Since the days of World War II combat tracked vehicles of unhurried, clumsy, poorly-armed freaks turned into a harsh modern instrument. Now the tanks are not the least weight than the nuclear club, and are not only a means of aggression, and military deterrence. This heavy argument can be found overnight final political, social and economic differences in favor of the person who possesses it. According to professionals, tanks, despite the development of advanced weapons first XXI century will be another long gun number 1 Army of the leading armies of the world.
RBC learned whose boundaries now defends Russian "flying" tank T-90 and why the Defense Ministry has a weakness for zabugornoy armor.
Tailed tanks "Reno" — favorites of the World
Different designs of armored fighting vehicles on tracks offered military engineers in Russia and abroad in the late XIX century. But in fact they were all on paper right up to the First World War. By building tracked vehicles with a massive weapons inspired with obvious technical background, and military necessity. For active offensive operations in a protracted trench warfare 1914 1918gg. on a hostile terrain, entangled kilometers Stitching wire with concrete fortifications and looking out of their deadly for infantry guns and machine guns, required a fundamentally new tool. In this instrument, allowing the most severe break defense, to instill in the enemy of the soul and the terror and confusion into fleeing, and steel tanks. Despite the initial slow speed (of 7-8 km / h) and more machine-gun armament, military rapidly assessed fighting properties of this unique machine.
1st Tank Corps, staffed by British land ironclads Mark I joined the battle on September 15 1916. on the Somme. Average us the word tank (tank, tank) was written on the wood crates in which the British military machine secretly delivered to the place of battle with German troops. Then there is the title stuck, so began to call all the combat vehicles of this type.
The masterpiece of tank development in this period was a French light infantry support tank Renault FT-17, which came down from the assembly plant flow Louis Renault. Such tanks began arriving in the French army in March 1918., But only until the end of the First World War, military received 3,177 such machines. In the tanks, "Reno" for the first time was used tower that rotates 360 degrees, and the assembly, which later became the traditional: the separation of management — in front, fighting — in the center of the tank, and the engine — behind. Armed tank or a gun, or a machine gun, which is installed in the tower. French light tanks at the time were unusually frisky, they developed the highest speed up to 9.6 km / h Specific element of the design of the tank, "Reno" has become removable "tail", allows to overcome the ditches and trenches, and carry it loads or several Marines.
Tailed tank "Reno" was so successful that later produced under license in the United States, where Ford was called Two Man, and in Italy under the name Fiat 3000. So Makarov, for the tanks, "Reno" the first global war was victorious in the present. At that time, there were tanks in Germany. However, the Germans in this field is very lagged behind the British and French — in Germany of 8 tank companies, only three were equipped German war machines A7V. This oversight Germans promptly removed before the second world war. Then the tanks appeared in the armies of other leading world powers — the United States, Italy, the land of the rising sun, etc.
Blinded from the fact that it was … the French, the Yankees, the British
First foreign tanks in Russia fought against the Russian government — white-supplied weapons, Britain and France, and the war machines on tracks produced in Russia appeared in the Russian of in the 1920s. At the time of their own tanks in the USSR was not — the only tank regiment was equipped with only a trophy specimen, including British tanks Mk.V ("Big Willie") and Mk.A ("Whippet") and the French "Reno."
With the recent Russian engineers "written off" the tank T-16, or as it is also called the "Russian Renault", which later brought to the brain and renamed T-18 (MS-1, a small tank support). Tracked vehicle weighing about 5.5 tons, was protected by a 16-mm armor and developed a speed of 16 km / h The tank was armed with 37-mm gun Hotchkiss and 2 6.5-mm machine guns. T-18 was the first serial Russian tank and carried out at the plant "Bolshevik" since 1928. by 1931.
Since then, the Russian engineering idea, fueled by the needs of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA) and aggravate the situation in Europe has improved combat characteristics of the tanks. First, 1930. on the basis of the development of the South American designer Walter Christie in Russian Union make an easy 18-ton tank BT (fast tank). The tank on the suspension, armed with a 45 mm cannon and machine gun performed well during the Spanish Civil War civilian clothes. But his 10-mm reservation could well protect the crew, as the army of large global powers become saturated with small-caliber anti-tank artillery. Another Russian three-turret tank T-28, made by Russian designers on the basis of the British A6 "Vickers", with massive arms (had a 76.2-mm cannon and three 7.62-mm machine guns) and 17-20 mm booking significantly inferior to BT in maneuverability and terrain.
