisitions in the region of the Russian Federation to the middle of the XIX century. almost had to turn away. Sale of Alaska in 1867 was the logical result. Even then it was clear: the size must match the abilities of local governance.
The second time was the question seriously in the late XIX — early XX century. Focusing on the best predictions of the imminent brain growth in Asia, the Russian empire once again began to make some steps to integrate into the region. Just the base of Vladivostok in 1860 we got in the end, system to the Pacific Ocean. Began rich agricultural and commercial development. And in the early XX century. During the Stolypin reforms, was created by Trans-Siberian Railway, and there came a targeted migration from Central RF nearly 4 million people.
Third opportunity to develop the Siberian and Far Eastern lands appeared to Russian Union after the second world war, at the time of the industrial industrialization. I think that if at the time managed to agree with China and use Chinese market for the industrialization of East Siberia and the Far East, we would now have a very different situation in the region.
"Y": We now have another opportunity to its development?
P.SCH.: If the model development will meet the challenges of the time and will not be repeated Russian protracted, then, by all means, yes. If we lay those infrastructural and industrial solutions that will use the most modern approaches, we have a chance to smooth out the difficulties associated with the small size of the population, for example. There is a possibility of creation in the region absolutely mechanized companies. But you need to have a draft of the productions under their build an education system, a system of placement. The same trend of raw material to use as a resource base to meet the challenges of development. Create it the most advanced system of environmental planning, that state of life was the highest, most modern agriculture, which would be driven out of space and has the highest productivity, the most modern residential part of the most modern materials. That there is reincarnate the region into a base for the implementation of the most advanced achievements in the field of technology and management.
"Y": What, in your opinion, the specificity of the town of Vladivostok?
P.SCH.: Let us remember that Vladivostok was founded in July 1860, in other words, only recently in historical terms. Posted by city so that from him many of the world centers are closer than from Moscow: San Francisco, Tokyo, Seoul, Beijing. Vladivostok in the center of Asia-Pacific — a profitable geographical position. City first created as a military settlement, and immediately as a port. But his military functions has never seriously been applied, but the port was realized through the ideology of "free port", which was nearly a half-century, up to 10 years of XX century. For 50 years the city was that of the path of development, which many an old Russian town held for centuries. By the beginning of the century was already a massive center of attraction of all kinds of commercial and industrial activity.
"Y": Who is the general population, it is?
P.SCH.: Be aware that Vladivostok from the very beginning was a multicultural, multinational city. It intensively settled foreign spices and traders: the Americans and the Germans. Many of the streets and houses up to now bear the stamp of this for yourself first trade development. Quite a lot of Chinese people settled there. And, for example, the sale of water or seaweed was monopolized by them. Russian negotiators intensively developed fur-trade, trade with America and with underdeveloped — then another — the Asia-Pacific region.
"Y": And the military?
P.SCH.: And the military was. But I remind you that, in fact, the military status of Vladivostok has never been applied. With all of this, as the population was multicultural and multinational, and from the Russian Federation there was going pretty active layer, oriented towards the enterprise, the city developed rapidly. The level of self-management and self-organization was still higher than the national average.
In addition, the Far East was not tied shackles of classical Russian fa
rming community, for example. Agriculture was of the main commodity nature: they were large farms that actually developed by the South American way, if you remember Lenin, in other words, through the creation of the farm.
"Y": And that human capital is preserved?
P.SCH.: In general, yes. Indeed, in this region for years traveling the most active people, breaking out of the shackles of conventional social, in which one or the other time period was characterized by central Our homeland.
"Y": What are the strengths of Vladivostok can note now?
It continues to be prone to multiculturalism, like every city, which was a platform for the mixing of contrast and a meeting point of different cultures, types of activities, ways of life. In other words, this is one of the few cities in the country — perhaps partly close to St. Petersburg — in which it is available. And the abundance inevitably breeds innovation, or those others: technological, social, political, organizational, and cultural.
