Russian plans for planetary exploration

The last two months passed in 2011 were marked by nasty events around the automatic interplanetary station (AWS) "Phobos-Grunt". Gallaktichesky promising device was the victim of problems accelerating device, so that was a low-Earth orbit, and later came down with it. January 15, 2012 failed "expedition" is over — the device burned up in the atmosphere. The first version of the reasons for troubles began to appear almost immediately after the machine did not get into the proper orbit. Thus far, not all guesses as contingency proposed by competent persons. Either way, the results of the analysis of disk imaging, collected during the start-up and in the following days are, it was found that the main culprit of the tragedy was electronics, unadapted for action in the criteria space.

Russia's plans for planetary exploration

Need to see misfortune pursued the project "Phobos-Grunt" from the beginning. The idea to send automatic station to a satellite of Mars in order to gather information and it will return to Earth samples of soil, appeared in 1996. At that time, with the launch of the device was planned for 2004 year. But by the middle of the two thousandth time and money by applets were seriously reconsidered. Because AWS Start "Phobos-Grunt" at first moved to 2009 and then for 2011. The forthcoming fate of the station is known to all.

As has become clear in the coming years can be started a new project, the objectives of which will be absolutely the same as the puzzles "Phobos-Grunt". But the matter is complicated and not fast. Because refreshed station, Curb modern devices, go to the Red Planet no earlier than 2020. According to the general director of NPO. Lavochkin B. Hartova such terms are caused by several factors at once. This funding, and the ability gallakticheskoy industry, and current plans. Namely, at the moment the priority is more cooperative project "Ekzomars", which is, together with the European Space Agency. Last, as the Hart Foundation, will be useful to research the latest programs from Phobos: for a flight to Mars requires some new solutions and technologies, and the project "Ekzomars" fully capable of becoming their "ancestor".

Despite the trouble with the applets "Phobos-Grunt", Roscosmos and related organizations continue to work and do on their own field some success. However, these achievements are recognized abroad. In May 2012 OAO "Russian gallakticheskie system" received a very exciting letter signed by the Director of the Royal Institute of Navigation English. In the letter, the company notified the RCC that the Council of the Institute has decided to award the team of employees who worked on the project GLONASS merit Baron Edinburgh for technical achievement for 2012 year. Engineers RCC received honorable prize "for the full deployment of the system in December 2011, and the provision of navigation and time services." July 11 was accomplished festive ceremony.

As we see, the troubles with the electronics or the criminal acts of some officials to "development" of money, in general, does not have a fatal impact on the operation gallakticheskoy industry. In the middle of other developed intensively immediately several space probes, which will go towards your goals in the coming years. The first of these projects is the Venusian Research probe, also recognized under the title of European Venus Explorer (European Venusian probe). Russia's role in this program is to provide the launch vehicle and associated equipment. In November 2013 Venusian probe will be launched into Earth orbit by the rocket "Soyuz-FG" and the upper stage "Fregat". Will start at the launch site in Kourou, French Guiana. The purpose of the flight Venusian research probe is to study the atmosphere of Venus, its composition, dynamics, etc.

Slightly later — in 2015 — to go another own goal gallaktichesky machine, now only Russian. With the help of the carrier rocket "Soyuz-2" in the Earth's orbit will be sent to apparatus "Intergeliozond." He went on to make a flight to Venus, where with the help of gravity maneuvers gathers enough for a flight to the Sun speed. On the automatic station will be installed set of equipment needed for the required measurements of different characteristics of the star. This X-ray telescope, spectrographs, magnetographs, particle analyzers and sensors, spectrometers, etc. With the help of the station "Intergeliozond" Russian Academy of Scientists rely gather information about the sun, the solar wind, the dynamics of matter inside the star, and more. During the research apparatus will remain in orbit diameter of about 40 solar radii. For operation in such complex criteria Russian scientists in the current process of developing a new heat shield.

In the same year, and "Intergeliozond 'own flight to the Moon will make a station of the" Luna-Glob ". First start the machine was made under this program there in the NPO. Lavochkin, planned for early 2012, but due to the accident with the AMC "Phobos-Grunt", he was moved to three years. While applets "Luna-Glob" will be carried out at least two starts gallakticheskih devices. First in 2015 to leave the Earth's natural satellite orbiter carrying the measurement, photo and video equipment. Its goal will be to survey the lunar surface and some exploration of the moon, which can be carried out without descending on it. Slightly later — in 2016 — rocket "Zenit-3" will send into space the second probe. This "party" of the project will not orbit and descent. Specifically lander "Luna-Glob" will collect basic information and send it back to Earth. In general, the tasks of the project "Luna-Glob" reminiscent of what we do Russian automatic station 60's and 70's. Since then, technology has gone far ahead and have the opportunity to renew our home study companion planet. This coming on the results of the descent of the probe "Luna-Glob" likely sending other AMC with another of the equipment and other tasks. The assembled apparatus "Luna-Glob" information will be useful in the preparation of the planned manned missions to the moon.

