Director General of Lavochkin NPO named Victor Hart: "We must respect ourselves and if the goal was to deliver Phobos ground — it should achieve"
- Of "Electro-L" produced by NPO. Lavochkin
In 2013, the NGO named Lavochkin present a coherent strategy of lunar exploration with automated scientific stations, will begin work on the landing vehicle for the mission "EkzoMars" 2018. What kind of mission to the moon is planned for the next decade, the preparation for the project "EkzoMars," as is the case with the manufacture of spacecraft series "Spectrum" and how to assess the work in orbit telescope "Spektr-R" to "Interfax-AVN," said the Director General of Victor Hart.
— Viktor Vladimirovich, how sad experience "Phobos-Grunt" will affect the plans of studying the solar system by spacecraft? What scientific instruments had to withdraw from the lander AMC "Luna-Glob" to increase the probability of a successful landing on the moon?
— The sad experience of "Phobos-Grunt" is a prime example of the consequences of implementation of a particular project without fitting into a coherent strategy: get the flying experience, increasing complexity, and so on. In other words, affected a break in a quarter century. Judge for yourself: our last successful interplanetary mission was in 1984-1986. This is the Soviet automatic station "Vega-1" and "Vega-2", which reached Venus, dropped her balloons and landing station, and then migrating modules made gravitational maneuvers and flew to Halley's Comet passing near its core. It was a very beautiful project, and it has been fully implemented. Since then, we have not had a successful interplanetary missions. Yes, there were flights of two stations "Phobos" in 1988-1989, and this project is not entirely a failure. One of the vehicles made sufficiently close flyby of Phobos, spent photographing and refinement of its mass. But then connected to the station ceased.
And the "Phobos-Grunt" was not successful jump through a long pause. And he was in the course of the flight was to break in a number of technical solutions. But we are so overloaded his technical risks that it could not complete its task. Now, with the filing of the Space Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Space Agency decision: to go in sequence, step-by-step, and increase complexity. And the first flight of the lander "Luna-Glob" in 2015 will be a demonstration or, in other words, the technological. In it, we have to work out technical solutions, which later will be used for the entire range of lunar missions.
Lander scheduled to launch carrier rocket "Soyuz-2" with the upper stage "Fregat" from the Baikonur East.
In answer to your second question, I will say that we are not talking about what we need to remove some scientific equipment. First of all, we need to solve the technological problem landing on the moon, and then later fill the science space remaining on the lander. Although, really, the resources under the scientific equipment on the demonstrator obtained is not very significant. It should be said that the demonstrator will be smaller in size, with fewer engines. In other words, it is a smaller version of the lander to test the principle of lunar landing.
The decision to use the lander with a lightweight platform and reduced payload to provide added design solutions to ensure a soft landing technology and working on the lunar surface approved by the Board on Space Sciences. What kind of scientific instruments will fly — will be determined as part of work on the additions to the conceptual design, planned to be launched in 2013.
If we talk about the lander "Luna-Resource", which will fly in 2017, it will be a full and from the point of view of art, and from the point of view of science. By the way, in addition to the scientific instruments on it will be for us to stand a new drilling rig. From a depth of one to two meters, it will have to take samples of ice found in the polar regions of the moon. This is the main objective of the lunar mission in 2017. Drilling machine gets to the ice and put it in a special container for further study of scientific instruments.
In 2016 we are going to launch the orbiter "Luna-Glob", which will be a lot of scientific instruments. In previous versions of the orbital and lunar program landers "Luna-Glob" were displayed together on the same booster. Now, given the large number of scientific objectives and an adequate supply of fuel for maneuvering in orbit around the moon, the orbiter will have to run separately. But it will be a full lunar station that will last for many years, changing the height of your flight. One of the most interesting scientific experiments will check the secondary Cerenkov radiation produced by absorption of a very rare, but very interesting high-energy particles Moon. That is a natural satellite of the Earth will be a detector or sensor.
In addition, we are considering the possibility that the orbiter "Luna-Glob" has become the relay satellite for communication between the Earth and the lander. For new hard landers share. They have to get in the polar regions of the moon in places with the probability of finding the ice and still need to comply with three additional principles: the place of landing to be fairly even, illuminated by the sun and have a reliable radio visibility from Earth. So it is important in case of problems in direct radio contact with Earth, that we have a safety net in the form of a relay in orbit around the moon.
— How do you feel about the fact that the first in many years, Russian spacecraft to the moon is planned to start during the first launch of Russian rocket from the Baikonur East? After all, it can affect the success of the mission.
