Russian air defense system resolutely entered the XXI century

Russian air defense system resolutely entered the XXI century

Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" celebrates its 10th anniversary. There is also another reason to rejoice — the creation of renewed anti-aircraft missile system S-300V. Browser "NVO" Viktor Myasnikov talked about it with the deputy general director of Concern for orders and deliveries Vitaly Knyazev and Head of the Department for Scientific and Technological Development, and Applied Research System Sergei Druzin.

— Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" resumed the creation of anti-aircraft missile system S-300V. Many readers do not pay attention to the alphabetic index of "B" or "P", and in fact is a question of different systems?

SD: The letter "B" means "troop." This system is designed to protect troops on the march and battle positions. And moving in combat formations of troops. The second system with the suffix "M" — for the air defense units. It covers from the air and space attack the fundamental administrative and industrial centers. By S-300P is similar in construction third system — S-300F, which means "naval". It is located on a large surface ships. The "M" and "F" single rocket. But the C-300B, as they say, went on its way, although the task of designing all had in common.

Naval S-300F Research Institute developed the "Altair" and the line of the S-300P — S-300PM — CDB "Diamond". C-300B was designed by the Research Institute of Electromechanical and it made for a rocket CB "Innovator". At the beginning of the military complex was designed to counter ballistic targets. Had to intercept warheads U.S. tactical missiles "Pershing", who then settled in Europe.

In Russian the time was as follows: complete system test, and on the table for documentation on its subsequent modification. Then there was such, that the designer was sitting idle. Maybe it's too expensive, but we had the undeniable progress and growth of high-spirited technical characteristics of weapons systems. Under this scheme going and future development of the S-300V. As with the development of "Buk-M2".

— The fate of "Buk-2M" is identical with the fate of C-300B?

SD: This is also an army air defense system, but the average range. About the same time, in 1988-1989, was completed tests of these municipal systems. But when it started to move mass production, there have been those disasters that have plunged the industry in general collapse. Batch creation and failed to start because it asks for certain investments.

— This means that the creation braked?

SD: Up to 2005-2006, virtually nothing is performed. These two beautiful new system S-300V and "Buk-M2", you can say, grow old, never having been born. And the component on which they were built during this period of time is outdated. But that's half the trouble. Since these electrical components there was no demand, collapsed companies that produce them. When we started production, it became clear that it is unrealistic to begin — there is nothing to do. Urgently needed to solve two problems. First — to prepare the establishment. Second — is to alter the very system of the S-300V under that element base, which is now.

— I had to start from the ability, not out of a desire?

SD: Not only. While here, of course, there are also imported element base. Unfortunately, now you can not do without it.

— A large percentage of imports?

SD: No, because this hardware is in the main to the field of signal processing. This is the first analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors. At the time when creating recovered, this was not a private components. But now the work on its creation go. Concern had to invest decent money, while we are consciously doing it.

— Decent facilities — is how much? Billion?

VK: Hundreds of millions of rubles invested to spend, in fact, the ROC on alteration of the air defense systems to the newest element base. Second direction attachments — it's development, in other words, prepare themselves to mass production industries. And now we are proud to report that both systems — S-300B and "Buk-M2" are included in the state defense order. By the way, "Buk-M2" has participated in the parade. And we both systems offer foreign customers.

If it were not for the concern, companies definitely do not have enough money. In addition, we had to do a lot of hard organizational work. It was necessary to address a number of issues at the Defense Ministry ordering management. After all, what is usually adopted and included in the state defense order, a very strict zareglamentirovano. This product can not change anything, not a single nut. And we do a lot of changed everything from the components. Any differences, configuration, sought approval. As they say, to the knees legs rubbed on all the floors until it is all gone and agreed.

So Makarov, on the one hand, the concern has promoted our country to get to adopt modern means of defense. On the other hand, we have revived businesses that are involved in this process. For example, it Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant — head on a set of "Buk-M2" and Mari Machine Works in Yoshkar-Ola. In fact, the UMP in Ulyanovsk — one of the main companies that heavily influences the social situation in the town. A Mari Machine — just only city-forming. If they have not earned, it could have enormous social consequences.

— Should be aware that the company took on the job that previously did the ministry?

