That still represented the Russian Empire the other day World War II? Here you need to step back from 2-legends — Russian as "imperial Russia" exhibit as a backward country with a downtrodden people, and "Novorossiysk" — the essence of the legend can be expressed in the title of the documentary film publicist Russian and Russian director Stanislav Govorukhin "Russia, which we lost "(1992). This idealized view of the Russian Empire, which destroyed the villains Bolsheviks.
Russian Empire really had a lot of potential and could be in the respective global, external and internal politics to become a world favorite, because of their own human reserves (third on the planet in terms of population after China and India), natural resources, creativity, and military power. But there have been massive, deep-seated contradictions that eventually destroyed the empire building. Do not be in the presence of these internal assumptions subversion monetary International, Western intelligence agencies, the Masons, liberals, socialists, revolutionaries, nationalists and other enemies of the Russian Federation would not have had of success.
The cornerstones of the Russian Empire were: Orthodox Christianity, which has filed a base of Christianity as the basis of education and training; autocratic (autocracy) as the basis of state of the system, the spirit of the Russian state, which was the basis for the unity of a large area, the core of the empire, at the same time able to mutually Cooperation with other races, nationalities and denominations. But these three bases have been eroded in almost everything: Orthodoxy for the most part was a formality, having lost their own fiery spirit of righteousness, for the essence of the ritual has been lost — the "glory of Truth, Righteousness." Russian State spirit eroded pressure Westernism, eventually there was a split of the people — the elite (mostly) adopted European culture, for it is laid up Lazureviy Paris and became closer than Ryazanschine or near Pskov, and Voltaire, Marx and more fun than Pushkin or Lomonosov.
Economic Development Since memory is a double on the one hand, progress has been highest. Empire experienced three economic recovery — the first was when Alexander II, the second in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (was related to the stability of Emperor Alexander III era and a number of positive innovations like I protectionist tariffs and liquor monopoly, a policy of encouraging entrepreneurship, etc .), third recovery occurred in the years 1907-1913 and, curiously, lasted even in the years of the First World War, and was associated with the activities of Stolypin and V.N.Kokovtseva (Minister of Finance 1906 -1914 years, the chairman of the Council of Ministers in 1911 — 1914 years). Average yearly rate of growth in the last period is 5-8%. This rise was even called "Russian miracle" that came much earlier than German or Japanese.
Count Vladimir Kokovtsov, Russian municipal leader, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation in 1911-1914 years.
In the 13 years before the war, industrial production increased by three times. In particular, the rapidly growing new branches of industry — the creation of chemical, petroleum production, rapid growth was recorded in the coal. Built steel road: from 1891 to 1916 built the Trans-Siberian railway line (Transsib or majestic Siberian route), she joined naikrupneyshie Moscow and the Siberian and Far Eastern industrial centers of the empire, almost styanuv Russian steel belt. It was the longish steel road in the world — more than nine thousand miles. South Trans-Siberian branch became Chinese Eastern Steel Road (CER), built in 1897-1903. It belonged to the Russian state and the subjects of the empire was served. Took place on the terrain of Manchuria and connected the Chita to Vladivostok and Port Arthur.
In the field of light industry, textile (textiles exported to China and Persia), food industry Our homeland is quite sufficient in and exported products to the outdoor market. More negative situation was in engineering — Our homeland has produced 63% of the equipment itself and the means of production.
Huge fear of Western economists and politicians caused frisky Development. In 1913, the Russian Empire came to first place in the world, ahead of the United States, the rate of growth of industrial production. Our home came in the top five of strongest economic powers, second only to Britain, Germany, France, and catching up with the U.S.. According to the calculations of French economists, if Our homeland has kept the pace of development itself, while the other powers retained near the speed of development, by the middle of the XX century Russian government peacefully, through evolution was to dominate the world's financial and economic terms, ie, and politically, becoming the number one superpower.
And this despite the fact that Russia and the associate of British and French colonial empire is somewhat erroneous — Paris and London extorted money from the colonies, subject to local lop-sided, purely for their own benefit. Of the overseas dominions British and the French get unlimited cheapest kind of raw material. Russian Empire developed in the other criteria — Neighborhood Number of Russian and tried to develop at the same level as the Great Russian, Little Russian province. Also need to take into account the climatic conditions of — this is a good book A.P.Parsheva "Why Our homeland is not America." Develop a higher civilization in order to criteria such difficult than in Europe, the U.S. or South Asia, Latin America and Africa.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that, although the colony worked for France and the UK, the researchers forgets to include the population of Egypt, India, Sudan, Burma, and the mass of other possessions in the gross characteristics of per capita income, take into account their quality of life, well-being, education and other causes . And without the level of development of the colonies, "metropolitan" really went the highest.