— Launching of the lunar mission from the Baikonur East can only be achieved after the completion of all construction work on the preparation of technical and launch complexes. You also need to bear in mind that for spacecraft "Luna-Glob" is expected to use the well-established carrier rocket "Soyuz" and the upper stage "Fregat". All the necessary infrastructure to run them now available on the Baikonur and Plesetsk space center, but the ability to deploy such systems in the shortest possible time in remote areas has been confirmed during the construction and start-technical complexes for the rocket "Soyuz" launch site at Kourou in South America.
— What is the primary task of putting scientists in lunar missions? How is the preparation of the material?
— The overall objective of our lunar missions is to deliver lunar ice on Earth. Moreover, it is necessary to bring it in the same condition as when it is on the moon. No water ice and ice is frozen. For the Academy of Sciences is of great interest because it will let you know the origin of the ice. Scientists are very interested in this stuff, all they care about — and the chemical composition and internal structure. Bring the ice on Earth is expected in about 2019 — is the period for which we focus. A task is not easy as cryogenic delivery of ice from the moon.
By the way, the totality of all of our lunar missions will be described in detail in the conceptual design
. In 2013, we plan to prepare and protect it. This document will be a serious irrevocably pegged all the technical nuances. We have already seen that such programs should be comprehensive, so preliminary design will also be integrated.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that preparations for the project "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource" has been underway for several years. Strictly speaking, it will be released addition to the preliminary design, which will bring in new ideas, taking into account the experience of "Phobos-Grunt" and the development of technology. So you can not say that we are now starting to do the work from scratch. This is not the case. There are a number of backlogs on engines, tanks and structures. We reserve this upgrade.
— In connection with the division of projects, "Luna-Grunt" and "Luna-Resource" on separate missions, there is a desire to give them new names?
— The names of the programs "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource" old left. But for internal use, we are inclined to say, to go to the Soviet system of notation. For example, the last Soviet lunar mission called "Luna-24". Why not continue on? "Luna-25", "Luna-26" and so on. In addition, it is important to remember that there is a connection times. Since we were 24, "Luna," we do not have to start numbering at zero. The story continues.
If we talk about the names of the "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource", they do not fully reflect the destination devices. But that is how they were approved in the Federal space program, so it is very difficult to change the name.
In general, it is possible that each unit should have three names. First — in public documents, in accordance with which the funding. Second — within the firm, for a clear understanding of the technical details. The third — the name that is selected in the national competitions, as the name selected units in the West. For example, Americans have chosen the name of the rover Curiosity. Girl, won the competition and during the landing apparatus on Mars, she was awarded a commemorative gift. Thus, NASA draws public attention to the project by any means. We have to learn to do the same. So do not rule out that Roscosmos will also announce a competition for the name of the lunar stations.
— The project "Luna-Resource" was planned to realize jointly with India. Has anything changed recently?
— We sent several requests to the Indian side that we have changed the concept of the lunar program, but the response from them has been received. That's when they will be of some kind of response to our proposals, then our cooperation will continue.
— When you talk with scientists and representatives of the Russian Space Agency to communicate about what we do on the Moon, besides finding water, they mention about the installation of telescopes for observing the universe, which will not interfere with the Earth's atmosphere. Do you have any study of business in this area?
— The plans to install on the back side of the moon telescopes there, and we also consider them extremely relevant. After all, if the moon will be a wonderful screen of all radio noise coming from the Earth.
But the implementation of such projects should move gradually. For example, after 2019 we are going to deliver to the moon is large enough moon rover, which will search and extract specific soil samples. And not only where prilunilsya, but where it will be most interesting to scientists. Then sit next to the Lunokhod machine that will take the accumulated samples and pass them to the re-entry vehicle to be sent to Earth. And this is also part of the way towards the telescopes on the moon, such as the little steps we develop competence in terms of delivery to the moon and back with her. And for such a scheme has been a reliable transport and relatively cheap to do typical delivery vehicles and mass.
Of course, at the head of all should be the goal. Any means of flight and landing on the moon, once we learn how to fly and land, will be the means of the target, and require a new goal.
Why do we fly to the moon? Why do we sit on it? The first range of tasks more or less clear: to study the polar ice. The second — too clear: to thoroughly understand the conditions on the lunar surface, to collect data, including seismic methods, the internal structure. The latter part of the big show interest Vernadsky Institute experts who want to put seismic sensors on the lunar surface, and on the opposite poles. Then it will be clearer, as arranged by the lunar core. The third circle of problems — the use of the Moon for the benefit of mankind? These are the same telescopes. Moon base — this is not a goal but a means. At one time, was the goal — to extract helium-3. But it is hard to imagine processors, which will be to shovel the top layer of the lunar soil to a greater depth, because there should be processed square kilometers of the surface to gain a significant amount of helium-3! Besides reactors helium-3 unavailable. There is not even simpler using nuclear fusion.