Of course, the orbiter "Luna-Glob" will collect information not only to provide a "landing" of his fellow descent. In 2017, Our homeland and India are planning to make another start-up co-op 2-lunar vehicles. With the launch site Sriharikota will be launched rocket GSLV-2 produced in India, on board of which will be in Russian station "Luna-Resource" and India's "Chandrayaan-2." On the approach to the moon station diverge: Russian goes to the landing, and the Indian remains in orbit. It is clear that the lander "Luna-Resource" will have a higher degree of commonality with the lowered "Luna-Glob". Russian station "Luna-Resource" will contact the research work and the remote polar regions of the moon. Namely, the object of the study will be the lunar soil, building the satellite and its interaction with the Earth. Orbiting the Indian module "Chandrayaan-2", in turn, will collect the information for which you want to be on a certain distance from the surface: the state and especially plasma and dust exosphere, the impact of solar radiation on the moon, etc.

Around the same time
, our homeland again begin independent research of Venus. On the years 2016-17 planned start of the probe "Venera-D." Dvenadtsatitonny gallaktichesky unit will consist of 3 parts, and output into space by the carrier rocket "Proton" or "Angara". Base research facility: automated orbital station. Its task — to orbit and create different measurement characteristics of the Venusian atmosphere. Right to work in orbit main unit will send the probe on the planet. The first of them will fall to a height of about 55-60 km from the surface of the planet, and the second will run under a layer of clouds, at an altitude of 45-50 km. The strengths of both probes should last for eight to ten days funktsionirovniya, after Wednesday's brutal atmosphere will bring them down. In the time available probes will collect information on the composition of the atmosphere in its different layers, the dynamics of moving streams, etc. It is also planned to include in the research complex lander. Because of the enormous pressure at the surface of the planet, its protection will only last for two or three hours of work and the trigger length of 30-60 minutes. At this point, the early stages of development research probes indicates that the use of more powerful launch vehicle may be the expansion of the complex. At first, it may be added one drifting atmospheric automatic station. In addition, those responsible for the development of equipment, they say that in the not to distant future may be to make such a system of protection of the environment through which the probes will be able to be drifting at an altitude of about 50 km in a month.

Orbital module of "Venus-D" will run until about the early 20's. Later, his replacement will come brand new automatic station. The "Venus-Globe" is forthcoming development of "Venus-D." Unlike more of early station, the orbital module "Venus-Globe" will be equipped with 4-6 landers capable of operating in the atmosphere and on the surface. The program "Venus-Glob" rises to the middle of the two-thousand years when scientists have studied the question of the RAS features of the long-lived plant. As a result of the mass of research was made a conclusion that the creation of the lander for long life on the surface of Venus, all the same can be. But with the current state of materials science and industry a similar machine will be very expensive. In addition, it is useful izderzhat much much effort on creating efficient cooling systems, or the development of electronics, so adapted to the harsh conditions, which are hidden under the Venusian atmosphere. Section of Sciences of the solar system hopes for the remaining years prior to the expected start to finish all the necessary research and make a long-term station, which for so long wanted to scientists around the world. It is noted that the programm "Venus-Globe" can be fully completed in cooperation with the Europeans. The fact is that at the end of the station Euopean Venus Explorer, ESA plans to commission AMC EVE-2. Russian Academy of cooperation and the Euro Space Agency may lead to the fact that instead of the 2-automatic stations to Venus fly only one, but it has a far greater scientific potential, if the initial projects of self-development.

The above-mentioned projects of space probes have already reached the stage of proposals are the subject of design work. Almost all of them except the "Venus-Globe" are also part of the Federal gallakticheskoy programs from 2006-2015. If you gaze at the pace of putting forward proposals, project development, launch and plans for the future, could not help get the idea of the need for the Federal applets. In any case, even the mere re-creation of the GLONASS constellation obviously alludes to the gradual recovery of the Russian power industry gallakticheskoy. In the future, it will give a good pace of development of the various fronts, including the automatic interplanetary stations. But there is not going smoothly. Remembering the "Phobos-Grunt", it should be noted the need to control every step of the design, build and operate. Gallakticheskaya technique has a very nasty twist: even a small saving on the quality of a component can cause immeasurable loss. Specifically for such reason was lost unfortunate "Phobos-Grunt". Really do not hunt to the next automatic stations did not fly to other planets, and fell on his home.

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