A danger to the Russian Federation represents the highest comparable financial debt. Although "too far" and assume that the empire was almost "an appendage of western countries", and not worth it. The total zabugornyh finansovlozheny ranged from 9 to 14%, in principle, not much higher than in Western countries. It is necessary to take into account the fact that our homeland has developed along the capitalist scheme was not socialist states, because playing the same game as the western countries. External debt of the Russian Federation to 1914 headed for 8 billion francs (2.9 billion rubles), and the outer debt of the United States headed for 3 billion dollars (about 6 billion rubles), the States at that time were in debt, only to reverse the trend through the First World War .
It was believed that borrow profitable funds went to the country's development of large infrastructure projects or the stabilization of the financial situation in the years 1905-1906 (the defeat in the war, the beginning of a revolution in the country). By the beginning of World War I gold in store Russian Empire was the l
argest in the world and was 1 billion 695 million rubles.
The population of the empire was 160 million people and growing rapidly, the birth rate was highest — 45.5 babies per 1 thousand inhabitants per year. Oscillation causes the myth of rampant illiteracy and low culture of the Russian people in the early 20 th century. Western researchers, talking about 30% literate, the main take into account college graduates, high schools, secondary schools, and district schools. Parochial schools, which bowed a significant part of the population in the West did not take it seriously, believing that "real education" they do not give. Again, do you need to take into account the factor of rampant illiteracy inhabitants of the European colonies that are legally and practically been part of the European states. Also in 1912, the Russian Empire had adopted a law on general education and the source of the original schools. If not for the war and the destruction of the empire, the empire would have repeated the same thing as did the Bolsheviks — illiteracy would be one hundred percent eliminated. For a complete ignorance persisted only in the middle of aliens (category of subjects within the law of the Russian Empire, which was not wearing a pejorative meaning) a number of areas of the empire, in the Northern Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia and the last North.
In addition, the imperial high school and real school (secondary education) were given such knowledge level, which was approximately equal to the amount of programs of most modern universities. A person who has completed higher educational institutions of Russia, differed in the best possible way by the level of knowledge than most of today's college graduates. "Silver Years" was going through culture of — marked successes in poetry, literature, music, science, etc.
Parliamentary monarchy. You should know that our homeland by the early 20th century, is no longer an absolute monarchy, in the full sense of the term. In 1864, in the process of judicial reform (introduced Judicial fatigued) was practically limited to the power of the ruler. In addition, the country has begun to implement zemskoe government, which was in charge of regeneration, health, education, social protection, etc. Manifesto October 17, 1905 and the reform of 1907 established a regime of parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Because the citizens of the empire were approximately the same amount of rights and freedoms, as well as other inhabitants of the majestic powers. Western "democracy" of the early 20th century was very different from today. Suffrage was not universal, most of the population did not have this privilege, their rights restricted age, property, sexual, national, racial and other qualifications.
In Russia since 1905 have been resolved, all parties except those who led the terrorist activity that is completely normal. Fell into the Municipal Duma and the Bolsheviks and SRs. The strikes were oppressed in every country (well, for now suppressed), often acts of the authorities in the West have been more stringent. In Russia, censorship was abolished preparatory than the numerous opponents of the regime took advantage of Masons liberals to leftists and nationalists. There was only a punitive censorship — publication could be fined or closed for violation of the law (such censorship was widespread and was not only in Russia). Therefore, one should know that the myth of the "prison of nations", where the ruler "chief overseer", was coined by the Western media and then maintained in Russian historiography.
Petersburg tried to pursue a friendly policy. On the 2-Hague Conference (1899 i1907's), which had been convened at the initiative of the Russian Federation adopted the International Convention on the Laws and Customs of War, included in the set of global human rights norms.
In 1899, there were 26 states have adopted three conventions: 1) On the peaceful resolution of international conflicts, and 2) Laws and Customs of War on Land, and 3) On application to the naval war principles of the Geneva Convention (on August 10, 1864). At the same time forbade the introduction of projectiles and explosives from balloons, ships, missiles, with a stifling and harmful gases, explosive bullets.
In 1907, it was attended by 43 countries, was already 13 conventions, including the peaceful resolution of global conflicts, to limit the use of force for the Recovery of Contract Debts duties, the Laws and Customs of War on Land, etc.
Our homeland after the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871-1871 years Germany has kept a couple of times from a new attack on the French government. Petersburg tried to resolve disputes in the Balkans political and diplomatic means, without bringing the matter before the war, even to the detriment of its strategic interests. During the 2-Balkan Wars (1912-1913), due to the friendly policies, Russia were unhappy with all the countries of the region, even the Serbs.
Although the company was "tainted" frankofilstvom and pan-Slavism, a major war in Europe, the Russian public is not lusted after. The nobility and intellectuals thought Paris cultural center of the world. Stand up for the "Slav brothers" or "brothers in faith" considered it their sacred duty, although there was plenty of examples where these "brothers" made alliances with Western countries acted against the interests of Russia.
Germany for a long time, right up to the years 1910-1912, was not perceived in Russia the enemy. To wage war against the Germans did not want this war is not carrying the RF usefulness, but could bring a lot of harm (as it happened).