Red Army needed a modern car that would have cooperated inside the firepower of the T-28 with the speed and maneuverability BT. In this tank was the A-32, developed in the design office of tank building Kharkov Locomotive Works (KhPZ) under Misha Koshkin. Combat vehicle was increased to 45 mm booking and massive weapons: F-32 gun 76.2 mm caliber, coupled with a 7.62-mm machine gun, the second gun was at the radio operator and the third, the zenith — the tower. The highest speed of the tank on the highway headed for 70 km / h and 300 km of travel in store. According to the results of tests in September 1939. on the ground in Kubinka 2-A-20 tanks (wheeled-tracked tank) and A-32 (purely tracked) military approved last, giving it the "name" of the T-34. In March, 1940. signed a protocol of the State Committee of Defense of the series production of the T-34 at the factory number 183 (KhPZ).
The famous tank second world war
During majestically Russian War (WWII) fire test clearly showed the high fighting properties of the T-34, which became the "granddaddy" of the modern Russian military vehicles such as main battle tank (MBT) T-90. "Thirty" has become the most famous and the most massive tank of the second world war, combining the unique properties of the battle with the reliability and ease of manufacturing. On the "Uralvagonzavod" at the end of 1941. from the western part of the country were evacuated eleven companies. Until the end of World War II "Uralvagonzavod" produced 25 thousand 266 "tridtsatchetverok," in other words, every second t
ank T-34, who took part in the fighting.
The emergence of Russian T-34 in October 1941. in the battles of Mtsensk shocked the German tank crews and commanders. "South of the Mtsensk 4th Armored Division was attacked by Russian tanks, and she had to go through hard time. For the first time manifested itself in sharp form an advantage of Russian T-34 tanks. Division suffered significant losses," — wrote about this battle the German General Heinz Guderian, Commander of the 2nd Panzer Army Group "Center". Irrefutable advantages of Armored Forces Wehrmacht was called into oscillation.
Adolf Hitler claimed to urgently make a machine capable of resisting the Russian T-34. Constructors Dimler-Benz AG and MAN to work. Meanwhile, military officers German army began to advocate for the creation of an equivalent Russian tanks, so as soon as possible to remove the advantage of Russian. But, even capturing and dismantling the screw to the trophy "Thirty", the Germans were unable to copy this weapon. Namely, lack of non-ferrous metals, Germany could not run mass production diesel engine installed on the T-34. In the end, German designers so by means of the German tank T-IV. In 1942 1943gg. from conveyors tankostroitelnyh German steel mills go of the T-V "Panther" (weighing 35 tons) and languid T-VI "Tiger" (60 tons), and later "King Tiger" (T-VI "Tiger B") .
Russian tankers on the T-34 was not easy to resist the German "Panther" and "Tiger". The German T-VI was armed with a 88 mm gun and had a 80-100 mm reservation, which penetrate the T-34 could only 500-600 m, while the "Tiger" just get "Thirty" from 1500 m But the German machine were more intricate maintenance and repair, and even more expensive. Creating those "Tigers" cost one million Germans in Reichsmarks for the car, almost twice as much as at least some of the tank second world war. At the same time, the T-34 during the war, "fell" almost doubled.
"Tigers" and "Panthers" in the fields of WWII battles as opposed languid Russian KV tanks (created before the war) and IP. The latter was a powerful tank second world war. 46-ton IS-2 (produced in 1943 1953gg.) Is set 122-mm gun, and 90-100 mm armor is not inferior to the German "Tiger". As you know, in the largest tank battle of military history at Prokhorovka on July 12 1943. in the southern fase Kursk Bulge 800 Russian tanks (including 500 T-34) defeated 700 "Tigers" and "Panthers" of selected German Panzer divisions.
Showed its strength during the first and second world wars tanks became the foundation — a steel fist Army of strongest armies in the world. No tank builders do not begin to improve fighting properties of these machines and then majestically May 9 Victory 1945., Created in the second half of the XX century, a stunning technology standards: tanks "Leopard" (Germany), "Abrams" (USA), T-90 (Our birthplace), "Leclerc" (France), "Merkeva" (Israel).