VK: You mean the former USSR Ministry of Radio, which is subordinate to our company? Practically — yes. But that's the point of incorporation, so that from the Ministry, who is in Moscow, transfer control to the special holding companies and corporations. Since the ministry, with its own manual unlimited number of companies could not reach everyone at the appropriate level. Or you need to have such administrative staff — beyond the real. And the need to work with technologists, and the management of companies, and with the financial authorities. Organize it all from a single point is simply unrealistic. Because there was little problem disaggregate branch, divide by aiming at certain sections of subjects. And Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" is a company refers to the radio industry and the aviation industry, and rocketry. Of course, some companies works except defense and on other fronts in accordance with the profile.

Yet the group has decided to create a number of problems. You can further say what exactly has changed in the criteria of market relations. Earlier in the Russian time, loading companies planned in Moscow, and the director would try to turn away. Piled a lot of work, and the people in the state were not added, and it was generally a pain in the head — in planning time to do the job. Now the situation has changed on the back — all are tearing work. While not all businesses can perfectly do the same operation. As for mehanobrabotke and to electrical parts.

SD: The same — the developers. One, for example, is strong in antennas, and signal processing, there is a strong team, but in another enterprise. But if the company receives a contract right now, it is none of these tools will not give. Worse, but do it yourself, and the director is trying by all means to keep at home. And the task of concern, namely, the management of whi
ch I head, is, that any of the design work to lure the strongest teams of developers.

In any contract there are a variety of activities — antenna systems, radio, receiver, etc. And not everything, as they say, of equal strength are strong in these areas. In addition, when groups of different companies working together, there is a proliferation of technologies and mutual learning. And since the same people are involved in the project, it pushes them to the unification of technical solutions. By the way, the unification — one of the issues to be addressed concern. I am referring to the unification of the inter-project of weapons that we produce. After the introduction of standardized components and assemblies, mass-produced, will allow to significantly reduce the cost. Large-scale creation in itself implies that the unit cost will be less.

VK: That's what still can be attributed to the merits of the concern. Initially, S-300B and "Buk-M2" developed on tracked chassis. Since this technology for the Army, they should go no worse than tanks. According to at least some mud, where there are no roads. There also can be attributed defense system "Thor."

— "Thor" is also on the chassis of the T-72?

SD: No, it is just the chassis of their own, it is unique, because unlike the tank has a very Myagenko suspension. It does not jump from a springboard and carry a very delicate instrument. And she was not one ten tons harvested in wardrobes. You represent hundreds of thousands of contacts? At least one broken — the whole system breaks down. Naturally, there is a special approach to the instrument cluster for mobile chassis, yet provide the reliability needed from all sides. If a tank two boxes, seven speeds and two lever control, the chassis on the "Torah" — steering wheel, and it is managed like an airplane. This chassis suspension myagenkaya so that it does not go, and almost floating. Runs into an obstacle, and it is not felt only slight tremor on the case.

— Why is there wheeled version of "Thor"?

SD.: Properties of our technology as a means of defense zabugornyh customers fully satisfied, but their order — first and asphalt tracks, of course, spoil. Because they expressed a desire to "transplant" "Thor" on wheels. And here we are faced with a very severe discrepancy. Tracked vehicles designed a special method, it is used so-called corpus chassis. It is hollow inside, and all the equipment, especially launchers, their designs sit inside of the body to the bottom. A bottom is almost half a meter from the ground.

A chassis of the car — it's loading platform located above the axle beam, and higher suspension assembly, and up springs. This is approximately at the height of 130 cm for the average car, and the car in heavy-duty general one and a half meters. If the complex "Thor" just set the vehicle, the road in any dimension will not work. Second discrepancy is that the center of gravity is so high that it almost overturned car.

In the nomenclature of what is being done by industry, the appropriate gear is not found. But there is a cooperative ties with Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant, which for the systems S-300PMU and C-400 supply chassis, another true type. Minsk residents have developed a fundamentally new chassis — the corps for the complex "Thor", what has never done before. We started with the "Torah", as it is needed in the market. Just Vitaly was behind the whole affair. I have already connected to the "Bouquet". When we looked at the wheel "Thor", immediately had an idea: a tracked chassis something similar in "Thor" and "Buck." Let's we'll put them on the same wheel. By the way, turned out to be a more difficult task because the mass of "Buka" more and it is bigger size. Still, we managed it too. While all this was going very hard.