But Paris and London it was necessary to push the "Russian Giant" with "Teutons." British feared the growth of the German Empire Navy, the German dreadnoughts could seriously change the balance of power in the world. Specifically, let the fleet "mistress of the seas" to control large areas of the planet and its colonial empire. They were necessary to provoke a conflict of Germany and the Russian Federation and the ability to stay on the sidelines. Thus Sir Edward Grey (Minister of Foreign Affairs of Britain in the years 1905-1916) read French President Poincaré: "Russian resources so great that in the end Germany will be depleted even without the aid of England."
The French attitude to war in two ways, on the one hand, the "Napoleonic" militancy was not, and lose the current level of well-being did not want (France was the world's cultural center and the money), and the shame of 1870-1871 in Paris could not have forgotten. The theme of Alsace and Lorraine, often raised on a shield. Many politicians are openly led the country to war, and among them was Raymond Poincare, who in 1913 was elected president. In addition, many people do not like to live under the Damocles sword of Germany, the German Empire a couple of times provoked the beginning of the conflict, and only the position of the Russian Federation and the UK held back the warlike impulses of Berlin. I wanted to solve the problem in one fell swoop.
Much hope has been to Russia. In Paris, many believed that if the "Russian barbarians" pluck off the leash, the German end. But our homeland was quite stable, and her friendly attitude has not shaken nor the Moroccan crises (1905-1906, 1911's), no mess in the Balkans (1912-1913).
Peacefulness of the Russian Federation confirmed by the fact t
hat when Germany began to prepare for war and armed with hard, to build more powerful and more than fleet almost immediately after the victory over France in 1871, then our only homeland in 1912 adopted a program from shipbuilding. Well, it was much more modest than the German or English, on the Baltic Sea Force 4 4 battleships and battle cruisers only wanted to defend their own shores. In March of 1914 (!) The State Duma passed a huge military program that anticipate the increase of the army and the modernization of armaments, eventually the Russian army was superior to the German. But both applets were to end only in 1917.
In September 1913 Paris and St. Petersburg have gained a definitive agreement regarding the interaction in case of war. France was to begin military action on the 11th day after the start of mobilization, and our homeland — on the 15th. In November, the French were given a large loan for the construction of railways in the west of the empire. To improve the capacity of mobilization of.
Domestic opponents of Russian Empire
— A significant part of the imperial elite. February Revolution of 1917 had a not a Bolshevik and Socialist Revolutionaries, and financiers, industrialists, the generals, high officials, bureaucrats, deputies of the State Duma. Forced to abdicate from the throne of Nicholas II did not reddish commissioners and the Red Guards, and fully secured and arranged on a life ministers, generals, members, masons large degrees of initiation.
They want to make Russia a "nice" England or France, their consciousness was formed by a matrix of Western civilization. Autocracy seemed to them the last obstacle on the way to Western Europe. These were the supporters of the "European choice" of the Russian Federation since.
— The bourgeoisie inorodcheskih, in the main the Germans and the Jews. Many belonged to the Masonic lodge. Had contacts abroad. Also wanted a "European choice" of. Supported the liberal-bourgeois parties — Octo and the Cadets.
— A significant part of the Russian state bourgeoisie. To a large mass of these were Old Believers (Old Believers). Old Believers considered anti-Christian power of the Romanovs. This government has split the church violated the proper development of, subjected them to persecution, killed institution of patriarchy and spent the nationalization of the church. Petersburg in Russia planted nasty things Western.
— Most of the intellectuals was the basis of Western values, divorced from the people, in the minds prevailed strshnaya mixture of Voltaire, Hegel, Mars and Engels … The intelligentsia was fascinated by the West, and would have to drag Russia into Western civilization and to root it out there. In fact, the intelligentsia was "anti-national" (despite its high level of education), exceptions, like Tolstoy or Leskov was minor, and they could not change the overall wind vector. Intellectuals do not understand, do not take the Russian civilizational project because by taking a role in fueling the fire of the revolution, and she was burned.
— Prof. revolutionaries. These were people with drive of all classes and grades, they connected the voedinyzhdy desire for change. They absolutely tear away the modern world. These people believed that the world will be able to make a new, much better than before, but it needs quite an old hurt. Among them were both Russian Jews, Poles, Georgians, etc. This movement was not unified, consisted of a large number of parties, organizations and factions.
— Jews. This people has become an important factor of the Russian revolution, no need to downplay their significance, and do not exaggerate. They accounted for a significant portion of the revolutionaries of all stripes. And it must be noted that it was not the Jews in the classic sense of the word. Most of these were "vykresty", "rogue states" of their own tribe, the ones who have not found themselves in the life of classical Jewish settlements. Although they are used in the middle of family ties, including abroad.
— Nationalists. Polish, Finnish, Jewish, Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Ukrainian nationalists, and so began a massive factor for the collapse of the empire, which relied on the Western powers.