Who protects the "iron fist" of the Russian Federation
Our homeland is now naikrupneyshim exporter of tanks. Main battle tank T-90S (export version) is in service with India, Algeria, Venezuela, Cyprus, Syria, Uganda, and Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan. Higher estimates of the Russian T-90 gave the Indian military: this war machine is the main tank of the Armed Forces of India. By 2020. Indian army should receive 1.7 thousand T-90S tanks under the contracts concluded with Russia. Additionally, in 2006. was a Russian-Indian agreement on the establishment of licensing of the tank, according to which by 2019. in India will be made even 1 thousand T-90S tanks. First top 10 battle tanks T-90S is of Indian origin (Indian designation "Bishma") entered service 73rd Regiment, Indian Army in the summer of 2009. The price of all the Russian-Indian applets is estimated at 2.5 billion dollars
In the ranking of the Center for Analysis of World Trade weapon in the number of new planned for delivery in 2011 MBT-2014. Our homeland is the first place. During this period, Russia wants to export 688 main battle tanks in the amount of $ 1.979 billion total Russian exports in the period 2007 MBT-2014. estimated in 1291, the latest machine in the amount of $ 3,858,000,000 main rivals of the Russian Federation in this field are the United States and Germany. From 2011 to 2014. U.S. exports 457 tanks "Abrams" in the amount of 4.97 billion dollars, Germany in the same period to export 348 "Leopard" in different versions in the amount of $ 3.487 billion
The top five picks in the 2000s. entered and China. To date, the Celestial Empire in the ranking TSAMTO over the period 2007 2014. ranked 4th (298 tanks worth about 662.5 million U.S. dollars). China's entry into the world market MBT has provided Pakistan with the co-operative project of the tank MBT-2000, which is also supplied in Morocco and Myanmar.
For the 1st T-90 3 "Leopard" give?
In the spring of 2010. it became clear to stop funding the project Ural Transport Machine-Building Design Bureau (UKBTM) to create a new Russian tank T-95 (also known as an "object 195"). Earlier the same fate understand the development of the Omsk Transport Machine-Building Design Bureau — tank "Dark Eagle" ("to 640", the modification of the T-80U). Defense Ministry curtailed support for projects, considering them futile.
According to Dr. Constantine Sivkova military sciences, real premise termination of the project financing of the T-95 was his waybill. "The question has rested in the price. T-95, in contrast to the" Almaty was "to be more versatile and more than a lightweight, proved to be very expensive," — says K.Sivkov. At the T-95 was calculated to significantly strengthen the reservation fundamentally do better SLAs and install 152-mm cannon. "The emergence of such guns to the Russian tank would be an advantage of automatic firepower above all other modern zabugornom tanks. With the emergence of such machine guns they would be out of date," — he said.
In 2011. The Ministry of Defence, despite the highest marks abroad Russian "flying" of the T-90, announced the end of the combat vehicle procurement for the Russian army. Now in the Armed Forces of the order of 10 thousand T-72 tanks and upgrade to the level of the T-90, according to the Russian military, costing a couple of times cheaper than buying new tanks. Disclaimer of purchases of T-90 was accompanied by a significant portion of the address criticism of Russian armored vehicles. "Those standards are tools that makes Russian industry, including ar
mored weaponry, artillery and small arms, its characteristics do not correspond to the specimen of NATO and even China," — said in March last year, Chief of Land Forces (now deputy chief of General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces) Alexander Postnikov , adding that 118 million rubles. instead of 1st T-90 "is easier to acquire three German" Leopard. "While in the first case may be, the general rights in some places, the 2nd — apparently got a little excited, as the new" Leopard "2 A7 is more $ 6 million (about 180 million rubles.).
"Leopard 2 A7, indeed, superior to Russian T-90 in the part of the controls fire and observation, as a massive munitions, which used depleted uranium" — says K.Sivkov. But according to a professional, in a massive Russian tank weapons, as against the 125-mm gun T-90 on the German "Leopard" is set cannon caliber 120 mm. Besides Russian tank is armed with 4 missiles, allowing hit targets at a distance of 5.5 km. "A reliable range of defeat" Leopard "standard ammunition — and others it does not have — is only 4 km. Approximately the same at an Israeli tank 'Merkava', the T-90 — only 3 km" — explains the expert.
That the Indian armed forces is fine, Russian — "Armata"
After the termination of the project financing of the T-95 and non-procurement of T-90 (including the last modified T-90A) for Russian tank builders suddenly began to dawn light at the end of the tunnel — the Ministry of Defence announced the development of a fundamentally new tank on the basis of a universal platform caterpillar " Armata ". The project was approved in March 2012. Its development has been UKBTM "Uralvagonzavod". Fundamentally the difference in the latest machine from the T-90 should be referred to as the carriage assembly — desert tower, in what may have will position ammunition. With all of this crew will be located in a housing bronekapsuly that on a theoretical level must be capable of getting out of all kinds of weapons of modern tanks. Information about the situation on the battlefield will receive tankers with thermal imaging, television and laser sensors on the display monitor. On the basis of track platform "Armata" is also scheduled to make the BMP-protected machine for rescue and other armored vehicles.