Russian air defense system resolutely entered the XXI century
Anti-aircraft missile system S-300V

SD: You do realize, is never, so all the latest development done at once. But we have passed this way pretty quickly. The tests were performed in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Defense on special landfill in suburban Bronnitsi. And, I must say a lot of things out of the car "shaken out". Came to light and was eliminated a lot of gaps, especially at first. Now can proudly say that we have two versions of military complexes "Thor" and "Buk-M2" — track and wheel. And the award Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" in the development of large wheeled versions. Especially in the middle of the developers would like to mention the head designer Eugene A. Pigin.

— Let's try to compare the "Thor" on the tracks and wheels.

VK: Crawler chassis is unique, because the special hydro-mechanical suspension, each wheel independently suspended. Rotating device inside the housing complex falls to the very bottom. Now a look at the wheel the car. The case she bit higher. The total height of the chassis 2 meters 20 cm, but it has the ability to squat. In other words, suspension of two positions, special levers allow it to fall. Decreases clearance, exacerbating the cross, but it gets a lot of other benefits. It just needs to travel under the bridge to fit into the dimensions of the road, and especially in the dimensions of the train. System "Buk-M2" and "Tor-2M" fit into the 3.8 meter railway authorized dimensions. I stop on the platform and crouch a little. This is enough. There is nothing to dismantle, remove the valve, to send a team after the employees, so that once again assemble and test complex. In addition, it is possible to reduce the clearance by the configuration of the provisions of the suspension, the wheel could be lowered a little. Later, they automatically inflate again. It has to do quite often when passing under the railway bridge, raised above the ground pipelines and the similar.

SD: I must say that the chassis itself is quite modern. It has an on-board information management system that is in control of the operation of all units. Special computer receives information from sensors. There is a display device evaluation level characteristics, which keeps them under the control and in the event limits for certain signals to the driver. There are television rearview camera as a good foreign car. Indeed, one of the problems — to move in reverse. The car used a lot of components and assemblies Russian production, but in general is a "brotherhood of the iron." Yaroslavl engine, tires, too, Russian, box design of the Minsk factory, and his own body.

— All anti-aircraft missile systems Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" almost full of electronics. As it is protected from damage in the criteria of electronic warfare?

SD: Electronic warfare is that the special system forms the interference. Radar senses the signal reflected from the target, on hundreds of miles distant. Can you imagine what is the magnitude of the signal, which is reflected from the plane at a distance of 250-300 km? We have to extract it. Of course, the enemies are tempted to drown out the signal or distort. A galaxy of scientists invent tricks to prevent the radar. But the construction of a military radar honed specifically for use in interference criteria — adaptability to different types of external interfering signals, the restructuring of the carrier frequency and all kinds of irregularities. The structure of the signal may, for the basic functi
on of measuring the coordinates are not the best. It would be possible to apply a more conventional signal, but because the worker will provide a higher signal to noise immunity apply it. Here, we can say that the cost of the locator is greatly increased. A large part of the price — embedded intelligence and the instrumental piece that solves the puzzles of electronic warfare. Because when we talk about the impact on equipment REB in the terms of reference of our core customer — the Ministry of Defence in order of mandatory whenever prescribed protection from interference negotiated their properties. And we are presenting complex, feature for feature municipal passing tests, check the job criteria EW. So much for the so-called man-made interference. But not so long ago, a new class of tools, it is called a microwave weapon. The impact frequency electric pulse. It is used by a wide band of frequencies. This is fundamentally fundamentally to envelop a wide spectrum of wavelengths.

— Zabugornom sources say that the battle of microwave radiation almost spalivaet electronics.

SD: Not as difficult as it is painted. Yes, the power generation of microwave signals is quite high, but it is distributed across the width of the range of longish wave to the little ones. And at least some radio receiver only works in its own specific frequency. And because the proportion of energy that is emitted by the enemy, we get the ratio of the width is proportional to the range of the signal is used by us to the width of the range of microwave radiation. Relatively speaking, I need to work only from a range of 100 Hz Doppler systems, and the bandwidth of the interfering RF signal is enormous. Because the level of harmful signal in the hundreds, thousand or even a million times decreases. This is — in-1's. And in-2, there is still so called selectivity of the antenna system of the radar. If the radar antenna radiation graphically, it will take the form of a petal. Conditionally imagine that this kind of self-binoculars, through which the look out for a goal. If the sun is shining on the side, is that glare — the so-called interference on the side lobes. In other words, the impact of a maybe, but read that the system will not work, you can not. Naturally, if the microwave generator placed next to the radar, he can somehow prevent it. But who will allow him to put together? On it and the air defense system. If this microwave weapons by air is brought, then you heard the first. Since our range air defense 400 km or more.