After all, the Soviet Union and the United States hastened to declare in 1970 that the Moon is studied. The Americans were like on the surface and collected approximately 300 pounds of ground, with the help of robots — about 300 grams. But from the point of view of science no difference between them whatsoever. And now scientists have accumulated a lot of new issues on the moon.
— Does the NPO. Lavochkin issues planetary defense against asteroids?
— Is an NGO im.Lavochkina develops spacecraft, designed to study small cosmic bodies — asteroids, comets that could threaten Earth. These studies are being conducted in collaboration with the Russian Academy of Sciences. Thus, our experts have developed conceptual design of the device, which is to sit on the surface of the asteroid and set the beacon on it. With this "tag" from the Earth to observe the asteroid more accurately calculate the trajectory of its flight. The project was created around the same decisions that will be used for missions to the Moon, Mars and other expeditions. Evaluation research problems we have done on its own initiative. You can begin to address this issue more vigorously, if the project will be written in the space program.
— Organized whether funding and began to work on the participation of NGOs in the project im.Lavochkina "EkzoMars"?
— Our first contacts with European experts on the project began in the summer of last year, when our company was designated as the lead developer on the project with the Russian side. It's been eight workshops, countless video conferencing. The work goes, my colleagues and I rubbed. But our work is not yet firm has moved into a formal course. We do not have signed contracts. While there is a pre-contract work, when we are for your own account and find the points of cooperation with the Europeans. Conclude a contract with us after an agreement is signed between the Russian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. Signing the document heads of the two agencies is scheduled for mid-March.
The project NPO. Lavochkin tasked with creating a lander mission for 2018, which will bring to the surface of Mars European "rover". We already have a diagram of the flight and landing of the interplanetary station, the division of functions between the Russian and foreign participants. In im.Lavochkina NGOs set up a special project team, which deals with these works in anticipation of a contract.
— How do you assess the work of the Russian orbital observatory "Spektr-R"?
— During the work of the Observatory conducted scientific observations of 60 ex
tragalactic sources in 10 regions of star formation in our galaxy, 10 neutron stars.
His observations "Spektr-R" holds in conjunction with ground-based radio telescopes, allowing you to create a "virtual" telescope the size of the orbit of the device, ie about 300 thousand kilometers. The orbit of the telescope itself is evolving due to the gravitational field of the moon, allows you to scan various parts of the galaxy. The resolution of the project "Radioastron" through the use of orbital observatory together with ground stations, a thousand times higher than that of the telescope "Hubble", but beautiful images, which is a U.S. satellite, the public show does not work, because "Spektr-R" operates in radio spectrum.
In its work the project uses the principle of interferometry, ie at one time makes measurements from different points (orbital and ground-based telescopes). Then begins the process of processing on supercomputers when they begin to reduce the data. With "Spektr-R" scientists have received the information about the internal structure of objects to which many billions of light years away. At present the treatment of scientific information and preparation of articles in scientific journals by scientists Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Russia jointly with scientists overseas radio observatories participating in this project. But to say that is already open entirely new phenomenon, "wormholes", has become a well-known nature of "dark matter", it is too early.
The main thing is that all of the world scientific community turned its face to the project. Russia is back in the circle of countries with powerful space instruments. Hours "Spektr-R" painted a very tough sessions are held constant. To receive data from the device not only receiving station in Pushchino, Russia is now receiving equipment is installed in the Washington area. Commissioning of the plant enhances the efficiency of the observatory by increasing the observation time and the possibility of transmission of scientific information.
No complaints from customers or operating restrictions "Spektr-R" for no purpose.
— What is the state of affairs of the Space Telescope "Spektr-RG"? When will it start? Is there a gap in terms of payload — telescopes ART-XC and eROSITA? Where it is planned to work out the X-band radio link for communication with the "Spektr-RG"?
— As you know, the spacecraft will have two radio telescope — one German, one Russian, who will carry out fundamental space research universe in the X-ray range of the electromagnetic spectrum. After insertion of the spacecraft into the working orbit in the vicinity of the libration point L2 Sun-Earth for four years, "Spektr-RG" will undertake a review of the entire sky in the scan mode, and then another three and a half years — detailed studies of selected areas of the sky.
