We all live in a world of Tesla, in the world of his AC creating this current generators and motors spinning away. Having laid a technical foundation of modern civilization, the inventor did not go without recognition grateful humanity: it is named after a unit of magnetic induction — Tesla. And to have "their" unit — this is much steeper than the Nobel Prize, which Tesla has not received due to a misunderstanding. But Nikola Tesla not only recognized the genius of electrical engineering, but a man who owned a virtuoso that in modern language is called self-PR. And the myths generated by himself or others, are alive to this day.
The leader of the second revolution
By the way, we agree from the outset that Nikola Tesla — not a scientist, but a great, even brilliant inventor, including because the fundamental laws of physics from the "electricity" is not opened it, and Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz, ohms and more a number of names of scientists. But practically apply these laws, sometimes unaware of their existence, have just Tesla, and in the incredible scope and remarkably efficient.
Tesla was born in 1856, he has always emphasized on the night of the full moon (already gives mysticism!) In a place in the family Smilyan Serbian Orthodox priest. But not in Serbia, and in the Croatian part of the then Austro-Hungarian Empire.
That is why he is considered its Serbs — by blood, Croats — place of birth, Hungary — the first citizenship and even the Czechs — their home is also part of Austria-Hungary, and Charles University in Prague, he studied. However, only a year, and no other entity genius of electricity did not get. From 1884 until his death in 1943, that is, for almost 60 years, he lived in America, where he made and sold all of its major claims. So Tesla still the great American inventor, even Slavic origin. Add to the joy of the mystics that Tesla was left-handed and left-handed people are seven times less than the right-handers.
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This happened in 1882, while the Tesla in Budapest state telephone company — in any case, he always said, even though his patents to the rotating magnetic field and electric motors that use this effect were published only in 1888, when the inventor for several years lived in America and worked for Edison. Tesla initially seemed a perfect match for the famous inventor, but it soon became clear that Edison got quite recalcitrant employee. First, he tried to convince Edison advantages of alternating electric current to a constant, which only deals with the boss.
The fact that Tesla invented the generator to produce electric current — device "reverse" the motor — it produces alternating current, which is also easy to transfer over long distances. However, at the time of such a generator "in the metal" did not exist, and Edison is already fully invested money and intellectual resource to DC. Failing to find a common language with the owner, Tesla left Edison and set up his own company — a dashing move for recent immigrants.
However, he was a bad businessman and the same in 1888 sold the remnants of capitalist sharks Westinghouse and took him to the same service. And then burst into the famous "War of electric currents" between Edison and Tesla, which won, as you know, is an immigrant. And if the reader, in whatever place and in whatever part of the world he may be, will look back on the sides, then the desire to find that the lighting, and all electrical work around it on AC. We emphasize again — Tesla discovered alternating current, but that it took place on the basis of this current is the second industrial revolution. We call it the power, in contrast to the first, which can be characterized as a steam room.
Also specified that DC is not thrown to the "dustbin of history." On the contrary, there are areas of human life and activity where it is indispensable. First of all, power sources for mobile and portable devices, which include submarines and hundreds of millions of cars, flashlights and other lights that do not require a network connection. And all electronic circuits using direct current, however, obtained after conversion to a common variable in the network. But in any case, AC — almost absolute king of electrical engineering, and a constant — so, no more than the nominal head of state, like the Queen of England, which, though reigns, but ruled only by his servants and dogs. The same car battery charging (via the rectifier) alternating current.
Finally we come to the main invention Tesla. Even in the 60 years before him, Dominique Arago discovered the "magnetism of rotation." He put on a copper disc rotating magnet and found that the drive magnet and also keen to rotate. It seemed, as it should be, but the disc is copper, and copper is nonmagnetic!
This phenomenon — electromagnetic induction — explained Michael Faraday and Tesla thought of replacing permanent magnet that Arago, even though academic, personally just flailing arm, rotating magnetic field, and the copper disk — a permanent magnet (rotor motor).
The latter is not a problem, but how to make the magnetic field rotate? Tesla invented to apply for winding the stator magnetic poles two alternating current, which differ from one another only by a phase shift. The alternation of these currents will cause the formation of alternating north and south magnetic poles, which, in fact, corresponds to the rotation of the magnetic field. This field should make then rotate the rotor.
Could only build a two-phase power supply (two-phase generator) and a two-phase motor that Tesla soon did, choosing as the phase shift of 90 degrees. At that time he did not think a shift of 120 degrees, and only later came up with three-phase generators and motors, but a bit late, and three-phase motor before it developed our compatriot Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. By the way, are not really "our": working and inventing Michael Osipovich in Germany.
Not much better at Tesla happened to the priority to self rotation of the magnetic field: in just a few months before the publication of his patents Italian Ferraris made a demonstration of the electric motor, for its operation, such a rotation. But Dolivo-Dobrovolsky always emphasized the secondary of his invention to the idea of Tesla's inventions and the date is the date of filing of the application in the Patent Office, which Tesla filed a year before the lecture Ferraris. So now is the priority of the American Serb is not questioned, but in any article of the rotating magnetic field (at least in our BSE) must be mentioned and Galileo Ferraris. But the priority of priorities, but the fact that the first grand hydroelectric power plant in America in the Niagara River was equipped with Tesla's alternating current generators, undeniably, is the best proof of the technical genius of Tesla.