"Y": And this abundance, apparently, will fit into the concept of working with the Asia-Pacific region?
P.SCH.: Of course! Because even then, at the dawn of prosperity of the town, it is home to the main representatives of the diaspora of the States represented in the region. And now this relationship is. Walking through the streets of Vladivostok, you will see very many non-Russian people, whose number is increasing year by year. And it's true. In New York, Hong Kong or Singapore, you will also meet representatives of many nationalities. Vladivostok — such as town "mixer" city, in which there is an association of different cultures, generating innovation.
"Y": In your opinion, what is now betting on the next step of development of the eastern territories?
P.SCH.: I think you would agree that at least some form of asking a certain spatial organization. Need that or other infrastructure, communication systems, system mobility, that or the other, taking into account the density of the interaction activity. Because most reasonable, in my view, to rely on clusters. The paradox of the cluster directly related to the fact indicator which We need to improve for the successful development of these lands — with a density of activity in the area.
The essence of the cluster is very ordinariness: the effectiveness of economic activity is a function of its density. If you live in the countryside three persons, the maintenance of the infrastructure for these three people — transportation, medicine, schools, electricity — would be prohibitively expensive. Therefore, if the density of activity in the area is low, then the efficiency for each participant also low. And if the density of the highest and more participants, infrastructure costs are the same, but they are divided between the huge number of users, and for each it becomes more profitable.
If we were able to gather in one area such higher density, then we did a cluster. The clusters are of different types. Linear production, which were created in the XIX — early XX century are put end to end process stages 1 and the same manufacturing process. The efficiency of each increases and costs are reduced.
"Y": For example?
P.SCH.: For example, if you treat the wood, then you have a research institute, which the derivation of modern breeds of wood, there is agriculture, there is a felling of the forest, there is a processing for any particular production. And even better, that was an educational institute for the training of professionals in this area and, for example, a furniture design or paper. Here you have collected a linear cluster.
And there are clusters that are based on the transfer of knowledge and skills from one area to another. Not one line, and the several and different transitions between them. There are so called cluster synergy: technological solutions, acquired in one area, all of a sudden have the effect in other areas. This is the modern clusters that use the effect of economic knowledge.
"Y": Clusters of any type requires a far East?
P.SCH.: It is not clear what type of get accustomed to our Far Eastern territories. There are lots of aspects. Since our home is usually late, for many niches are occupied: almost all the inhabitants of the country do the Rising Sun, Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Australians. Need to find their niche. Need to deliberately worked analytical and research center, which will be specifically addressed this puzzle.
And, of course, the need for highly skilled personnel. If we wish to make on reclaimed the territory of modern economic infrastructure, the requirements of the people should be the most modern in all areas.
"Y": Let's summarize: how do you see development Far Eastern territories?
P.SCH.: I believe that the right decision — is to make the conditions for a 2-different types of development of these lands. On the one hand — to strengthen urban centers to create a modern urban environment. For this we there is in the Far East, Vladivostok and Khabarovsk. On the other hand — to create conditions for the local economy to support organic farming, small residential buildings, services, tourism and recreation. Well, the main thing: to use the energy of growing Asian region is uniformly incorporated into it.
"Y": The APEC summit here to help?
P.SCH.: Absolutely. The fact that in the Far East comes to the APEC summit, which is formulated including the current agenda of the day or macro, very harsh step forward in the integration process.
Issues to be addressed at the panel discussion, in my opinion, a burning for the media and the intellectuals of Vladivostok. I once wrote that the global power — one that "keeps the world in their own hands," in other words, is responsible for the world's problems. Because in the Russian Federation there is an opportunity to discuss global challenges in Vladivostok and participate in the decision. But these tasks need to make their own, we do not have to read "us" and "them", otherwise there will be no interaction. Integration in the Asia-Pacific region begins with the integration of the agenda of the day or. The world view and values should be shared.