Germany makes the telescope eROSITA for their own money. Most of the components for the assembly of the flight model telescope is made. Work is in progress on the assembly and calibration of mirrors and mirror systems. In November this year, we should get from our German partners the telescope, and then take his integration with the device.
The telescope ART-XC developed Institute for Space Research and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, and with the assistance of the Centre Marshall (USA). In the nuclear center started making flight model telescope, and in the Marshall Center is the production of mirrors. Complete assembly of the telescope is scheduled for ICI in December of this year.
The device is expected to launch in 2014.
As part of the creation of the satellite platform delays not, because there is a high standardization among all newly created "spectrum." The main problem so far is incomplete readiness of the scientific workload. When creating a telescope having difficulty with UV detector.
High-speed radio link, which was developed by the company "Russian Space Systems", remains a key issue in terms of the reliability of the mission. We are forced to use X-band radio link to "Spektr-RG" without testing because of its work in the project "Phobos-Grunt", for obvious reasons, was not possible.
To reduce the risk, we set up an expert group, which included the German and Russian experts. The group will conduct periodic audits to monitor the quality of manufacturing equipment, to participate in its working out. We must not forget that the equipment must work steadily at L2, which is located at a distance of one and a half million kilometers from Earth.
— Tell us about the project "Millimetron"?
— Within the framework of the project "Millimetron" creates space observatory "Spectrum-M" for studies of astronomical objects with ultra-high sensitivity in the millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The unit will provide an opportunity to obtain unique information on the global structure of the universe, about the structure and evolution of galaxies, their cores of stars and planetary systems, as well as organic compounds in space, objects with superstrong gravitational and electromagnetic fields
The technical complexity of the project lies in the fact that its antenna must be very cold and have a temperature of -269 degrees Celsius, four degrees warmer than absolute zero (-273 degrees). Such a low temperature is very difficult to maintain, while nearby is a "warm" spacecraft. Now in this project are the calculations performed detailing all sorts of technical solutions. Critical to the performance start date is the decision of the whole complex of difficult problems of creating space scientific instruments.
— How many boosters "Frigate" NPO. Lavochkin plans to launch in 2013?
— We are ready to do every year, and let about 12 "frigates". A certain number of units already produced and are in storage, waiting to be willing companions. In 2013 it is planned to start in ten space rockets with boosters "Frigate".
— How do you assess the work of the satellite "Electro-L", which works as intended for two years? When is the launch of geostationary meteorological satellite "Electro-L" № 2 and number 3? What are the comments received on the flight of the first "Electro-L"? When will the design of a new generation of weather satellites "Electro-M"?
— The machine is very good. Customer — Rosgidromettsentr very pleased with the way it performs the function of collecting meteorological data and their transmission. Spacecraft entered into the system receives signals from the emergency floats "Cospas-Sarsat." In visible light coming from the unit is very beautiful and meaningful pictures. In America, even the discussion was conducted in the press, why our satellite imagery spectacular than the vehicles NASA. But we must remember that "Eletkro-L" — is the meteorological apparatus of a new generation, the first in many years. The customer has certain claims to the quality of the images in the infrared spectrum. We hope that the experience of "Electro-L" will allow us to fix the scanner at the following offices of the series and completely get rid of the claims. Upgraded scanner we should get from the company "Russian Space Systems" in May. If we get in time, the launch of the second unit will be held at the end of 2013.
— When possible launch of Sputnik?
— In 2015.
— NPO. Lavochkin performs work in the "Arctic". When planning to launch weather satellite "Arktika-M"? How many of them should be made?
— The "Arctic" is very important for us. In its framework for high-elliptical orbit two satellites will be launched, and the third will be set up as a backup. The first machine should be ready for launch in 2015. The devices must be good to "see" the processes that take place over the northern cap of the Earth. It is there where the so-called "kitchen weather", and we live there.
To project a great interest is shown by almost all Western and Northern countries. In particular, recently held a meeting with the representatives of Finland.
— How are things going with the project "Intergeliozond"?
— The project "Intergeliozond" protected conceptual design. We look forward to the continuation of the contest. Prior to 2015, will be devoted mainly to the scientific aspects and critical technologies (such as a heat shield, cooled by solar panels). The exact dates of the flight will be determined in a new version of the Federal Space Program.
— When do you plan to begin work on the next attempt to deliver the soil from Phobos?
— After the consistent building of lunar projects will add to our confidence, we apply this experience in flying to Mars. In particular, the apparatus of the landing stage of "EkzoMars". After that, we will be ready to make a return mission to Phobos. The urgency of this task will not leave.
I think we should respect themselves and if the goal was set — it should achieve.