On the one hand, the need for new weapons is unconditional: the T-90, developed by KB Nizhny Tagil under Vladimir Potkin almost 20 years ago (which is actually the most profound modernization of T-72) will inevitably become obsolete. Russian Defense Ministry says it is reasonable that it is time to offer a fundamentally new competitive weapon. On the other, whether there is a tank on the basis of "Almaty was" specifically so only a tool or just a "lite" and cost-reduced version of the T-95 is not yet clear. In all this we must not forget that most of the modern tanks leading global powers (including the German "Leopard" and South American "Abrams") also developed in the 1970s and 1980 he., And their last modification — also up deep modernization. But all of these machines, as well as the latest model of the T-90A, an order of magnitude superior to the standards of 30 years ago.
In April 2012. Chief of General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces Nikolai Makarov announced yet another sad news for the Russian military-industrial complex: the purchase of armored vehicles shall be suspended for 5 years. Completely illogical against this background does not look so long to show in the media about the likely purchase a license for the establishment of the Russian Italian wheeled tanks Centauro (Centaur), which are already experiencing one of the ranges in the suburbs.
It seems that the generals of Defense rely on foreign standards weapons, while not only for the Army, and Air Force and Navy. Does this mean that the Israeli drones specifically, the French "Mistral" and Italian armored vehicles Iveco LMV M65 ("Lynx") and tanks "Centaur" and will make a striking force of the Russian army of the future? According to the deputy director of the Institute of Political and Military Analysis, Alexander Khramchikhin, purchases of foreign equipment MoD are "educational" nature. "Our homeland, indeed, is lagging behind in tank from the major powers. This motor power, and MSAs, and observations in our tanks — explains A.Hramchihin. — In-1's, we have lost a lot of technology in the post-Soviet period, and in-2, absolutely killed konkurentnst in this market in Russia. 'Cause now the military so makarom and try to make it. From this point of view is completely logical and purchase Italian wheeled tanks Centauro, we have cars such there is no class. "
What will make war?
There is also another aspect that explains the actions of the Russian military departments: the Tipo in the wars of the future is no place large tank units. The evolution of modern instruments: the general introduction of drones, mechanized combat systems, "smart" missiles — raises questions about the need for the introduction of tanks.
The debate about the place and role of the main battle tanks in modern armies lasts, first in the United States. "Previously, the United States planned for 2030. Generally abandon the use of armored units by clicking on the first combat brigade groups" Stryker ", and then — to the modern concept of the" Battle of the future ", — says Director Igor TSAMTO Korochenko. According to him, on the basis of that future U.S. military will increasingly have a temper, "expedition", a number of U.S. congressmen and military believe that eliminate the need for bolshennom amount of the heavy armored vehicles. Despite the fact that the tank M1A2 "Abrams" is one of the most modern types of weapons, preservation of their small production economically feasible, said the South American politics.
In general, there is another view. Thus, much of the military professionals closing lines for the production of MBT "Abrams" consider unprofitable, because the resumption of production (if necessary) will be 4 times more than the cost of its continuation. "Most likely, in this dispute will prevail particularly the latter view and modernization" Abrams "will continue. This provides at least the fact that in the summer of 2011. U.S. Army again requested $ 31 million for the modernization of the next batch of MBT" Abrams " — considers I.Korotchenko.
Russian experts statements about that in the near future, wars will be the "proximity", perceived with skepticism. Managing director of the Center for Military Forecasting Anatoly Tsyganok stresses that now tanks — the m
ain type of ground weapons in NATO countries and in China. In turn K.Sivkov notes that the need for the presence of tanks demonstrate military conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. "In Iraq, for example, the main group of U.S. troops were specifically tank units. Libya in the South American air force was also unable to suppress air defenses and ground operation was inevitable," — he says.
While waiting for the Ministry of Defense of a new tank, the Russian Army continues to modernize the T-72, and wage war on those significantly "tattered" machines. Thus, during the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict of 2008. specifically the T-72, and not upgraded T-90A, protected the interests of the Russian Federation in the firing line. The new tank on the basis of "Almaty was" made in the Russian army did not previously 2015. Of course, will take time, and in order to master the latest military vehicle. With all of this the Ministry of Defense plans to purchase only 2 thousand of these tanks, considering that this is quite enough to protect large expanses of Russia. In the end, the question of whether Russian soldiers wait for the newest modern armored vehicles to another military conflict with the role of the Russian Federation is still open.
According A.Tsygankov, Russia's role in the great war in the coming 5 years is unlikely, but local military conflicts entirely likely. This, for example, the so-called water wars in Central Asia and the likely confrontation in Nagorno-Karabakh. "It is not clear whether by Baku new claim to Nagorno-Karabakh. But if the situation escalates again in the hot phase, then our homeland, may not remain on the sidelines" — the expert concludes.