Supervolcanoes — the most destructive force on the planet. Power of their eruptions thousands of times more than ordinary volcanoes. While they were asleep for hundreds of thousands of years, the magma is trapped in huge tanks inside their mouths. But once she poured on the surface of the earth with apocalyptic force, capable of destroying entire continents. + (Wiki Info)
Such sleeping "monsters" in the world just a few. The last eruption was in tremendous Tobe in Sumatra 75,000 years ago. This eruption changed life on Earth. Thousands of cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, and the sun could not penetrate its thickness. There has been a decrease in global temperature by 21 degrees. Within a radius of two and a half thousand miles from the volcano ash layer thickness of 35 inches covered the ground surface. A huge amount of water vapor and toxic gases condense in the giant volcano clouds spilled acid black rain. Earth's population has decreased by ten times. At the same time reduced the number of animals, many species have become extinct. Three quarters of the flora of the northern hemisphere were killed. What these supervolcanoes? Normal volcanoes are known to have the form of a cone Supervolcanoes are huge hollow or decrease in the ground, called calderas. When an ordinary volcano erupts, the lava gradually climbs up on the mouth of the crater at the top of the mountain and flows down. In supervolcanoes when magma is close to the Earth's surface, it does not reach her, and instead begins to fill the huge underground reservoirs. Magma melts the bedrock and becomes thicker and thicker so that the volcanic gases that cause the eruption of volcanoes in the ordinary, can not pass through it. Therefore, a huge amount of molten magma pushes from below the earth's surface. This goes on for hundreds of thousands of years as long as there is no eruption of a monstrous force that blows land. There is a new caldera.
The main difference supervolcanoes — their immense size and power of the eruption, is ten thousand times more than the normal force of the eruption of volcanoes. So far, the Sumatra visible caldera left over from the last supervolcano eruption. While not all found the giant volcanoes that exist on Earth. One of the largest is in Yellowstone Park in the USA. At first, scientists could not detect this caldera because of its huge size, it is only visible in photographs taken from space. The entire park area of 3825 square kilometers and is the caldera. Under the park is a giant reservoir of magma. The scientists set out to calculate the date of the next supervolcano eruption. They found that the land in Yellowstone Park has risen by 74 centimeters compared to the level of 1923. This proves the existence of swellable array beneath the surface of the park. Currently, the underground reservoir is filled volcanic magma at an alarming rate. Scientists have calculated that between supervolcano explosion is about 600 thousand years. The last eruption of this monster was 640,000 years ago. So, apparently, we are on the threshold of the next disaster.
It all began with joy. In 2002, Yellowstone Park both scored some new geysers with healing hot water. Local travel company immediately hyped advertising of this phenomenon, the number of visitors to the park (and usually is about 3 million people a year) increased even more. However, it soon became strange things happen. In 2004, the U.S. government to tighten visit the reserve, and some areas were generally closed to the public. But there frequent scientists, seismologists and volcanologists. They seriously concerned about in 2007. in the Office of the President of the United States, a special Research Council, endowed with extraordinary powers. And the thing is, that the ancient supervolcano suddenly began to show signs of activity.
To seismologists connected mathematics. Based on the data of the previous eruptions of the volcano, they have developed an algorithm of his life, and came to a disappointing conclusion. Geological Society of America just waiting for the eruption in 20 thousand years. Based on the new data, the computer produces the following result — 2075. Odanko after a while found out that things are moving even faster. The result had to be adjusted — 2012-2016 year. The first digit appears more likely. One would think — think, eruption, which is already known in advance. Well evacuate people from dangerous areas, well, then restore all destroyed. Alas, can reason, only those who are not familiar with supervolcanoes.
What will happen with the Earth, and especially this region during the supervolcano eruption?
They start with the earthquake. Land in the park is rapidly rising, while the earthquake did not crack the rock layer that holds the magma inside. Tremendous pressure builds up over 640,000 years, will break through and magma is ejected into the atmosphere at a height of fifty miles. Within a radius of a thousand kilometers virtually all life would perish under the falling ash and lava. Volcanic ash thick cover even such remote areas of the park Ielloustounskogo as Iowa and the Gulf of Mexico. Thousands of cubic kilometers of lava will pour out of the volcano. This amount is sufficient to cover the entire surface of the layer in the U.S. fifteen centimeters. Eruption will be effective in 2500 times greater than the force of the last eruption of Mount Etna.
Long-term effects caused by the eruption of supervolcano, will be even more significant for the entire planet. Thousands of cubic kilometers of ash ejected into the atmosphere, will close the sunlight, causing a sharp decrease in global temperature. Comes something resembling a "nuclear winter" (volcanic winter Wiki info). Just as after the explosion on Sumatra, a large number of animals and plants will die because of falling ash and lower the temperature. Almost all of the grain crop, grown on the Great Plains, will disappear in a few hours, as they will be covered with ash. The strongest test will occur in North America, but every corner of the globe will suffer from lower temperature and acid rain. Everywhere in the world people will experience food shortages. If the temperature drops to 21 degrees, as in the last supervolcano eruption in both hemispheres of the ice cover large areas, which will become unsuitable for living. We can say that the effect of the supervolcano eruption will largely similar to the effects of a nuclear war.
1. A few days before the explosion, the crust "vzbuhnet", that is to rise by several meters. In this case, the soil is heated to 60-70 ° C. In the atmosphere, would dramatically increase the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and helium. All this will signal the beginning of a mass evacuation of the population. The explosion will be accompanied by a powerful earthquake that will be felt in all parts of the planet. Toss chunks of rock to a height of 100 km. Falling, they will lay a huge territory — several thousand square kilometers. After the explosion caldera will erupt lava flows. The flow rates will be several hundred kilometers per hour. In the first minutes after the start of the disaster will destroy all living within 700 km and almost all — within a radius of 1200 km. And people will die mostly not because of ash cover everything or lava flood, but because of suffocation and poisoning by hydrogen sulfide. Eruption will continue for several days. During this time, the streets of San Francisco, Los Angeles and other cities of the United States of America will be littered with five-foot "drifts" of volcanic ash (this substance is not nothing but a grind to dust our single pumice). All the U.S. West Coast to become one huge dead zone.
2. Earthquake will trigger an eruption of ten, and possibly hundreds of ordinary volcanoes all over the world, who would follow in three to four hours after the Yellowstone catastrophe. Determine which volcanoes with jerked it is not possible, so it may be that the human cost of these "minor" volcanic eruption exceed losses from the "main", which we'll be ready. Oceanic volcanic eruption spawned many tsunamis that wipe out from the face of the earth all the Pacific and Atlantic coastal city.
The next day the whole continent will pour acid rain, which destroyed much of the vegetation. The ozone hole over the continent to grow to such a size that all escaped death from the volcano, ash and acid fall victim to solar radiation.
In fact, to cross the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, clouds of ash and ash would need two or three weeks, and a month later they will close the Sun on Earth. Ash falls will be held throughout the world, and their intensity will be such that the day would be impossible to see objects at a distance of 20 — 30 cm from the eye. Atmospheric temperature will drop by an average of 21 ° C. Nordic countries such as Finland and Sweden, will simply cease to exist. Massive earthquake and cold snap will bring down most of the pipelines, railways, and power lines. Life stops.
Final. Suffer the most populous and the most dependent on agriculture for India and China. Here of hunger in the coming months will be lost up to 1.5 billion people. In all, the disaster will be destroyed more than 2 billion people (or one in three of the Earth). Least of all would be subject to destruction seismically stable and are in the interior of the continent and East Siberian part of Russia. Duration of the "nuclear winter" will be four years.