The next great invention, although it is not open again, was the use of different objects glow in the high electric field. The very phenomenon has been known since the end of the XVIII century, but Tesla has put it "on stream" and in 1891 exhibited a bright glow bulbs and tubes, of which the air is pumped out, the field produced by a Tesla transformer. Perhaps the first he described the glow of biological objects in the high-frequency field, and one of these objects was himself!
Subsequently, the effect you used our compatriots Kirlians who were seriously believe — and this is still a lot of esoteric reasons that found aura emitted only live objects. This is nonsense, but Tesla is not to blame for the spread of this nonsense.
Next Tesla independently discovered radio, and he came up with an antenna mast certainly earlier than others. Although the most revolutionary breakthrough in the history of radio — signal transmission from Europe to America — implemented yet Marconi. Tesla took the alarm, but, considering that in a mile hump of water between Europe and the U.S. (due to the curvature of the Earth) radio waves can not pass, he decided: it signals the Martians.
Nothing can be done, Tesla is what it was. Our great chemist Butlerov, by the way, was fond of table-turning, and sincerely believed in ghosts. But the radio controlled boats and submarines exactly invented, designed, patented and demonstrated Tesla. And even offered to use them to sabotage the sea! It is possible that he was the first to invent and mechanical oscillators — generator of mechanical vibrations of ultrasonic frequency.
And in this place you can go to the story about the myths and legends associated with the personality of the great inventor and his inventions. More than a detail in hundreds of articles and dozens of books on Tesla retold the story of how he once set the generator on a beam in his laboratory on Broadway, turned and caused the destruction of the premises due to resonance with the natural vibrations of the building. Moreover, he even claimed that by using a small generator he could easily bring down the Brooklyn Bridge and split the earth, once in resonance with the natural oscillations of the earth's crust. Alas, the inventor of an incomplete higher knew nothing about power fluctuations, nor about their so-called quality factor, nor about the fact that the Earth is not one natural period, and set a range. Of course, nothing Tesla broke and could not break, and the whole story was invented by him and decked tabloids.
Most legendary inventor design became the so-called Tower Uordenklif place on Long Island, now a suburb of New York. Tesla built it with money other sharks of capitalism JP Morgan, who was fond of yachting, loved to watch regattas in the Atlantic Ocean and wanted to receive information on the event on the radio. It is to send and receive radio signals intended ordered Tesla radio mast. To which he received huge money at that time — 100 thousand dollars, which corresponds to approximately two million today, although conventional antenna could be built and cheaper.
But Tesla has made quite impossible for an American contractor act and began to build a radio tower is not so much as a tower. And it put a wireless transmitter power across the globe, for free and with no losses. For some reason he thought that electricity is in the bowels of the planet, and has only to push as electricity explode in the right spot. In this case, Morgan changed anything about the plans has not been told, and when the billionaire made aware, then got mad and cut off funding. A couple of times the tower still work, but just as a source of electrical discharges, and then in 1903 it was mothballed and the contents written off debts. In 1917, the building was demolished altogether because of fears that he had had something to give to the German U-boats — there was a world war.
Tesla is credited with organizing even the famous Tunguska catastrophe. Like, he and his tower shot to test his theories of electricity in some lonely place deliberately, to Siberia, to the area of Stony Tunguska River. In another version, a powerful explosion and Tesla mnogosutochnym airglow, which, by the way, there were even in Western Europe, was going to light up the sky, Robert Peary, sneaks into the darkness of the Arctic to the North Pole. Here we recall that the fall of the Tunguska body was June 30, 1908, and Robert Peary went camping on the pole 20 February 1909. Nikola Tesla himself at this time sadly not available to him hanging around the tower, locked with a large padlock still five years before the anthrax disaster.
In general the whole creative life of the great inventor divided evenly into two periods, the mystical way almost all of its original invention Tesla did in the first forty-four years, and to fool the public and engage in self-PR, he continued until his death the following forty-three years of long life. Mystically this metamorphosis Tesla coincided with the transition from the XIX century to century XX and occurred around 1900. As a warm-up Tesla "invented" death rays, and not even the rays, and the flow of tiny metal particles, accelerated to a desperate speed. The idea is not without wit, but, of course, is not realizable. Already at the end of life, at the age of 84 years, the inventor scare journalists his new invention: he promised to send to the thin ionosphere, but terribly powerful beam of certain particles or waves that this will heat the ionosphere so that it is under burn up her opponent.
Tesla is credited with the authorship of so-called "Philadelphia Experiment." Allegedly, in 1943 ingenious installation destroyer "Eldridge" created such electromagnetic fields, the ship became invisible. Then for some reason he instantly moved together with the whole team for a couple of hundred kilometers. Long ago, proved that no experiment was not, and in general all this up a semi-literate sailor who saw the ship wrapped with copper wire (for degaussing body not to explode a magnetic mine.)
The last myth — the fate of Tesla's papers after his death. Supposedly they were not confiscated FBI, not the CIA (created, however, four years after the death of the inventor) to hide from the spies ingenious invention. Actually involved specialists have not found anything interesting in the documents or of interest to a potential enemy, and eventually the entire archive was transferred to the inventor of the Tesla Museum in Belgrade.
But the great inventions really were. In different countries, set dozens of his monuments, he is depicted on postage stamps and Serbian banknotes awarded various medals and awards, it is named after the Belgrade airport.
And in general — show me the Russians or the Americans, who would not hear of Tesla, even if he only knows about electricity, what button to press the TV remote?
Category: Scientists, experts, science