SD: In this very meaning of building a system of air defense. It is layered, provides a means to combat air assets attacking large, medium and short-range. Any component will make your puzzle. Rockets distant deeds — this is the fight against jammers and supports high-precision weapons. They loitering and initially occupy positions organizing raid include interference. And later, already under their cover is air attack. Often, they say: why distance of 400 km? Since due to the curvature of the Earth at an altitude of 10 km above the target land it goes over the radio horizon at a distance of 400 km. She gets in the shade area, its just not visible. But there are not felt and put it interference. The enemy is afraid of losing an expensive aircraft — jammer, and eventually lost the meaning of its implementation. I'm not talking about any kind of aircraft — the command posts, AWACS, scouts, which provide information percussive tools. We drives them away. Or hit until they figured out what tools we have at the site.

VK: The main protection against electronic warfare — it acts range air defense system. In 1-x, we distills the enemy planes away, do not give conduct reconnaissance and "make noise" interference. In-2, the very constructive implementation of the equipment provides for shielding and other protective equipment. It's no secret that one of the requirements of the Ministry of Defense — is to protect the equipment from the effects of the electric pulse of a nuclear explosion. There's burst of energy such that, God forbid it all together to achieve such a microwave. And we have the equipment to test this momentum. Is an institution where we experience carrying her to the tests. Because in the production of the "Almaz-Antey" is structurally incorporated ability to withstand electrical stress. According to the latest as we do not feel panic about the emergence of microwave weapons.

— Do you want to say, if the equipment can withstand an electric pulse of a nuclear explosion, then microwave and other wave instrument does not direct attention?

SD: Move down in this way our technology is virtually impossible. Of course, a one-time effect, a single failure can happen. But it's like with a computer — outta here and rebooted. The main thing is it will not lead to the disruption of the combat tasks.

— Non-critical?

SD: non-critical. The impact, of course, may be, but it's not worse than ordinary aircraft systems jamming. With them, for sure, even worse, as they are set to a specific locator. And all the energy of its own transmitter interference collect just the wrong frequency on which it operates. Moreover, they have their own antenna concentrated energy to affect a narrow beam. That's where the power levels are very huge. In fact, up to 100 megawatts at 1 MHz. And even more. But they, too, are the methods of struggle. This spatial selection, and rapid restructuring. In other words, you need to get away from that frequency. And when the radar begins to change the frequency, the enemy, because they do not know what the next frequency will be required to extend the range and level of noise decreases accordingly.

— C-300B carried out for export?

VK: In the export of any of the C-300B, we did not deliver. But at this point we are ready to deliver, but it's the system "Antey-2500". In practice, we fled to the latest element base. This is a tremendous work, which claimed a lot of money, but it allows for the moment to create a system based on an existing element. This is generally in all media unhealthy weapons issue. We are laying on that base that exists. And we can not count on that being developed, because it is not. And after the state tests to begin mass creation, we need to work on the translation of the newest element base. So how does it change in the next 5-7 years one hundred percent.

SD: The system S-300V4 is not just a replacement of the 1st transistor on the other — it is the substitution of ideology. We got so called digital radars. It is a different generation, the transition to digital signal processing. Analog receivers require options, and their enormous size. Digital technology does not need to adjust, to invest in software to it and it is ready for operation. This led to the design of the internal martial offices changed dramatically. Earlier in the C-300B was strongly lot of equipment. Calculation sit awkwardly, fan noise. Quite painful when alert. Now it is structurally changed. LCDs do not tire the eyes. And most importantly — created a new software. Improved communication interface with a locator, and improved method of work, increased property. And the receiver has become more sensitive. The same is true about the "Buk-M2" you might say. And this result clearly indicates that the Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" the 10 years of intensive development, headed for extreme success and looks confidently to the future.

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